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Monday, November 27, 2017

RAZES (al-Razi), WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR CHICKEN

Al Razi_Medicine
Photo from Khair Indonesia
Eng. Rhazes, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (865-925 A.D.), These dates are debatable as other dates given are within the years 841-936. Rhazes was born in Rayy, northeastern Persia near Teheran and trained in Greek science. He was a physician in the court of Baghdad, hospital director and teacher. Rhazes devoted his life to scientific research and almost 250 written works are attributed to him.

The Greco-Roman civilization disintegrated between the 7-8 C. A.D. As a consequence, the Arab world picked up the threads and furthered scientific research. Physicians, like Rhazes, were highly esteemed in Muslim countries. He was influenced by Galen and Hippocrates and with them became one of the founders of clinical science. Like Hippocrates, Rhazes observed patients carefully and keep clinical records on them. Due to the insistence of Ibn al-'Amid, vizier of Rukn al-Dawla, these were edited and divided into some 25 volumes known as the Kitab. al-Hawi fi 'l-tibb (“The Comprehensive Book on Medicine”). King Charles of Anjou in 1279 had his Jewish physician Faradj b. Salim (known as Farraguth) translate them. This became one of the most popular medical books in medieval Europe and continued to be as late as the 18 C.

Plump Stuffed Chicken
A Food to Cure all Ills
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Rhazes was the first physician to distinguish the difference between measles and smallpox. His findings were published separately. His most important work on alchemy Kitab Sirr al-asrar (“Secret of Secrets”) covers distillation, calcinations, and sublimations processes. He established procedures for separation, purification and mixing of substances. As a result of his development of simple and composite medicines, mercurial ointments were introduced into the western world. Further, because Europeans followed his instructions, they learned how to prepare important acids such as pure sulfuric acid.

Rhazes’ Kitab al-Mansuri fi al-tibb (“The Book on Medicine for Mansur”), dedicated to Mansuri, Governor of Rayy, contains 10 books that Tobiel ben Samuel de Leiria, a Jewish physician living in Portugal the last half of the 14 C. translated from Latin into Hebrew.

The Ninth Book became the standard source in therapeutics in Europe and continued to be throughout and after the Renaissance. Rhazes developed pharmaceutical apparatuses used by apothecaries until the early 20th C. including beakers, flasks, phials, glass vessels, mortars and pestles. Further, he wrote about nutrition. See cafeto and jengibre. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:15; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 00:ftn 3; and ES: Rhazes. Nov 5, 02]

CHICKEN MEAT ADAPTED FROM IBN RAZIN’S  RELIEVES DE LAS MESA ACERCA DE LAS DELICIAS DE LA COIDA Y LOS DIFERENCTES PLATOS, MANUELA MARÍN ED. SECCIÓN TERCERA SOBRE LA CARNE DE AVE, CAPÍTULO SEGUNDO, SOBRE LA CARNE DE GALLINA, 1. PLATO,  p 198


Meatballs Ready for Frying
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

1 chicken
salt for depluming
1 tsp grated ginger
1 tsp mastic
1 cinnamon tube
1 tbsp cilantro
1 tsp salt
2-3 small onions
1 chicken breast
2 egg yolks
1 tsp mixed spices
2 egg whites
½ c breadcrumbs (optional)
oil for frying

Garnish
Ground cinnamon
Sprigs of mint leaves

Preparation

Select and was a plump chicken. Rub it with salt to help loosen the feathers. Discard feathers and remove innards.

When clean fill the cavities with ginger, mastic, cinnamon, cilantro, salt, and onions. Sew the breast shut and tie the legs together.

Healthy and Delicious
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Fill a pot with water. Add the chicken. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and gently cook until the meat is cooked.

In meantime, select a chicken breast and remove the bones. Grind the meat in a mortar. Make meatballs with it. Dip them in slightly beaten eggs. Mix spices with breadcrumbs and roll the meatballs in them. 

Heat oil in a frying pay and fry the meatballs. Set aside when done.

When the chicken is cooked, remove from pot and carve. place the meat on a serving platter and place meatballs around the edges. Garnish with ground cinnamon and sprigs of mint leaves. 

Serve warm. Chicken throughout the ages has been recommended to cure all ills and thought very healthy for all. 
  
IBN RAZIN’S  RELIEVES DE LAS MESA ACERCA DE LAS DELICIAS DE LA COIDA Y LOS DIFERENCTES PLATOS, MANUELA MARÍN ED. SECCIÓN TERCERA SOBRE LA CARNE DE AVE, CAPÍTULO SEGUNDO, SOBRE LA CARNE DE GALLINA, 1. PLATO,  p 198


Wednesday, November 22, 2017

RAVIOLI WITH 15TH CENTURY FOR SWEET RABIOLI


Boiling Ravioli
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OCast rabioles, rafieli, OCat robíoles, Eng ravioli. It was brought to Al-Andalus by the North Africans between the 11th-14th C. Manuscripts from the 13th C in the Alhambra mention it. Nola’s raviolis are stuffed with hazelnuts and pine kernels and fried in lard. The recipe appears with others for fried dough, which can be interpreted as pastries or ravioli.. See fruta de sartén and pero. [Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:104; ES: Medieval Chef. Manteca. Mar 16, 16; and Nola. 1989:xlvii-5]

FRITTER CALLED ROBIOLES[1] IN
CATALONIA ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S xlvii-5 
FRUTA LLAMADA ROBIOLES A LA CATALANA



Ingredients


ready made ravioli pasta[2]
⅓ c hazelnuts
⅓ c pine nuts
4 yolks of hard boiled eggs
2 whole eggs
¼ c sugar
1 tbsp rosewater
1 tsp ginger scrapings

Garnish:
¼ c rosewater
¼ c honey
1 tbsp sugar
1tsp cinnamon


Preparation

Fried Ravioli with Nut Filling
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Grind hazelnuts and pine kernels with yolks from hard boiled eggs. Add raw eggs and blend them into the nut mixture until neither thin nor thick. Add sugar, rosewater, cinnamon and ginger. Blend this mixture with the milk and flour paste. Let rise 2 hours or overnight.

Fill the pasta with the nut mixture. Place the ravioli in boiling water for 5-6 minutes, or until they float. You can also test for doneness by nibbling on the edges to test.

Heat lard with fresh melted pork fat in a copper or bronze pan. When hot fry the cakes. When done remove them with a skimmer and put them on a platter.  Sprinkle with rosewater and drizzle with honey; serve immediately after sprinkling with sugar and cinnamon.



[1]Carroll-Mann relates that Veronika (?) Leimgruber claims that this is an adaptation of the Italian word ravioli. This is documented in Italy from the 14th Century. The English Forme of Cury calls them "rauioles." These were normally filled with cheese, making Nola’s recipe unique as there is no cheese in the ingredients. As ravioli was homemade until recently, it did not necessarily have to be squared and the stuffing was up to the cook.

The Medieval Spanish Chef made pastries with this recipe, which were very tasty. See blog titled manteca published March 16, 2016 for the recipe.

[2] Ravioli can be homemade but ready made ravioli is an option.




NOLA'S xlvii-5 FRUTA LLAMADA ROBIOLES A LA CATALANA



Monday, November 20, 2017

RATÓN WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR A DELICIOUS MEAT TART

Cigarette Card - The Town Mouse & Country Mouse
Photo from: dant melys
OCast, mur, Eng mouse. In the 13th C Ruíz presents an adaption of the fable: The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse attributed to Aesop (6th C). The country mouse offers a fava bean while the city mouse fresh bacon, baked bread, cheese etc but the message amounts to the same: "Better beans and bacon in peace than cakes and ale in fear.". . Mice, by the way, were consumed by Spaniards during famines. [Ruíz-Brey. 1965:1370a-1384d:211-213]

ONE OF THE BEST VINEGAR TARTS ADAPTED FROM ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #369. TORTA DE VINAGRE, QUE ES UNA DE LOS MEJORES, p 203

Ingredients

Sautée in Ingredients
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 lb lamb
½ c olive oil
salt to taste
1 onion chopped
½ tsp white pepper
vegetables such as:
          ½ lb turnips
          1 eggplant 
           ½ lb gourd
1 tsp saffron mashed and dissolved in liquid
1 tsp cumin
1 garlic clove mashed
1 c strong vinegar
1 c breadcrumbs
1 c coucous

A Nutritious Cake for All Critters
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Preparation

Chop lamb using the fattest parts. Heat olive oil in a pot and sautée them over moderate heat with salt, onion, saffron, cumin, garlic and half the vinegar.

When the meat is done select vegetables such as the largest possible turnip, eggplant and gourds. Peel them.  Leave them whole. Put them in a separate pot. Add enough water and the rest of the vinegar  and cook them.

When done, combine the meat and vegetables, sprinkle the with breadcrumbs from white leaven bread and mix well and moisten with broth from the meat and vegetables. Repeat until a cake is formed. Pour couscous on top. The result is marvelous.

ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #369. TORTA DE VINAGRE, QUE ES UNA DE LOS MEJORES, p 203


Friday, November 17, 2017

RATA



Greater egyptain herboa (Jaculus Orientalis)
Photo from a_ dg
During Avenzoar’s time, it was thought that if rat meat was roasted, it was consumed by children, they would stop drooling. It did not work for adults. All are hot and dry; the most useful of all is the wild purple one, larger than ordinary rats that are consumed and smaller than rabbits. The best next is the jerboa, a jumping desert rodent the size of a rat found in Africa. Rats are known to have been consumed by humans but basically as famine food.[Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:59:125]



No recipe is provided as consumption of rats is thought to be disgusting.

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

RASPAR

to scrape.  Once the pig is slaughtered the epidermis is singed and scraped off with a scraping knife, piece of cloth, a stone or chip of wood. See lacas. [Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003; and Serradilla. 1993:147]

Monday, November 13, 2017

RASPADAS


OCast ráelas, rayeduras, rayadas, rayda, Eng scrapings. See rayada. [ES: Lord-Williams: “lepra.” Nov 20, 15; Nola. xxxix-2; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:171]

Friday, November 10, 2017

RARO

OCast ralo, Eng thin, sparse, rare, said of things having the appendages more separated than normal. [ES: Lord-Williams. “adarme.” Oct 23, 10: “avenante:” Dec 28, 11; “azotarlo.” Jan 17, 12; Nola. 1989:xiiii-2:xxvii-2:xxix-2 etc; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:120-121:208]