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Monday, July 9, 2018

SIROPE WITH A 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR GREAT CHEERING SYRUP


Pouring Syrup
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ar.sharab  (wine or other beverage), Eng. syrup, a thick sweet liquid concentrated solution of sugar in water with fruit, in accordance with the time of the year, boiled until thickened. Syrups were made in Persian style, known as efshurjwhich were boiled three times, as juwarish, a fruit paste or others times known as faludajor dried fruit paste. They were used as preservatives and sweeteners in cookery and confections, as a cold drink or for purging. 

Avenzoar gives recipes for various syrups for digestive purposes and to regulate the humors. Hispano-Arab syrups were original as they contained flowers such as roses The Anon Al-Andalusprovides two recipes for flowers as well as many others that include aloes and citron leaves. Avenzoar’s provides recipes calling for roses and lilies. See almíbar, jarabe and arrope. 

[Anón/Huici.1966:50:40:490:269:492:270 etc; Delgado. 1994:207; Zuhr/García Sánchez1992: 101-109; and OXF Eng Dict.1989:XVII:Su:945]

493. EL JARABE GRAN ALEGRADOR, SU FÓRMULA - THE GREAT CHEERING SYRUP - WAY OF MAKING IT, PP 269-270

Ingredients

½ lb borage leaves
½ lb mint leaves
½ lb citron leaves
½ lb sugar
1 tbsp aloe stems
1 tbsp Chinese rhubarb
1 tbsp Chinese cinnamon
1 tbsp cinnamon
1 tbsp cloves


Preparation

Cook leaves covered with water until tender. Add sugar. Pound aloe stems, Chincese rhubarb, chinese cinnamon, cinnamon and cloves until coarse. Put them in a cloth bag and tie well. Place this in a pot and macerate it svral times until the flavor comes out and the liquid takes on the consistency of syrups. Then add three cups of hot water for every ½ lb of leaves. 

Take half a ratl each of borage, mint, and citron leaves, cook them in water to cover until their strength comes out, then take the clean part and add it to a ratl of sugar. Then put in the bag: a spoonful each of aloe stems, Chinese rhubarb, Chinese cinnamon, cinnamon and clove flowers; pound all these coarsely, place them in a cloth, tie it well, and place it in the kettle, macerate it again and again until its the flavor comes out, and cook until [the liquid] takes the consistency of syrups. Take one û qiya with three of hot water. Benefits: It profits [preceding two words apparently supplied; in parentheses in printed Arabic text] weak stomachs, fortifies the liver and cheers the heart, digests foods, and lightens the constitution gently, God willing.



Monday, July 2, 2018

SIFIUM WITH ROMAN RECIPE FOR SILPHIUM SAUCE

Compass Plant (Silphium laciniatum)
Photo from: Chcuk Kime
L. silphium(Firulanarthex)Ar. anjudān, Fr.silphium, Eng. silphium. It is a Mediterranean plant also called laser and laserpitium. The Arabic “’Ūd al-raqqa” is the “mahrūth”or root of silphium from which the resin or juice is extracted. This yields asafœtida, also called Devil’s dung, fetid gum or resin. 

The Ancients used the juice medicinally for its extensive heeling properties. It was added to food in small quantities to give it a fragrant effect. Too much spoils the food. 

Romans used the powdered root is a condiment as much as liquamen. Barbara Flower recommends it for fish specially. It is thought that it was used for its aphrodisiacal effect and in food prepared for banquets especially. It was a major export from Cyrenaica as it grew in large quantities there but was extinct by Pliny’s time. Apicius provides two rcipes for Silphum Sauce.

In North Africa it was grown especially in Cyrene where it was cultivated for export. There it was used in medicine and in cooking. The Anon al Andalus calls for it in "Tabahaja," a dish of fried goat meat. Today, several Middle Eastern recipes call for asafœtida. [Anón/Huici.1966:250:149; Apicius/Flower. 1958:28-29:57; ES: Lord “Asafœtida,” posted Feb 28, 07; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02; and Pullar. 1970:242] 


APICIUS BOOK 1, XVI SILPHIUM SAUCE


Ingredients[1]


silphium
vinegar
liquamen
pepper
parsley
dry mint
silphium root
honey
vinegar


Preparation

“Dissolve silphium from Cyrenaica or Parthian silphum
in luke-warm water and mix with vinegar and liquamen; or mix pepper, parsley, dry mint, silphium root honey, vinegar, liquamen.


[1] Measurements are not indicated. 
[2] le asafoetida.
.

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

SETAS - MUSHROOMS

Mushrooms
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Cat  bolets, L. Agaricus campestres, etc, Eng wild mushrooms. Essentially, these are members of the basidiomycetes group of fungi (see hongos). In Europe there are some 3,500 species including saffron milk caps (Sp. niscálo), truffles (Sp. trufas) and amanitas, poisonous mushrooms.

 As mushroom spores are not visible to the human eye, during the Middle Ages, wild mushrooms were defined as ‘spongy vegetables spontaneously born after rain in meadows and the majority produce colic.’ 

Avenzoar relates that wild mushrooms are much worse than truffles, for they when totally digested generate a chyme that is a little noxious. Mushrooms growing in manure can cause death by poison or asphyxiation. 

Although much has been learned since, mushrooms continue to contain many secrets for men. It has been found that wild mushrooms are more prolific in areas with large rat populations. Too, man has had very little success in cultivating these species. 

Sliced Mushrooms for Frying
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Of the edible fungi in this group, the same cooking rules apply for hundreds of years. They can be grilled, cooked in ashes or fried if the flesh is very soft. Boiling them causes loss of aroma and flavor. They can be served as a side dish as seen in Richard II of England’s coronation or to garnish roast meat or fowl. Sent Soví calls for a mushroom sauce with parboiled and fried mushrooms mixed with ground herbs, spices and chopped onion and vinegar and verjuice. They are added to sauces to enhance the flavor. 

The poisonous amanitas and puffballs, unfortunately have a place in history. Agrippa, Emperor Claudius’ fourth wife, had him poisoned with the death cap (Amanita phalloides) in order for Nero, her son from a previous marriage, to succeed as emperor, which turned out to be an important step in the fall of the Roman Empire. 

Pope Clemente VII was poisoned by the death cap too. It is believed that Buddha died from an unidentifiable mushroom growing underground. Still people die from puffballs or mushroom poisoning every year. 

[Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXXV:165; ES: Cobos. Oct 1, 04; ES: Farabee. Jul 2, 01; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:91; and Villena/Calero. 2002:24a:39b:40b]

See blog titled "cagarria" for Sent Sovi's Recipe CXXXXV "How to Make Mushroom Sauce," published June 20, 2012 and blog titled "Hongo" published April 6, 2015 for a different version of the same recipe.


Tuesday, June 26, 2018

SIDRA - ITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING SIDER

Straing Made Apples and Juice
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OCast sícera(10thC.), Eng cider. Apple juice, which can be fermented or unfermented. It also varies as to the type of apples used, whether they are sweet, bitter or sour. Since the Middle Ages, Asturias has been known for its hard cider, which is drunk instead of wine. It is fermented in chestnut barrels before bottled. It was a common beverage for peasants and the middle class in northern medieval Spain. [Castro. Alimentación.1996:151-152; and Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:44:160]

THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S 
RECIPE FOR SIDER

Ingredients

4 ripe apples
¼ c sugar

Preparation

Peel apples and remove the core. Mash the apples saving the juice. Add sugar to the juice. Taste and add more sugar if necessary.


Monday, June 25, 2018

SESOS - BRAINS

Day 203/365.. i WISH this was a hat..
i could slow cook my brain..
From: Hoggarazzi Photography
OF cervel, ME caruel, Eng brains. Although not often mentioned in Spanish cookery, Apicius provided recipes for boiling them and then grinding them with several other ingredients. These dishes seem to have disappeared by the Middle Ages but his instructions for boiling them like meatballs has been found in a 15 C German recipe. The English ate pork brains in the Middle Ages. One of their recipes, “caruel of pork” consists of parboiling them and then dipping them in egg yolk before frying.[Curye. 1985:176]

The Turks introduced the custom of eating lamb brains to Spain but it was lost over the years. Nuria Resit, a Turkish lady, came to Madrid in the 1970's and could not find brains for sale like in Istanbul. She hunted and hunted and finally found them in an outdoor market. After that her recipes, stemming from medieval recipes that existed all over the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.were introduced to modern household.
NURIA RESIT'S RECIPE FOR LAMB BRAINS

Ingredients for creamy and firm brains from 1 lamb

Seasoning
1 tbsp olive oil
juice from 1 lemon
1 tbsp parsley
oil for frying
A Bewitched Cat?
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Preparation

Wash brains in cold water.

Marinate brainsin 1 tbsp olive oil, lemon and parsley for one half hour or more. Serve cold.

Or heat olive oil in a frying pan and fry brainsand serve. 

A third way of preparing them is to boil brainsin a pot until creamy but firm. Remove from water and drain on a towel. Cut into four pieces.  Season with olive oil, lemon juice and parsley. Refrigerate or bread them and fry in oil over medium heat 7-8 minutes.

sesos y maleficio, los, brains and bewitchment. This refers to the superstition that eating cat’s brains bewitch the eater. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:200]




Friday, June 22, 2018

SERVICIO - SERVANTS WITH PORK SOUP RECIPE

The Old Servant
Photo from: Niels Dejgaard
OCast seruicio,Eng servants, service, staff. Until recently the staff had one menu and the lord of the household and his family had another. Even the lord might have a menu which the family which was not the same as the family. As he hunted, it was thought he should eat meat and was given a special helping. Staff, on the other hand, seldom ate meat. Hardy soups were commonly served. As the staff, for the most part, as non-alphabetical, [-Nola/Iranzo. 1982:171]

PORK SOUP RECIPE FROM JOSÉ V. SERRADILLA MUÑOZ’ LA MATANZA DE VERA, “SOPA DE CACHUELA,” p 103



Ingredients

Pork Soup for the Servants
Photo by: Lord-Williams 

½ lb pork liver
1 tbsp chopped onion
1 tsp red pepper from Vera[1]

¼ qt blood from the pig
1 tsp cumin
2 garlic cloves
salt to taste
2 tbsp croutons

Preparation

Cut liver into small pieces. Fry it with 1 tbsp chopped onion.

When golden brown, not burned, add 1 tsp red pepper and cover with water.

Bring to a boil and simmer for 10 minutes. Remove from heat and add the blood, mashed garlic, cumin and stir continually to prevent the blood from coagulating. 

When cooked, add croutons

Cover and let sit 10 minutes prior to serving.






[1]This did not exist prior to the discovery of America.

Monday, June 18, 2018

SERPENTINA - NEW JADE

Serpintine Jewels
Photo by: Lord-Williams
serpentine, new jade. The name comes from ‘serpent’ as the gem looks like snake skin. It can be green, brown-red, red, white or brown-yellow. In the Middle Ages it was worn on the baby or ring finger on the right hand when serving or eating food to ward off poison, sorcery and disease. It was used also as a protection against insects and snakes. It was thought that when placed on the skin it relieved stomach, kidney and other problems for its relaxing influence. The stone was imported to Spain from England. See manos, comer con. [ES: “Serpentine.” Jul 20, 07 and Villena/Calero. 2002:16]