Entradas populares

Thursday, December 2, 2010


Photo by: hubpages.com
alcachofera, alcací, alcacil, alcancil, alcarchofa, alcarcil, alcaucique, alcaucil, alcaucil silvestre, alcaulexa, alcochofa,, arcacil, cavaria, morrillera, morrilla, OCast alcachofa, alcanas, alcauçí, , cañarias, carchofa, Cat, alcarxofa, alcarxofera, carchofa, caroxfa, carxofer, carxofera, escarofera, escarxofera, escarxofa, Cartagena alcacil, Gal & Port alcachofra, alcachofra-de-comer, alcachofra-hortense, Hisp Ar. al-jaršuf, Vasc orrgurra, orrigura, orribura, orrbura, L. Cynara scolymus, Ar. al-cabcil, alcarxul, alcarxol, al kharshûf (dim.of kharshaf, cardoon), Fr. artichaut, Eng. artichoke. Artichokes are flower buds of thistle. They are harvested just before their blue and violet flowers bloom. The artichoke is said to have been known in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. Columela maintains that they did exist in Al-Andalus when under Roman domination. Pliny, the elder, reports Romans eating them in 77 AD. Flower translates L. caedui as artichokes in the Apicius cookbook, but they seemed to have fallen into disuse with the fall of the empire. Charles Perry maintains that the Arabs developed them from cardoon, L. Cynara carduncculus, probably in Andalusia (see cardo silvestre). He does not believe they existed by the time the Anon Andalus was written and translates recipes calling for al kharshûf as cardoon. Others think that Arabs brought artichokes to Spain by the 9th C. while still others claim they were developed in Al-Andalus by Muslims between the 12th and 13th C. Huici translates al kharshûf as artichoke in his translation of Anon Andalus. Greus thinks Ziryab, the musician who came to Cordova in 822, ate artichoke salads. From Spain the artichoke was taken to Italy, today’s largest consumer. It is claimed that Catherine di Medici took them to France as she adored them. They have been consumed over the centuries to improve health, medicinally and in cookery. Covarrubias explains they have the same nature and virtue as cardoon. The great factor is that they produce insulin for diabetics. They are used also for liver problems. They were thought hot and dry in the second degree. They were prepared as electuaries and preserved in jars in apothecary shops. In Castile, they were included in pottages and stews. In Al-Andalus there were a favorite and highly consumed during the Middle Ages. A popular dish consisted of strips of meat, mixed with oil, vinegar, garum, coriander seed and capers, to which boiled and chopped artichokes were added. Almost always, artichokes were covered with eggs and eaten with pepper, breadcrumbs, onions and chickpeas. Villena provides a detailed description on removing the outer leaves, which are tough and cutting the heart into four pieces. He adds that they can be grilled or pickled as well as boiled. In the later years of Muslim domination, they were served stuffed or in a cold vinaigrette. It is thought to be a dish of a fickle lover scattering leaves from left to right. Marilyn Monroe in 1947 was named the Queen of the Artichokes. [Anón/Huici. 1966:161:280:162:281; Apicius/Flower. 1958:87-89; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 00:ftn 104; Bolens. Cuisine. 1990:36; Covarrubias. 1998:74; Font. Plantas. 1999:607:843; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:117; Greus. 1987:60; Mardam-Bay. 2002:147-150; Villena/Brown. 1984:111:4:112:60:112:72;113;85:164; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:44]

For 4 persons


1 c soaked chickpeas
1 tsp bicarbonate soda
1 lb meat (beef or lamb) cubed
3 tbsp oil
1 tbsp butter
*2 tsp murri
1 onion chopped
1 tsp coriander seed
3 c water
4 small artichokes
1/2 lemon
3 c water
1 tsp pepper
2 eggs
1/4  c breadcrumbs 
salt to taste


Put chickpeas in a bowl with bicarbonate soda and let soak overnight (8-10 hrs).  Heat 2 tbsp in a skillet and brown meat for a minute or two. Add salt to taste. Cover and simmer until done. Heat a pressure cooker. Add 1 tbsp olive oil and butter. When the butter is melted add *murri, strained chickpeas, onion and coriander seed and sauté for a minute or two turning the ingredients to coat them with the murri, butter and oil. Add  3 c water, bring to boil and cook 8-10 minutes. Reserve 1 c of the liquid and pour out the rest. Cut off outer leaves of artichokes and tops. Rub them with half of the lemon to prevent them from turning brown. Put them water and bring to a boil. When done, cut them in fourths and add them to the pot with the chickpeas. Add pepper and salt to taste. When all is cooked add meat. Stir eggs and gradually breadcrumbs to thicken. Simmer until the grease comes to the top and serve.

*See almorí. This can be substituted with a meat or vegetable bouillon cube.     

No comments:

Post a Comment