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Thursday, December 9, 2010

ALCARAVEA, COMINO DE LOS PRADOS WITH PURÉED EGGPLANT RECIPE

Caraway Cheese Ball
Photo by: zanimatelno.com
OCast alcarauea, L. Carum carvi, Ar. kar’wiya.  Fr. carvi, OE care(a)wey, Eng. caraway, carvies, wild cumin, Roman cumin, Persian cumin. Today, it is used to season sausages, soups, sauces and meats. The root is aromatic. Some claimed that it is documented from 4 B.C., making it one of the oldest herbs used in Europe and that it is a native of Caria, Greece. Others refute this stating that it did not grow in Greece where Dioscorides and Pliny wrote and that it must have been confused with another plant but it has been found in remains of meals from the Stone Age in Egyptian tombs and along the Arab caravan route on the Silk Road. It is mentioned in Isaiah 28:27-29 in the Bible where it says that caraway is not threshed but beaten out with a rod. By the 12th C., it was being used medically in Seville as a carminative and aromatic stimulant. It has been administered also as a tonic and diuretic. An ounce of seeds is marinated in one liter of alcohol to make kǖmmel, a homemade drink, which afterward is mixed with sugar syrup. Caraway oil is used in processing aquavit and other alcoholic drinks. The Arabs in Al-Andalus introduced it there and applied caraway water to the skins of black slaves to give it gold tonalities. In cookery it was called carvi. Numerous recipes have been found that include it for its color and flavor. The seeds were added to bread and milk and in special pastries for traditional festivities. It substituted pepper in meat preparations. It was used to purify cabbage and vegetable dishes and added to soups to improve the flavor except when legumes were included. Anon Andalus uses caraway in an eggplant dish and with lamb, fish and chicken. It also gives a recipe for caraway paste which is caraway steeped in vinegar to 'excite the appetite.' Nola calls for caraway seed in two eggplant recipes. Further, in the Middle Ages, it was used as a protection from witches and added to love potions as it was thought to prevent unfaithfulness. It came to signify protection, lust, health, anti-theft and mental powers. See comino, as cumin is sometimes confused with caraway. [Anón/Huici. 1966:74:53:75:54:77:55 etc;  Bremness. 1990:62; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:66; Curye. 1985:176; ES: Figueroa. “Refranes.” Jan 29, 03; ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; Nola. 1989:XXIIII-3:XLI-3; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:167; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

PURÉED EGGPLANT RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xxiiii-3 BERENJENAS ESPESAS 
For 4 persons 

Ingredients

2 eggplants
¼ c salt
4 qts cold tap water
2 onions
3 c mutton broth
1/3 c blanched almonds
3/4 c grated Parmesan cheese
2 egg yolks
¼ tsp coriander
¼ tsp nutmeg
¼ tsp caraway
¼ tsp cinnamon
¼ tsp cloves

Preparation

Peel eggplants. Cut them into ½” slices. Put them in 4 qts cold water to soak with ¼ c salt for at least three hours or overnight in the refrigerator. Wash them in cold water.  Put them in a pot with 2 c. mutton broth and peeled and sliced onions stirring with a wooden spoon. Blanch almonds and grind them. Blend them with 1 c mutton broth to make almond milk and strain the mixture through a cheese cloth. When the eggplants are almost done, strain them with the onions to discard the excess water. Purée the eggplants and the onions, Return them to the pot and add the almond milk stirring until done. Add ½ c. grated cheese. Beat it in with a whisk, When thoroughly mixed, add egg yolks. Grind the spices together and add them. Mix thoroughly and pour into individual bowls. Sprinkle grated cheese on top and serve.
 

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

ALCARAVÁN - RECIPE STEWED CURLEW IN HONEY SAUCE

STUNNING MEMBER OF THE GENUS 
BURHINUS, 
OFTER REFERRED TO AS “THICK-KNEES”
Photo by: oldscroteshome.blogspot.com

L. Burhinus oedicnemus, Ar. al-karawän, MEng curlewes, curleus, curles, Eng. stone curlew. It is a large wading bird (l.40 cm) having an awkward appearance with long legs looking like stilts, big yellow eyes and a round head. It is a resident of Spain, northern Morocco, the Near East, Turkey and Iraq. In late March, migrants go to England, among other areas, leaving in late August. In the Middle Ages, it was roasted whole and basted with a egg yolk and saffron paste. The meat could be cut up and served in stew with garlic, savory, galantine, hyssop, sage, parsley, and red wine. Curlews could be baked in a pie like ‘five and twenty black birds,’ but not alive. At the inauguration of John Stafford as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1443, curlew was served with other game birds. The medieval cuskynoles or ryschewys close was an English variation of roasted curlew stuffed with fruit. The British Library Add 32085 instructs how to cut it into nine portions. Villena, on the contrary, advises that it should be cut in the same manner as the partridge, see perdiz. Laza explains that it was used by quacks in the canyon region of Chorro in Malaga to cure scars from scrofula or horse disease. It is mentioned in la Celestina. See untos. [Curye. 1985:183; ES: “Stone.” Dec 31, 02; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:138; Jutglar. 1999:238; Laza. 2002:91 and Villena/Calero. 2002:22a:28a]


Beach Stone Curlew (thick-knee)
Photo by: Andrew Ian Bell


STEWED CURLEW IN HONEY SAUCE RECIPE FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF
for 4 persons

Ingredients

2 stone curlew (as average weight is 1 lb each)
2 garlic cloves mashed
1 onion quartered
1 tsp savory chopped
1 tsp galantine chopped
2 tbsp hyssop chopped
1 tsp sage chopped
2 tbsp parsley
salt to taste
1 c red wine


Sauce:
1 bullion cube
2 tbsp flour
olive oil
¼ honey

Preparation

Remove all the feathers. Cut off neck. Cut off head from neck. Cut off legs at knees. Extract entrails and rub skin with salt to clean inside and out. Wash well with water. Remove the wings and the thighs with the legs. Chop the legs off at the thighs. Chop the breast in half lengthwise and each half widthwise. In a pot put the garlic, savory, galantine, hyssop, sage, parsley and wine.  Add the curlew except the head, claws and entrails.  Cover with water. Bring to a boil. Reduce the heat and gently boil for one hour until tender.

When almost done, remove the onion. Chop in a food processor with one cube of bullion and enough liquid to mash well. Place in a saucepan and slowly add flour, stirring continually. When the flour is dissolved slowly add 1 c broth. Heat until the substance thickens like gravy. Place enough olive oil in a metal measuring cup to swirl around and coat the sides. Discard the excess. This way after measuring the honey, it will not stick to the measuring cup. Pour the honey into the gravy and stir until mixed.

Pour the sauce over the curlew and serve. 

*Chances of having to cook a stone curlew are few as it is an endangered species today. Also as it feeds on fish, like the solan goose (see alcatraz), the meat has a fishy taste. It is perfectly all right to try this recipe with other fowl.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

ALCAPARRA WITH LEMON CAPER SAUCE RECIPE

CAPPARIS SPINOSA VAR. 
INERMIS IN THE GARDEN.
Photo by: smgrowers.com
Hisp Ar. kappara, L. Capparis spinosa, Ar. kapar, nuwār al-kappar, fr. kápparise, Fr. cáprier, Eng. caper. It is thought that the word is derived from Arabic, which in turn comes from Greek. The caper is a button flower growing on a thorny bush about 1 m. high with heart shaped leaves. It is indigenous of the Mediterranean, growing, throughout Andalusia, especially in La Alpujarra, and other warm climates. Only the buds, collected in April during the morning after the dew has dried, are use in cookery. They are pickled in salt and vinegar after they wither. The drying process takes about three weeks. In Al-Andalus and Alexandria (Egypt), the most famous were produced, which were cured in salt brine. Adding capers and the flowers to soft cheeses gives them acidity, which is thought to help maintain lactic fermentation in uncured cheeses. They have been used to accelerate the process of curdling milk. They are added to other dishes like sardines and smoked salmon to enhance the flavor. To extract capers from a narrow jar use a vegetable scraper. The Spanish proverb is, ‘After curds, eat capers, and you will go directly to heaven.’ Further capers symbolized potency, lust and luck. Medicinally, the bitter root and bark are drunk various times a day to increase urination. It was said that they purged all the humors. The skin of the root is chewed before meals to increase the appetite. The roots were collected in the autumn and dried. [ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; Villena/Calero. 2002:23a; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:44]

LEMON CAPER SAUCE FOR BROILED OR GRILLED SALMON OR TUNA STEAKS FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF:

Ingredients
2 tsp capers
4 tbsp butter
1garlic clove
2 tbsp lemon
1 tsp grated lemon peel
1 sprigs of parsley chopped

Melt butter. Add the rest of the ingredients, except the parsley, and simmer 1/2 minute. Add parsley, remove from heat and serve with fish.

Saturday, December 4, 2010

ALCANFOR WITH CHICKEN KÂFÛRIYYA (CAMPHOR WHITE) RECIPE

CAMPHOR/CAMPHOR GUM
Photo by: Brian Altonen, MGH, 
brianaltonenmph.com
OCast cánfora, L. Cinnamum Camphora, Ar. kufūr, Fr. camphrée, caumfre, Eng. camphor, a gum resin, a whitish translucent crystalline volatile substance, chemically belonging to vegetable oils. Recipes in the Anon Andalus call for small amounts dissolved in rose water at the end of cooking time and added to the dish for the aroma.

It is an extract from the Cinnamomum camphora tree of central Asia. The trees are reputed to be so large that they can shade 200 men. When they reach the height of 8-10 m., they are cut down. The wood is distilled and the white camphor crystals are separated from it, which are cold and dry in the third degree.

It is a native of China and Japan and spread from there to India and Madagascar. The Arabs brought it to Europe where it grows in Italy and now in other tropical and subtropical countries. Versicles recited from the Koran in Al-Andalus mosques indicate that camphor mixed with liquid was thought to be a beverage in paradise. Camphor has been worn as a talisman against disease and is attributed to the Virgin Mary. In medieval Europe, it signified health and divination. The bitter aromatic tasting oil has a strong characteristic smell.

Arabian pharmacists expanded the use of camphor in medicine. It has been made into a solution for skin problems. It has been believed to excite the brain, give energy to the heart and increase sweat, urine and bronchial secretions. It is a diaphoretic, antithermic and antispasmodic. It has been applied as a remedy for tuberculosis, angina, pneumonia, headaches, epilepsy and for eye irritation. It refreshes the liver and kidneys, stops bleeding and is mixed with oils for facials. It is used as an antidote against poisoning. Formerly it was thought to be an antaphrodisiac. Camphor is an insect repellant for moths, in particular, and used to preserve animal skins and wool. [Anón/Huici.1966:45:37-38: 50:40:323:180; Corominas. Cast. 1980:I:A:9; ES: Word. Dec 26, 06; Espasa. 1988:4:ALAL:240-243; and Laza. 2002:110]

CHICKEN KÂFÛRIYYA (CAMPHOR WHITE) RECIPE ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS, #45 RECETA DE LA “KĀFŪRIYA” – CON ALCANFOR, p. 37-38

WE’RE GOLDEN!
Painted by: Amy HautmanIngredients
Ingredients

1/3 c almonds
1 ½ c rosewater
1 chickens or other fowl (pigeons or doves)
2 tbsp olive oil
1 tsp salt
1 sm onion chopped
1 tsp pepper
1 tsp coriander
juice from 2-3 lemons
1/4 tsp camphor

Preparation

Blanch almonds and remove skins. Place then in a blender with ½ c rosewater and chop. Clean chicken or other fowl and cut into four pieces (if smaller fowl cut in half). Heat pan. Add oil. When warm add salt, onion, pepper, coriander and fowl. When done remove add the almonds in rosewater to thicken the liquid. Slowly add lemon juice tasting continually until satisfied with the degree of acidity. Dissolve the camphor in the remaining rosewater and add that to the sauce. Let this rest for 20 minutes and serve.

Note: take care not to use too much camphor or it will taste like moth balls!

Friday, December 3, 2010

ALCANDÍA, ESCANDA, ESPELTA - SPELT PORRIDGE RECIPE

SWEET SPELT PRUNE PORRIDGE
Photo by: healthfoodlover.com
L. Triticum spelta, Eng. spelt, a very white, hard-grained secondary wheat with which bread is made. Spelt is a graminaceous plant similar to wheat but the grass is harder and shorter and the grain is fitted more tightly in the husks. Some maintain that it originated in Iran between 6000-5000 B.C., while others argue that it is European and that it appeared later. It did exist during the Bronze Age (4000-1000 B.C.) in Europe, the Balkans and the Near East. During the Middle Ages, it was a major crop, with primitive wheats like emmer and einkorn. In Spain major producers have been Cuenca, Ciudad Real, Aragon and Catalonia. Then it was considered the poor man’s food. A type of spelt called Triticeum Amyleum, Amyleum Frumentum, or starch corn, was cultivated for the yeast content, which was used commonly in Roman times and is an obviously link between Roman and medieval cooking. See almidón, pan de centeno and pan de escanda. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica.1995:36-37; Gázquez. 2002:77; Curye. 1985:169; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:47; and Tapiello. 1994:139]

SPELT PORRIDGE RECIPE FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE SPNAISH MEDIEVAL CHEF
(4 persons)
The Perfect Breakfast on a Cold Winter Day:

Ingredients

1 c. spelt berries (if flakes are available they are preferred as they do not have to be soaked overnight, take less time to cook, 3-4 mins, and make a creamier porridge)
salt to taste
1-2 c. warm water
1 tsp cinnamon
7-8 prunes chopped
2 c. water

Topping Suggestions

honey, brown sugar, 1/2c unsweetened almonds, raw nuts, seeds, hemp nuts, fresh raspberries, blueberries, blackberries or strawberries

Preparation

Grind spelt berries in a blender until coarse. Sprinkle with salt. Soak over night in warm water.

Cook spelt in 2 c. water, cinnamon and prunes. Simmer until creamy, 35-45 minutes (spelt flakes 10-15 minutes). Serve with honey and/or other topper.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

ALCACHOFA WITH MEDIEVAL MEAT, ARTICHOKE & CHICKPEA STEW RECIPE

LARGE CALIFORNIA BLACK
 BUMBLE BEE JOINED IN
Photo by: hubpages.com
alcachofera, alcací, alcacil, alcancil, alcarchofa, alcarcil, alcaucique, alcaucil, alcaucil silvestre, alcaulexa, alcochofa,, arcacil, cavaria, morrillera, morrilla, OCast alcachofa, alcanas, alcauçí, , cañarias, carchofa, Cat, alcarxofa, alcarxofera, carchofa, caroxfa, carxofer, carxofera, escarofera, escarxofera, escarxofa, Cartagena alcacil, Gal & Port alcachofra, alcachofra-de-comer, alcachofra-hortense, Hisp Ar. al-jaršuf, Vasc orrgurra, orrigura, orribura, orrbura, L. Cynara scolymus, Ar. al-cabcil, alcarxul, alcarxol, al kharshûf (dim.of kharshaf, cardoon), Fr. artichaut, Eng. artichoke. Artichokes are flower buds of thistle. They are harvested just before their blue and violet flowers bloom. The artichoke is said to have been known in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. Columela maintains that they did exist in Al-Andalus when under Roman domination. Pliny, the elder, reports Romans eating them in 77 AD. Flower translates L. caedui as artichokes in the Apicius cookbook, but they seemed to have fallen into disuse with the fall of the empire. Charles Perry maintains that the Arabs developed them from cardoon, L. Cynara carduncculus, probably in Andalusia (see cardo silvestre). He does not believe they existed by the time the Anon Andalus was written and translates recipes calling for al kharshûf as cardoon. Others think that Arabs brought artichokes to Spain by the 9th C. while still others claim they were developed in Al-Andalus by Muslims between the 12th and 13th C. Huici translates al kharshûf as artichoke in his translation of Anon Andalus. Greus thinks Ziryab, the musician who came to Cordova in 822, ate artichoke salads. From Spain the artichoke was taken to Italy, today’s largest consumer. It is claimed that Catherine di Medici took them to France as she adored them. They have been consumed over the centuries to improve health, medicinally and in cookery. Covarrubias explains they have the same nature and virtue as cardoon. The great factor is that they produce insulin for diabetics. They are used also for liver problems. They were thought hot and dry in the second degree. They were prepared as electuaries and preserved in jars in apothecary shops. In Castile, they were included in pottages and stews. In Al-Andalus there were a favorite and highly consumed during the Middle Ages. A popular dish consisted of strips of meat, mixed with oil, vinegar, garum, coriander seed and capers, to which boiled and chopped artichokes were added. Almost always, artichokes were covered with eggs and eaten with pepper, breadcrumbs, onions and chickpeas. Villena provides a detailed description on removing the outer leaves, which are tough and cutting the heart into four pieces. He adds that they can be grilled or pickled as well as boiled. In the later years of Muslim domination, they were served stuffed or in a cold vinaigrette. It is thought to be a dish of a fickle lover scattering leaves from left to right. Marilyn Monroe in 1947 was named the Queen of the Artichokes. [Anón/Huici. 1966:161:280:162:281; Apicius/Flower. 1958:87-89; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 00:ftn 104; Bolens. Cuisine. 1990:36; Covarrubias. 1998:74; Font. Plantas. 1999:607:843; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:117; Greus. 1987:60; Mardam-Bay. 2002:147-150; Villena/Brown. 1984:111:4:112:60:112:72;113;85:164; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:44]

MEAT, ARTICHOKE AND CHICKPEA STEWADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #280. Hechura del plato con alcachofas, p 161-162
For 4 persons

Ingredients

1 c soaked chickpeas
1 tsp bicarbonate soda
1 lb meat (beef or lamb) cubed
3 tbsp oil
1 tbsp butter
*2 tsp murri
1 onion chopped
1 tsp coriander seed
3 c water
4 small artichokes
1/2 lemon
3 c water
1 tsp pepper
2 eggs
1/4  c breadcrumbs 
salt to taste

Preparation

Put chickpeas in a bowl with bicarbonate soda and let soak overnight (8-10 hrs).  Heat 2 tbsp in a skillet and brown meat for a minute or two. Add salt to taste. Cover and simmer until done. Heat a pressure cooker. Add 1 tbsp olive oil and butter. When the butter is melted add *murri, strained chickpeas, onion and coriander seed and sauté for a minute or two turning the ingredients to coat them with the murri, butter and oil. Add  3 c water, bring to boil and cook 8-10 minutes. Reserve 1 c of the liquid and pour out the rest. Cut off outer leaves of artichokes and tops. Rub them with half of the lemon to prevent them from turning brown. Put them water and bring to a boil. When done, cut them in fourths and add them to the pot with the chickpeas. Add pepper and salt to taste. When all is cooked add meat. Stir eggs and gradually breadcrumbs to thicken. Simmer until the grease comes to the top and serve.

*See almorí. This can be substituted with a meat or vegetable bouillon cube.     

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

ALBUR, FRY LITTLE BLEAK FISH

  BLEAK (ALBERNUS ALBERNUS) 
Photo by: wightfishing.co.uk 


Bleak is a European fresh water fish of the carp family, five or six inches long, so named for its whiteness. It is similar to saltwater fish and sometimes called a sardine although not related. It is recommended to fry bleak until the skin is crispy.  They are tasty hor dourves, See sardina. [Baena/Dutton. 1993:382:v11; and ES: Renfrow. Glos. Jun 16, 04]

ALBORONIA WITH RECIPES BURÂNIYYA (EGGPLANT) & MURRI NAQI SUBSITUTE







Photo by: camyna.com Hisp 
Ar boronia, morona, alburnía, burâniyya (fr. alburün, jug), Ar būrān, al-borâniiya (in Knights), Eng deep glazed earthenware tub, vat or bowl used for  Burâniyya     as the recipes instruct to use an earthenware receptacle, not metal. Nola uses a "burnia" for a dessert of sugared roses with figs. 2. Burâniyya, an egglant casserole. The dish originated in Baghdad in the middle of the 10th C. and was named for Khadija, nicknamed Būrān, who married Caliph al-Ma’mūn in 825. She is said to be the inventor of eggplant dishes for the sumptuous foods offered at her wedding reception although they were not described in detail. When this eggplant dish stepped into vogue it was claimed that the Lady Būrān made it herself. This and other eggplant recipes were named for her. Recipes for them appear in the Bagdad Cookbook and in the Anon Andalus where some are named after Būrān. Sephardi-Jews traditionally served it with hamin or dafina, Sabbath day stews. For their continual search for fish day dishes, the Christian-Iberian version is a mixture of finely chopped eggplant, onion, garlic, and/or other vegetables, which are boiled and fried or pouched in olive oil. It can be seasoned with mild pepper and blended with almond, walnut or hazelnut paste, which are shaped into balls. Both Sent Soví and Nola use grated cheese. Sent Soví uses almond milk while Nola does not use any nuts. Theirs are the forerunners of pisto (L. Pistare, meat from fowl). During the 17th C. tomatoes, peppers, zucchini and paprika were added. See adafina and berenjena. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CXXXVIIII:166-167; Anón/Huici.1966:331:184; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 00: Gitlitz. 1999:148:ftn 17; Lladonosa. Cocina. 1976:156; Nola. 1989:xxiiii-4:xliii-1:; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:167; Perry. “Būrān.” 2001:243-248]

BURÂNIYYA - EGGPLANT CASSEROLE ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN ANDALUS #331 HECHURA DE LOS PLATOS PREPARADOS CON BERENJENAS, p. 184  - Attributed to Buran, daughter of al-Hassan b. Sahl, who is said to have invented the dish.
For 4 persons

ALBORONIA CON HUEVOS ROTOS/
Buraniya with Egg
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

4 sheets of paper towels
2 eggplants
20 meatballs the size of hazelnuts
1 c almonds
1 lb lamb
1 tsp pepper
1 tsp coriander (substitutes caraway or cumin)
1 tsp cumin
4 tsp saffron mashed and dissolved
2 l.  olive oil (hopefully less required but just in case)
*1 tbsp murri naqi
2 tbsp vinegar
6 egg yolks
1 tsp lavender or cinnamon

Preparation

Preheat oven at 325º F/188º C

Make murri naqi first, recipe below. Spread 2 sheets paper towels on counter top. Put the other two on top of the first two in order to have a double thickness. Wash and peel eggplants. Cut in half lengthwise and cut each half in half lengthwise. Fry eggplants in 1 cup oil and add more as needed. Fry meatballs. Fry almonds. Put thick slices of lamb in a pot with salt,  pepper, coriander seed, cumin, 1 tsp saffron and 1 tbsp oil; begin cooking over moderate heat. Add 1 tbsp murri naqi and vinegar. Cook until half done about 20-30 min. and remove from heat. In a roasting pan place alternating layers of lamb and fried eggplant.  Add fried meatballs and sprinkle chopped almonds over that. Color with 2 tsp saffron dissolved in 1 tbsp water; cover with ½ the egg yolks beaten with lavender or cinnamon and 1 tsp saffron and crown with the other ½ of the egg yolks; put it in the oven until the sauce is dry and it holds together; remove from the oven and let sit 20 minutes before serving.

*For this recipe see Almori.



Tuesday, November 30, 2010

ALBÓNDIGA WITH CHICKEN MEATBALL RECIPE FROM ANON ANDALUS

SPICY FISH BALLS ON A STICK
Photo by: johnharveyphoto.com
al-bunduga (hazelnut), Eng. meatball or fish ball. Apicius provides a recipe for crayfish balls mixed with liquamen and eggs and another for chopped meat with liquamen and pine kernels and pepper corns. In medieval times in Iberia, meat or fish balls were thought of as a typical Arabian food but they were no bigger than a hazelnut, as indicated by the Arab word for them. The English liked colored meatballs as per the pome dorres recipe for meatballs boiled, roasted and glazed in colored batter and another for pork meatballs was boiled in herbs with saffron as per Cure Cocorum. Avenzoar indicates that meatballs are easier to digest then meat that is not ground. [Anón/Huici. 1989: 140:94-95:208:130:209:130-131:etc; Apicius/Flower. 1958: II:I:7:64:IX:I:4:207; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02:ftn 1; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:92; and ES: Liber/Renfrow. Sep 23, 03. 93:37:10:44]

MEATBALLS FROM CHICKEN BREASTS ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF 
ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #209 HECHURA DE ALBÓNDIGAS DE PECHUGA DE GALLINA, pp 130-131
For 4 persons

two dozen mini chicken meatballs
Photo by: sokolokophoto
Ingredients

1 egg
*1 lb ground chicken breasts
1 tbsp Byzantine murri  (see almorí for the recipe)
salt to taste
1 tsp lavender
1 tsp cloves
1 tbsp chopped almonds
1 tbsp chopped pistachios
3 tbsp olive oil for frying

Preparation

Beat egg. Add the remaining ingredients and knead until well mixed.. Make meatballs small like hazelnuts. Fry in olive oil.

*Note: Although this recipe is for chicken breasts, Anon Andalus frequently calls for partridge breasts as it says that the meat is not good for anything else because it is so dry.

ALBARICOQUE - JUDHAAB - SWEET APRICOT PUDDING 9th C RECIPE

APRICOT IN BLOOM
Photo by: GRAZIA ZITARA (Medorra) (85)
OCast. prisco, albérchico, albérchigo albérchigo, quasi persico, Arag, Cat alberge, L. Prunus armeniaca, Ar. tuffāh armīnī (Armenian apple), al-barqug, al bérchigo, Fr. abricot, Eng. apricot. This fruit is over 4,000 years old. It is thought to be a native of China but is sited in the first Sumerian herbal written some time after 2500 B.C. The Armenians introduced the tree to Greece. Records show it spread from Mongolia to Turkey. It appeared in Italy in the 1st C. A.D. Since, apricots have been cultivated in all parts of central and southeastern Asia, southern Europe and North Africa. Spain is a leading producer followed by Iran, Syria, France and Italy. The tree blossoms before the peach and bears fruit earlier in summer. The skin and meat are yellow and the meat is very juicy. It is rich in vitamin C, a good source for vitamin A and high in natural sugar content. It is slightly laxative. Apricots were served as a dessert, fresh, as compote seasoned with any variety of spices from aniseed to nutmeg or baked in a variety of pastries. It can be made into marmalade or dried, which is rich in iron. Some kernels are sweet and can be made into oil like almonds. There are used to make liquors. Other kernels are poisonous. The Archpriest refers to them in a stanza saying a tambourine or flute are more worthless than an apricot. The small ones were held in low esteem Avenzoar states that if inhaled, the aroma strengthens those with fainting fits; if eaten, it produces vitreous and noxious humors and at times long and fatal fevers. [Cajador. 1990:321; Font. Plantas. 1999:222:349; Gázquez. 2002:249; ES: Renfrow.Glos. Jun 16, 04, Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:75; Ruíz/Brey.1965:1230d:193:271; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

JUDHAAB - SWEET APRICOT PUDDING - CHARLES PERRY'S TRANSLATION IN COOKING WITH THE CALIPHS 

"This favorite dish of medieval Baghdad consisted of a sweet pudding which was set at the bottom of a tannuur oven to catch the juices of roasting meat, which would be served with the pudding. Here we have a recipe from the collection of Caliph al-Wathiq (842–847)."

JUDHAAB
Drawing by: turntoislam.com
Ingredients

1 chicken
¼ c plus 2 tbsp rosewater
ground saffron
1 lb dried apricots
2 fresh lavashes, Mexican flour tortillas or other flatbreads, 12″ in diameter
½ c sugar

Preparation

Wash chicken and pat dry. Mix 2 tablespoons rosewater with pinch of saffron and rub on chicken, inside and out. Set chicken on high rack in 350-degree oven. Put apricots in small saucepan, add water to cover apricots by ½ inch and stew until softened. Place one lavash in baking pan. Arrange stewed apricots on top, sprinkle with sugar and ¾ cup rosewater in which pinch of saffron has been dissolved, then cover with remaining lavash. When juices begin running from chicken, set baking pan under it. 

Monday, November 29, 2010

ALBARDILLA - HOW TO BARD

BARDED PARTRIDGE
Photo by: forums.comicbookresources.com
Ar barda ‘rah, Eng barde, barding, barding fat, barding bacon or fatback, thin slices of fat placed on fowl, meat or fish for roasting and secured with a string. After roasting the bard is discarded and the roast is carved and served. It is strange that barding is not mentioned in Sent Soví nor in Anon Al-Andalus as it  is an excellent way to make roasts tender and to preserve the moisture. [ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn 27; Nola. 1989:lxx-3;xxiiii-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:195]

HOW TO BARD A ROAST FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF:

Season meat with herbs and pepper.

Cut barding fat into strips.

If very salty boil it for five minutes to remove extra salt.

Cover the entire body of the poultry or meat with the strips.

Secure each piece with by tying it with kitchen string. First wrap the string around the middle of the meat, secure it and wrap it lengthwise around the meat and secure it. Then make a series of loops width-wise down the length of the roast.  Turn the roast over and tread the string through each of the loops and tie it down.

Put the roast in a preheated oven.

About 15 minutes before fully cooked remove the roast from the oven. Cut the string, remove the barding and return the roast to the oven letting it cook uncovered until done.

Friday, November 26, 2010

ALBARDAR, REBOZAR WITH RECIPE: ARMORED CAPON (OR CHICKEN) FROM NOLA

"CHICKEN ARMOR" A ZELDA MOTION COMIC 
Photo by: Zac Gorman, howtocarveroastunicorn.blogspot.com
OCast aborrazar, emborraçar, Eng to bard: to cover with lard. Emborrazar actually means to cover with batter as seen in Nola's recipe "Gallina armada" (armored chicken). Small fowl, especially, was prepared for roasting by wrapping it in wide slices of streaky bacon and fastening them with thread. Whether with bard or batter, the system prevents the fowl from loosing its substance in the heat, preserves it and the juice from the bacon augments it. The slices or the dough are removed before serving. See emborrazar, mechada, pavo and tocino entreverado. [ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn 27; Nola. 1989:lxx-3;xxiiii-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:195]


ARMORED CAPON (OR CHICKEN) RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA xx-3 CAPON ARMADO

Chicken Skin
Photo by: by: devlyn 
Ingredients

1 capon or chicken
20 slices lardo (salted, cured pork back-fat)
4 egg yolks
2 tsp chopped parsley
1 tsp sugar
1 ½ c pine kernels finely ground
1 ½  c peeled almonds finely ground

Preparation

Preheat oven to 375ºF/390ºC

Clean chicken and remove any excess fat. Wrap chicken in lardo slices and secure them with thread see arbardilla. Roast ½ hr  and remove from oven.
Remove lardo. Beat egg yolks and mix in parsley and sugar. Paint chicken with this mixture.  Mix nuts together and cover chicken with them making a thin layer of the nuts. Put lardo back on the chicken over this mixture and secure them with thread. Roast 30 minutes more or until done. Discard lardo. Carve and serve. 

Thursday, November 25, 2010

ALBARDA, ALBARDERA, AGUJA DE MECHAR WITH SPIT ROASTED PHEASANT RECIPÈ

LARING A JOINT OF BEEF
Photo by: stockfood.fr
Cat agulla llardera, OCat bastóbastonet, Hisp Ar alb’arda-, Ar barda-ah, Eng barding or larding needle used to thread lard or bacon to be tied around or inserted into meat or poultry. The lard or fat inserted adds tenderness and flavor to the roast. During the Middle Ages, it was made of iron and had a wooden handle. The needle was about 12” long. Brett indicates that there was an instrument appearing to be a needle that was kept in a leather case with knives used by carvers in the late 15th C. Sent Soví uses one to thread slices of fat and pieces of diced oranges that were tied around pheasants or peacocks like garlands. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:I:63:X:69:Apè II:233; and Brett. 1968:73]


*SPIT ROASTED PHEASANT OR CAPON ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #I CON SE DEUEN ADOBAR PAÑOS E FAYSANS, pp 62-63

chicken spit roast
Photo by: geeklips
Ingredients

1 pheasant or capon
salt and pepper to taste
3 slices of salt pork 3’ long or 9 rashers of streaky bacon unsmoked
4 oranges (2 diced and two whole)

Preparation

Bleed the bird from the vein in the mouth instead of the ear. Do this at sunset. Hang the bird overnight. Pluck all, except the tail, head and neck.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 375ºF / 190º C

Remove the innards, heart liver and kidneys. Wash it. Rub salt and pepper in the cavity and all over the body. Before roasting tie the claws. Wrap the tail and then the head and neck in a washed linen cloth covering up the heathers. Roast one half hour. Remove from oven and let cool.

Securely place the bird on a rotisserie skewer. Thread 3’ long slices of salt pork or rashers in barding needles: and on each needle place  pieces of diced orange. Put one whole orange on the top of the bird and one on the bottom securing them with turkey skewers or lacers. Place a pan half full of water under the area where the bird will be roasting and keep it half full of water during roasting.  

Tie towels or small linen towels over the bird. Dampen them with cold water to prevent burning. Place the fowl on the grill with medium heat. Cook for approximately one hour. Remove the barding 15 minutes before it is done to brown the skin. Baste with drippings from the pan. When cooked and placed on the carving board, remove the cloths and carve like a goose.

*See asaz, published on December 5, 2011, for a variation of this recipe.

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

ALBAÑAL, ALBAÑAR

ERIE SEWAGE CHANNEL 
UNDER EUROPEAN CITY
Photo by: thenetherregions.com
OCast alvanar L. alveus, water canal, 1. a large earthenware vat or basin for dishwashing especially pots and pans and kitchen utensils. Although not mentioned in Nola's surviving MS in Catalan, the Pérez edition of Nola relates to this basin in reference to the cook’s duties to insure that the kitchen is kept clean. 2. sewer drain, water canal, gutter or pipe through which rain water or dirty water from the home flows. One is mentioned in the city of Burgos in Alfonso XI’s (1348-1379) Chronicle but it seems to be bigger then just a household pipe or gutter. Hita’s use of the word could be interpreted to be either a washbasin or a gutter. [Covarrubias. 1998:66:31; ES: RAE. 2001; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:41; Nola/Pérez. 1994:33:35:187; and Ruíz/Brey. 1965:199:1277:b]

ALBAICÍN

PRODUCTS OF ALBACIN - 
PEREGRINE FALCON
Photo by: wolfiewolfgang.com



(falcon district). It is a district of the city of Granada running from the Duero River to the top of San Miguel Hill. As indicated the area became famous at least 700 years ago thanks to the peregrine falcons that supplied Muslim lord’s tables with fowl, foxes and other game. Some of the recipes have been carried down through the ages. [Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:140; and ES: “Granada.” Apr 10, 03]

Monday, November 22, 2010

ALBAHACA WITH NOLA'S RECIPE CHICKEN BROTH WITH BASIL

FAVA BEAN SALAD WITH BASIL VINAIGRETTE AND CRUMBLED EGG
Photo by: onehungrymama.com

OCast alhabaca, Hisp Ar. habáqa, Cat. alfábrega, L. Ocimum ocimum, Ar. alhabéga, al-habac, Fr. basilic, alhabega, Eng. basil. This is an aromatic shrub with white or purple flowers in the summer. Being a Mediterranean herb, common in tropical and subtropical regions, it was not introduced to northern Europe until the 16 C. In Spain, basil was cultivated by the 12th C at least and it was commonly called the ‘herb of fables’. The word “basil” is derived from Greek meaning “kingly,” “royal,” as it was thought to have been royal medicine used as an unguent or in baths. Due to confusion in Latin, at one time it was thought to be an antidote for the poison of the legendary Basilisk (from Gr. meaning little king), the king of all serpents and dragons, who killed with his breath or stare and by hissing, he drove away all the other creatures. During the Middle Ages, it was believed that if a sprig of basil was put in a jar it would produce a scorpion. In Al-Andalus and all along the Mediterranean coast, it was a very important herb grown in the gardens. The fresh, large tender leaves were added to mint syrups, sweet dishes, pasta, and garlic sauces for their gentle clove-like aroma. It was thought wonderful with cheese, olive oil and pine kernels. It was an ingredient for sausages and egg dishes. Sent Soví uses it to flavor a dish of favas with almond milk. It is not a stewing herb as the leaves whither in a short time. It was thought good to have basil around in the summer as it detracts mosquitoes. Medicinally, it was thought to be a good stimulant for the nervous system and to calm stomach problems. For a good night’s sleep, a sprig was placed on the pillow. The smell was thought to cause headaches for people with this tendency. If a woman in labor held the root in her hand with a swallow’s feather, it was thought to ease labor pains enormously. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CXV:140-141:CXVI:141:Apè III:237; Anón/Huici.1966:69:50:83:59-60:282:162 etc; Bremness. 1990:101; Chirino/Herrera. 1973:xxxiv; Gitlitz. 1999:111; ES: “Hierbas.” Jun 28, 98; Nola. 1989:xviii-4:xxxii-4:xxxiii-2; and Nola/Pérez. 1992:186-187]

CHICKEN BROTH WITH BASIL FOR THE SICK ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xxxiii-2
PARA ENFERMOS CALDO DESTILLADO, Y PARA DEBILITADOS MUY SINGULAR


Chicken soup
Photo by: ericman967
Ingredients

1 3–4 lb whole chicken 
2 bay leaves
salt and pepper to taste
5 cloves
1 cinnamon stick
5 fresh basil leaves
about 6 c water
3 tbsp rosewater

Preparation

Wash chicken, remove wings and legs and cut into fourths.
Put the chicken and bay leaves in a pot and add salt and pepper.
Make a sachet with the cloves, cinnamon stick and 3 whole basil leaves, tie it and put it into the pot.
Add just enough water to cover. Cover the pot and simmer about 1
hour for a chicken and 2 for a hen. Skim off fat from top half way through cooking.  
Remove chicken and put one piece into each bowl. (It is easier for the eater if it is cut in cubes at this point.) Keep it warm.
Remove the spice bag and discard it. Bring the broth to a gentle boil. Chop the 2 remaining basil leaves and add them to the pot, add rosewater and simmer 5 minutes. Pour the broth over the chicken pieces and serve.

50 PIECES OF GOLD:

Nola says that bruised basil leaves make the broth a little bitter which is marvelous for this broth and a very nutritious and for those wanting something more nourishing to resurect the bodies of the half dead and about to die but 50 pieces of gold on the fire and when they are red hot remove them with pinchers and put them in the broth and do this two or three times. This will make the more powerful and the more times this is repeated the more the powers will multiply and this broth is so excellent that there is no way to estimate its worth.

Friday, November 19, 2010

ALBA WITH WHOLE WHEAT & CARAWAY SEED BREAD RECIPE

A YEAST THAT WILL GET A RISE OUT OF ANYTHING!
Photo by: masquecolores-victoria.blogspot.com
1. dawn. 2. MEng berm(e), Eng yeast from fermenting of malt liquor used in leaven bread. [Curye. 1985:IV:205:145:V:8:149:and V:22:155:171; and Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:156]



WHOLE WHEAT AND CARAWAY SEED BREAD RECIPE COMPLIMENTS OF THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF

Ingredients

Fresh Baked Bread
Photo by: meg williams2009
1 ¾ c whole wheat bread flour
1 c warm water
4 tbsp brewer’s yeast
1 tsp sugar
4 tbsp clarified butter
¼ c  oz  milk
1 tsp sea salt


Preparation

Mix the sugar and the yeast. Set aside for 10 minutes.


Put the flour into a large bowl, add the salt and mix-in thoroughly then make a dip in the centre and fill this with the clarified butter and milk. Mix this in thoroughly.

Add the yeast to the flour mixture. Mix well.  Slowly add the warm water making a pretty dry dough.

Place dough on a floured surface and vigorously knead for at least five minutes Place the dough back in its original mixing bowl, cover with a damp cloth and set aside in a warm place for at least two hours to rise.

PREHEAT OVER TO 400º F / 200º C

Place the dough back onto the floured board, knead for another five minutes then shape into a round shape. Add caraway seeds, mixing them well throughout the dough. Place the bread on a greased baking tray, cover with a damp cloth then set aside in a warm space for an hour to rise. Place the bread in a pre-heated oven for about 40 minutes or until the bread is a golden brown in color.



Wednesday, November 17, 2010

ALANO

Photo by: outlawelarcabuz.blogspot.com



mastiff, wolfhound. It was used to hunt deer in particular. [Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:151; and Ruíz/Brey. 1965:1221d:191]

ALAJÚ, HONEY NUT SWEET RECIPE

Photo by: vercuenca.com



Ar. alhaxú (filling), Eng. almond or walnut paste mixed with breadcrumbs. Sometimes it was made with pine kennels. It consists of two wafers with a filling of the nut paste between, is practically the same as alfajores. [Barajas. Nueva Clássica. 1995:264]






HONEY NUT SWEET RECIPE FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE MEDIEVAL SPANNISH CHEF
For 4 persons

Ingredients

1 1/2 c. honey
3 c sliced almonds or chopped walnuts
1 c breadcrumbs
8 round wafers 8” in diameter
confectioner’s sugar

Preparation

Put honey in a saucepan and heat on low stirring constantly to avoid sticking. Gradually add bread and nuts. When thoroughly mixed put some of it the middle of a wafer making it about ¾” high in center and less around edges. Place a wafer on top of this. Edges may by pinched shut or left open as in the photograph. Let cool. Sprinkle tops with confectioner’s sugar and serve.

AL BROU - CHICKEN RECIPE WITH ALMOND MILK & EGG "MUJOL" SAUCE FROM SENT SOVÍ

SLOW COOKER SHORT RIB BEEF STEW
Photo by: tinkeringwithdinner.blogspot.com
slow cooker, a long, slow cooking process (applied to meat). Gázquez compares the Sent Soví recipe with that from the Anon Andalus in which meat is boiled until it falls off the bone. It is possible that it is of Jewish-Arab origin. Maimonides tells us to boil chicken to death to make a nice broth for the sick. Dafina, a Jewish stew prepared in vespers of the Sabbath, is simmered throughout the night (see adafina). Slow cooking could come from Roman or Greek cookery. It was very extensive throughout the medieval world. It also could be a dish peasants prepared and left to simmer while they went out to work in the fields. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXX:187: ftn 1; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002: 185:212-213]


CHICKEN AL BROU ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ # LXI, QUI PARLA CON SE APARELLEN OQUES E CAPONS, E LA SALSA QUE S’I FFA AB LET DE AMELLES AB MUYOLS D’OUS*
p. 105

Cartoon by: Tonythescribe
Ingredients

2 lb whole chicken
salt
pepper
1 garlic head, peeled and minced
1 c raisins
¼ c solid fat
1 bay leaf
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp salt
1 tbsp olive oil
1 c white wine

ALMOND MILK AND EGG “MUJOLS” SAUCE

1 c almond milk, see recipe in almejas
2 hard boiled egg yolks
1 tsp ginger
2 tsp saffron crushed
¼ c breadcrumbs
1-2 tbsp honey
1 c broth from chicken


Preparation

Wash and pluck chicken and rub inside and out with salt and pepper. Mix garlic, raisins and fat and stuff cavity with this. Sow it shut with a string. Put bay leaf, cinnamon, salt, olive oil and wine in a pan. Add the chicken and cover with water. Bring to a boil and reduce heat. Gently boil it until very tender. It should take about 1 hour. 

Remove the chicken from pan and drain off excess broth. Remove the string from the cavity and spoon out the stuffing. Carve the chicken as per Villena's instructions: removing the wings, legs and thighs and slice the breast. Place on a platter with the stuffing on one side.

Sauce:
While the chicken is boiling, make almond milk using broth from the chicken as per the recipe in almejas. Dilute saffron in a little broth. Add that with the ginger to the almond milk. Mash egg yolks and mix them in the almond milk. Simmer for about 20 minutes. Slowly mix in breadcrumbs. When they have absorbed the liquid, slowly add the broth until it the liquid is thick like gravy. Before serving add honey and pour into a gravy boat.

*For a slightly different version see blog titled embutido, published February 14, 2014.

AL-ANDALUS

AL-ANALUS, ANDALUSIA TODAY IS THE TURQUOISE AREA INCLUDING:
CORDOBA, JAEN, HUELVA, SEVILLE, GRANADA, ALMERIA, CÁDIZ AND MALAGA 
Map from: barnafarma.es

Al-Andalus, the southern portion of the Iberian Peninsula occupied by those of the Islamic faith from 711 until 1492. During the 8th C they conquered the entire peninsula except Asturias. After that their possessions gradually receded until 1248 when Christians conquered Seville. Then only Granada remained under Muslim rule. Today, "Al-Andalus" symbolically signifies the transmission of Muslim scientific knowledge and gastronomy to the western world and Spain, in particular, and the fusion of the Muslim culture with Christian natives. The term is not necessarily confined to geographical boundaries although it is thought to be what is Andalusia today, as seen above. [Benavides-Barajas. Al-Andalus. 1988:5-33]