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Friday, February 12, 2016

MANADA - A HANDFUL

A Handful of Sage
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1. flock, crowd, herds 2. a handful of grass, wheat, flax, seeds or other that can be picked by the hand. [Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:95; and Nola. 1989:xxxii-1:xli-2; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:202]

See blog titled Jusello -  an excellent recipe for Jussall, Cheese Soppes published August 7, 2015.

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

MALVASÍA - MALMSEY, MADIERA WINE

Malmesy Wine
Photo by: Lord-Williams
MEng malvoisie Eng malmsey, Madeira, wine of passion, a wine made with malvasia grapes, which are sweet and fragrant grapes. During the Crusades, the shoots were imported to Spain from the Aegean Islands by the Catalans. After that, they were grown in San Miguel de Montañán and Sahagún (León).

Today, this type of grape prevails in several areas of Spain, especially Sitges. It is not known if San Martín wine, mentioned by Nola was malmsey or another type.

Malmsey wine was a very popular import in England during the Middle Ages. It is said that George, 3rd Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV, liked it so much that he drowned in a keg of it on February 18, 1478. See uvas de malvasía [ES: George III. Feb 18, 04; Nola. 1989:xxxix-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:201-202]


See blog titled magra published January 27, 2016 for Nola’s yummy recipe xxxi-1 Dobladura de Ternera/ Chopped Veal in Sauce.


Monday, February 8, 2016

MALVA WITH APICIUS 4TH CENTURY AD RECIPE FOR MALLOWS

L. Malva silvestris. Ar. khubeiza, Fr. mauve, MEng malve, Eng.holleyhock mallow. Plants of this family are native to the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor and several areas in Europe. The Greeks used them in medicine for their emollient effect. A Greek proverb is that if one has one malva plant in the garden, his home has all the medicine it needs. Perhaps this is because Pliny thought it cured all diseases men contract. According to Apicius, the Romans boiled the leaves like spinach and served them as a vegetable. They used mallow in stuffings for boneless pork roasts and ate the seeds too. The Arab name literally means ‘small loaf’ for the flat round marrow seeds that were added to bread.

During the medieval period, the entire plant was used and consumed to increase urination and thus relieve the kidneys and the bad humors in the bowels. The leaves and flowers are included in salads. The Anon Al-Andalus provides a recipe for jerky with mallow.
Alexander Neckham lists it as an essential plant in a medieval garden. The English cooked it with meatballs and cockentrice. Medieval Spaniards prepared purgatories with them. Especially in the 15-16 C, the leaves were applied in a decoction with other herbs to clysters. Actually, the whole plant contains mucilage.

Skin ointments and cough syrups made of mallow have been known throughout the ages. From Saxon times in England through the Middle Ages, mallow was put in bathwater to help wounds heal. See alcea.

[Anon/Anderson. 1962:13; Anón/Huici.1966: 286:164; Apicius/Flower. 1958:III:VIII:79:IV:II:10:99:IV:IV:2:117 etc; Austin. 115-116; Castro. Alimentación. 1996:236; Layton. 1948:35; Pullar. 105; Rickert. 1966:68; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]


PATINA OF VEGETABLE MALLOWS ADAPTED FROM APICIUS/FLOWER IV:II:10:98-99 PATINA DE CUCURB

Ingredients


mallow leaves
enough to line a shallow pan
¼ c olive oil
1 - 1 ⅓c cumin sauce, see below

Preparation

Fried Mallow Leaves
in Bubbling Cumin Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Willliams
Boil mallow leaves. Heat olive oil in a frying pan and quickly fry both sides of the leaves. Remove immediately. Brush olive oil on a shallow pan with a paper down. Arrange the leaves in it.

Mix the cumin sauce with 1 tbsp olive oil and pour it over the the fried leaves. Bring to a boil and serve.

CUMIN SAUCE1 ANOTHER METHOD ADAPTED FROM APICIUS/FLOWER ALITER I:XV:2:56-57

Ingredients

2 c leaves from lovage[1], parsley and mint
1 ½ tsp ground cumin
½ tsp white pepper
½ c honey
¼ c vinegar
1 c broth
1 tbsp flour (optional)

Preparation

Wash and chop leaves of the herbs. Put them in a saucepan with the rest of the ingredients except the flour. Bring to a boil. Add a little of the liquid to the flour and stir constantly adding more liquid as needed until the flour is dissolved. 

Pour the flour mixture into the saucepan. Bring to a boil and turn off the heat.

Without flour this sauce can be used as a salad dressing. With flour it can be served as a sauce to accompany chicken, fish or lamb. With or without flour it can be used as a liquid in which to cook chicken fish or lamb.


[1] In the absence of lovage use celery leaves.



Friday, February 5, 2016

MALAGUETA WITH RECIPE FOR A SAUCE FOR ROAST PIGEONS


nuez de Abisinia, granos de paraíso, Hisp Ar nuezes de xarque or jarque,  L. Aframomum melegueta, Ar. jūz aš-šerk, Fr. maniguette ou moix d’Abyssinie, Eng. grains of paradise, melegueta or malagueta pepper. Malagueta is derived from Melle, an African empire in the Upper Niger region. The spice was taken from the coast of what today is Liberia, then to ports in Tripoli and from there to Europe.
Photo from: 
Roça São João dos Angolares, São Tomé

By 1245 in Lyon it was called “paradise gain” as it came from foreign lands. At that time in England, it was called “Parisian grain”. It appeared in 14th and 15th C European cookbooks using it instead of black pepper, which was more expensive.

The pungent seed contains tiny, hot and peppery grains. It was used on roasted meat, in spiced wines, hippocras and beer and in stews and broths. Today, the plant grows wild in Ghana. It is reed-like and 1-2.5 m. in height. It has pale purple flowers, which are followed by pear-shaped scarlet fruits inclosing the pulp containing brown seeds 2 mm wide. Often, grains of paradise are confused with other seeds like black cardamom. Although relatives and grains of paradise smell like cardamom, but they are not the same.

In Hispano-Arabic xarque or jarque means “colony of the Moros.” There was one is a near Calatayud in the province of Zaragoza where there is a Muslim mosque. Perhaps grains of paradise were grown there. On the other hand for Arabs xarque or jarque means “orient”.  Nola calls them ‘nuts of xarque’ in the first two recipes in which he uses them and grains of paradise in others. He adds them at the end of cooking time to the sauce for Merritoche Pottage, in another for roasted squabs, in Membrillo Pottage etc. When pepper prices declined, grains of paradise were forgotten. See cardamomo.

[ES: “Glossary” Congo Dec 27, 03; Lladonosa. Cocina. 1984:156-157; Nola. xxiii-1:xxx-3:xxxvii-4 etc; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:44:169-170; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:199]

Sauce for Roast Pigeon with Grains of Paradise
Photo by: Lord-Williams
A SAUCE FOR ROAST PIGEON ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xxx-2 OTRO SALSERON PARA PALOMINOS ASADOS

Ingredients

4 pigeon livers[1]
1 c grated cheese
½ c vinegar
1 qt chicken broth or hot water
½ tsp white pepper
1 tsp grains of paradise

Preparation

Roast the livers and grind them in a food processor. Add grated cheese and vinegar, and grind them all together.  Blend this with 1 c broth or hot water, and strain it through a sieve into a pot. Bring to a boil. Add spices and continue boiling, stirring constantly in one direction, otherwise the thin sauce will separate.
Pour over roast pigeons or chicken or serve on the side.


[1] Chicken livers were used as pigeons were not available.

NOLA'S xx-3
OTRO SALSERON PARA PALOMINOS ASADOS



Wednesday, February 3, 2016

MAJAR (And) WITH 15TH CENTURY FOR GOURD SEED PUDDING


Gourd Seeds to Be Pounded
Photo by: Lord-Williams
to blend, continual pounding or mashing. Spanish dictionaries do not differentiate machacar, grind, pound or mash from majar. Marchar is to mash a garlic clove with one or two strokes. Majar today indicates food put it in the food processor. In medieval times, continual manual pounding to make almond milk for example took an extended period of time as indicated in Nola’s recipe Salsa de pavos. [Nola. 1989: xiii-3:xiii-1:xvi-1 etc; and Nola/Pérez. 1992:201]


CALABACINATE WHICH IS SEEDS FROM GOURDS ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S xx-4 CALABACINATE QUE ES SIMIENTE DE CALABAZAS

A Perfect Pudding of Ground Gourd Seeds
with Almond Milk
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
Ingredients

1 c gourd seeds
1 c peeled almonds
1 qt chicken broth
sugar to taste

Garnish
Sugar

Preparation

Peel gourd seeds leaving them white like almonds. Mash them in a food processor with the almonds. Bend them with chicken broth and strain the mixture through a cheesecloth into a pot. Add sugar to taste. Cook until thick.  This pottage can be made with only gourd seeds; with sugar it is very good for liver disorders.

NOLA'S xx-4