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Wednesday, January 17, 2018

ROROLAS WITH RECIPE FOR ROLLED LIVER FRITTERS

(fr rorro), 1. sucking child, tiny child, baby. 2. “ro ro ro” a sound in Spanish to put the baby to sleep. 3. roly poly, an  alteration and duplication of “roll,” as rolled liver fritters. Roly poly sounds better than “lullaby liver fritters.” See arullar.  [ES: Lord-Williams. “arullar “ Nov 24, 11; Nola 1989:xlii-4].

JOSEF LLADONOSA, LA COCINA MEDIEVAL, ROROLAS DE HIGADOS (FRUTA DE SARTEN), p 127 ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S RECIPE xlii-4

Ingredients (for 4 persons)

400 gr chicken livers
6 thin slices of bread
¼ c white vinegar
½ c rosewater
2 eggs
100 gr dry grated cheese
a few sprigs of dried mint ground or chopped in a mortar
20 gr olive oil
salt to taste

Preparation

Salt livers and roast them after covering with oil, over coals or grilled. When cooked, grind them in a mortar and add bread toasted and soaked in vinegar diluted with rosewater to reduce the strength.

Mix this with eggs, grated cheese and mint to make a paste.

Heat a frying pan. Add oil. When hot add tablespoons full of the paste and fry little by little, turning with a wooden spoon until done. If desired sprinkle with sugar.

This recipe can be made with hen or capon livers and also with goat livers.

NOLA'S RECIPE xlii-4


Monday, January 15, 2018

RONCAL, EWES' CHEESE WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR SMALL CHEESE ROLLS

Roncal Cheese
Photo from: Artizone
The milk used to make Roncal cheese is not boiled or heated. The cheese is a piquant, cylinder shaped slightly blue-grey, brown or black cheese with a hard leathery rind formed by salting, washing and smoking. It is 18 cm in diameter and 9 cm high. It is ripened for one to two months. Then the rind is hard, greasy and cold. Inside it is between ivory and light yellow. It has a strong slightly sharp creamy taste. It has a characteristic aroma.

Roncal cheese is dated from the 13th C as vital to the self-supporting economy of the area. The milk is produced between December and July, the birthing season for sheep. One author states that Nola qualified the cheese to be as good as that of Italians. Nola, however, only states: ‘good cheese from Navarra.’ The electronic source cited claims that Roncal cheese was the first cheese to receive a specific name in Spain but provides no date.

As all cheeses and meats, the flavor is dependant on the animal’s diet. Roncal ewe’s milk has been distinctive since the 9th C. when King Sancho García authorized shepherds from Roncal to take their transhumant herds to winter in pastures of to the meadows of Bárdenas Reales in southern Navarra in the Valle de las Siete Villas between October 15th and May 15th.

Roncal cheese is grated for certain dishes and is buttery making it quite possible that Nola is referring to this cheese when he recommends it for his recipes for Lombard soup, baked cheese, an eggplant dish and onion pottage. It also can be consumed as a snack or dessert.

[Delgado. 1985:198; ES: Roncal. Aug 27, 05; ES: Lord-Williams. “Brufaino.” Feb 5, ’12: “Caciovalo.” Jun 14,’12: “Cebollada.” Oct 1, ’12; García del Cerro. 1990:187; Inventario. 1996:286-288; and Nola. 1989: xxiii-3:xlv-l-5 etc]


Pouring Honey and Butter over “RAFÎS”Photo by: Lord-Williams
RECIPE FOR “RAFÎS” WITH SOFT CHEESE ADAPTED
FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS,
#422. RECETA DEL “RAFÎS” CON QUESO TIERNO
Ingredients

1 c breadcrumbs 
1 c moist soft unsalted cheese
¼ c butter 
½ c honey

Preparation

Cut crusts off of freshly baked bread . Make breadcrumbs from bread . Knead crumbs with grated cheese and 1 tbsp butter. Make qursas, small round, bread rolls, and put them on a serving dish. Melt the rest of the butter and clarify it. Pour this over the qursas with clarified honey.

HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS, #422

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Friday, January 12, 2018

ROMERO WITH 15TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR ROSEMARY SAUCE

Gr. romáios, L. Rosmarinus officinalis, Eng. rosemary. The Greek name refers to the fragrant odor while in Latin it means “seaside dew.” It is a multi-branch bush that remains green year round. It grows best in dry sunny areas with calcareous soil, in holm-oak and ash groves and scrublands. It is found all over the Mediterranean as it grows on sea coasts. It’s Latin name “Rosmarimun” meaning the ‘dew of the sea.’ It is abundant in Spain and is planted in gardens. According to Laguna it was well known and was considered ordinary in many areas of France and Spain.

It has a blue flower although somewhat discolored; but as it is known for its great excellence in the apothecary shops where it is generally referred to as “Anthos” which means flower. Rosemary is hot and dry in the second degree. Its smoke helps coughs and colds. Rosemary it protects the house from unhealthy air and plague. The flower smoked with the plant in the house calms the air and frightens away all poisonous animals. During times of plague it was burned in the street and in the houses. Rosemary also comforts the brain, the heart and the stomach; it provides understanding, restores the memory and awakens feelings; and generally it is a healthy remedy against all illnesses concerning cold in the head and the stomach. Herrera’s commented that rosemary has as many benefits as roses.

Bees collect the nectar from the flowers and make a unique honey with it. A balm or oil is made with the flower that comforts the heart and strengthens limbs that are out of shape. If the flower is boiled in red wine takes on the smell and purity, which comforts the brain. It enlivens and makes all the senses content. It also increases the volume of urine.

Rosemary Flowers
Photo from: tdlucas5000
If the flower is boiled in rain water and this is put into wine, it cures those suffering from consumption, for he who drink it for it heals the numerous sores in the lungs and stops one from vomiting blood. It had so many virtues and good properties that they could fill a book; carrying the plant makes one happy; and it is commonly said that its enemies flee from it. Rosemary is a stimulant, diuretic and antispasmodic. Rosemary oil is used in medicine and perfumery. As it became the symbol of fidelity, brides wore wreaths of rosemary with multi-colored silk ribbons.

Some Spaniards believe that the rosemary bush secluded the Virgin Mary when she fled to Egypt. Another version is that she lost her cape and it fell on a rosemary bush. Because of this the flowers ever since have been blue. In arcane botany it was consecrated to the gods of the hearth and used profusely in necromantic ceremonies. Mystical witch doctors prayed before this plant at vespers and once the prayer is finished a cross is made with two little branches that are kept in a linen purse that is given to the patient they hope to cure. Rosemary was a strewing herb used in jails particularly to protect against typhus (also called “jail fever”). It is added to salads and meat dishes, pork and lamb especially. [Bremness. 1990:118-119; Cejador. 1990:355; ES: Junta. Apr 26, 03; ES: Nocera. Oct 12, 02; and Laza. 2002:171-172]

ROSEMARY SAUCE FOR FOUR SERVINGS ADAPTED FROM
NOLA’S xl-2 ROMERATE PARA CUATRO ESCUDILLAS

Ingredients

1 lb almonds
1 slice of bread
¼ c white vinegar or rose water[1][2]
1 qt meat broth

Garnish
1 tbsp sugar
1 tsp ground cinnamon

Prepare

Peel almonds. Rub them vigorously with a rough hemp cloth. Put them mortar an grind them. Add a slice of bread soaked in white vinegar or better yet with rose water; then blend this with meat broth and strain.

Taste for flavor. Roses should be predominant. If not, add dried and ground roses little by little until the flavor is satisfactory.

Then heat the mixture until it thickens. Remove from heat ad let sit.

Pour into soup bowls and garnish with sugar and cinnamon



[1]Pérez explains that rose water was used frequently as a seasoning in Andalusian and African cuisine. The Royal Spanish Academy of Language only recognizes that it was used in medical applications and in perfume products. According to ancient texts, it was thought very good when used as incense during epidemics as it cleaned the air and purified and eliminated all unpleasant smells and vapors. The leaves and flowers drunk with white wine and white pepper heals jaundice and yellow skin and it cleans the liver.  When boiled, it comforts and heals the nerves.
[2]To make rose water, put pedals into a pot with water. Bring to a boil. Reduce and gently boil covered for five minutes. Remove from heat and let sit until cool. The water will turn dark brown. 

NOLA’S xl-2 ROMERATE PARA CUATRO ESCUDILLAS



Wednesday, January 10, 2018

ROLLO DE CARNE WITH RECIPE FOR STUFFED FLANK OF MUTTON

Ingredients for Boiling Roast
Photo by: Lord-Williams
meat roll with a stuffing inside. It is today’s version of the medieval practice of stuffing the entire animal and roasting. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:159]  

STUFFED FLANK OF BEEF ADAPTED FROM ANÓN, SENT SOVÍ #VI SE HABLA DE RELLENAR VENTRE DE CARNERO O DE CABRITO[1], p AND NOLA #xxiii-4 RELLENO DE CABRITO[2]

Ingredients

1 flank of  mutton[3]
salt to taste
1 tsp white pepper
1 tbsp chopped cilantro
4 onions
1 junk of bacon weighing 3 ½ oz
1 tsp nutmeg
1 tsp mashed and dissolved saffron
1 tsp cinnamon
½ c breadcrumbs
½ c grated cheese
3 raw eggs
6 carrots
2 tbsp olive oil
2 whole cinnamon tubes
½ c chopped walnuts
½ c honey

Preparation

Select a flank of mutton or carefully remove meat from a leg of mutton and roll it out flat. Sprinkle it with salt, white pepper and cilantro.

Roast in Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Slice two onions and fry in oil until transparent. Add cleaned and chopped bacon. Season with salt, pepper, nutmeg, saffron and a little cinnamon.  When the bacon is cooked, remove from heat and add breadcrumbs and grated cheese Mix with slightly beaten raws eggs. Place the mixture on the flank of mutton and roll the flank shut. Tie it well to prevent the stuffing from falling out.

Select a large pot and put the mutton in it. Cover with water. Add peeled 2 whole onions, and peeled carrots. Add olive oil, salt and cinnamon tubes. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and gently boil for two hours. When the meat is cooked, remove it from the pot and put it in an earthenware casserole dish. Put it in the oven and brown.

In the meantime remove the whole onions and carrots. Grind them in a food processor. Add 1 liter of the broth, walnuts and honey.

When the meat is ready, serve it with the sauce.

If desired the broth can be served as soup with slices of bread.



[1]See blog titled “cabra,” published April 6, 2012 for the Medieval Spanish Chef’s version of this recipe.
[2] See blog titled “falda,” published November 7, 2014 for the Medieval Spanish Chef’s version of this recipe.
[3] The Sent Sovú recipe calls for a stuffed whole ram or kid but as these are not readily available today, this version of the recipes is adjusted for a flank of beef. 


ANÓN, SENT SOVÍ 


NOLA #xxiii-4 



Monday, January 8, 2018

RÓDABALLO WITH RECIPE FOR BURÂNIYYA OF FISH

Turbot
Photo from: Monica Shaw
OCast rodavallo, L. Psetta Maxima or Scophtalmus maximus, Eng. turbot. It is an almost round, scaleless flat-fish ranging from grayish to light brown and having darker markings. Its body is covered with conical bony knots or tubercles. The largest are 40” long and weigh 55 lbs. Their two eyes are normally on the left side of the head.

Villena listed them as fish eaten in Spain. They are found around the gravel and sand of shores on European coasts of the Atlantic and Mediterranean. They are abundant around Malaga and Granada.

Most turbot sold in England comes from Dutch waters. Since the beginning of the 15th C. documents from both England and Spain show great esteem for them as food. In 1501 they were in a second group of fish, priced at 5 mrs. the pound of 32 ounces and in 1516 and 1524 at 12 mrs. They considered as expensive as lobster. Slices were served for dinner and supper. In the 15th C the English fried them slowly after dipping them in raw eggs and seasoning them with salt, pepper and nutmeg and served them with a bitter sauce. They were also spit roasted. It was common to boil the livers in stock. The Spaniards baked them in a bed of thyme, parsley, rosemary, mint, a couple of bay leaves and onion. They were common in Parisian kitchens.

[Clair. 1964:74; Corbrera. 1998:280-281; Diaz. 2011:70; Drummond. 1964:61; Multilingual. 1969:289:1050; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

BURÂNIYYA OF FISH ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS, #365 BURÂNIYA DE PESCADO, p 200

 

Frying Turbot with Eggplant
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

1 lb slices of fish
1 eggplant
seasoning such as 1 tsp oregano, 1/2 tsp thyme and 1 tbsp parsley
oil for frying 

Preparation

Slice eggplants in half. Make cris-cross incisions in the meat of the plant. Sprinkle with sea salt. Place face down on paper towels and let bleed for 20 minutes at least. Wash, boil and fry fish. Slice without removing skin and fry eggplant with the fish and add seasoning. 

HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS, 
#365 BURÂNIYA DE PESCADO, p 200


Friday, January 5, 2018

ROCIARLAS WITH A RECIPE FOR SARDINES


Marinade, sprinkled with spices
for Sardines
Photo by: Lord-Williams
(fr rocío, dew), OCast ruciarlas, Eng sprinkle them, spray them. [Nola/Iranzo. 1982:171; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:208]


SARDINES IN A CASSEROLE ADAPTED FROM NOLA lxiiii-3 SARDINAS EN CAZUELA

For 6 persons

Ingredients

24 large sardines
1 tbsp raisins
1 tbsp pine nuts
¼ c  raw almonds sliced
 c virgin olive oil
½ tsp ground pepper
1 tsp ginger
1 tsp mashed saffron
a few sprigs of finely chopped parsley and mint
salt to taste

Preparation

Delicious! Absolutely Delicious!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Select plump, fresh sardines and wash them thoroughly in water inside and out. Remove the heads. Sprinkle with ground pepper and ginger. Add saffron dissolved in a little water. Add raisins, sliced almonds, pine kernels, parsley and mint. Mix with olive oil. Soak sardines in this mixture for three hours. 

Strain reserving the oil and separating the nuts, raisins and herbs from the fish.

Heat a pan over a few coals. Do not cook in the oven because it is too hot for sardines. Add strained oil. When hot add sardines. Sprinkle with the nuts, raisins and herb mixture. Cook slowly. This recipe is a must for all sardine lovers! 

If it is desired, prepare them in another way such as frying them, add pepper and a little vinegar or orange juice and if roasting is preferred add orange juice and olive oil and salt with a little water, pepper and any herbs except marjoram.

NOLA lxiiii-3 SARDINAS EN CAZUELA