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Sunday, October 24, 2010

AGUA DE AZAHAR WITH 13 C RECIPE FOR "ANGEL'S FOOD," ORANGE BLOSSOM CHEESE RECIPE

Distilling Orange Blossoms
Photo By: dinnersanddreams.net
orange blossom water, orange flower water. It is made from the flowers of bitter orange trees. Seville has more than 14,000 decorating its medieval streets. At the end of May the blossoms are collected to make orange blossom water. It can be made by distilling orange blossoms in a double boiler with sugar and water. Another method is to bruise petals with in a mortar and then placed them in a jar filled with distilled water. This is left in the sun for two weeks. Readiness is determined by sniffing it. Then it is strained through a cheesecloth and stored until needed in a cool dark place. Although it is known that many Spanish medieval dishes were sprinkled with rose or orange blossom water, Sent Soví calls for it in this dessert popularly known as "Angel's Food," which is curds with honey. Nola's uses it to moisten "Marzipan for Invalids." It should be noted that rosewater can be a substitute for orange blossom water, which is from bitter orange trees, but not orange juice as the flavor of the flowers is very different from the fruit. See agua de rosas, azahar and esencia de azahar. [Anón/Grewe. 1982: CLVIII :173-174;  Nola. 1989:xxxiiii-4; and Santich. 1995:166 ]

"FOOD FOR ANGEL'S," ORANGE BLOSSOM CHEESE ADAPTED BY SANTICH p 166 FROM SENT SOVÍ #CLVIII QUI PARLA CON SA DEU MANYAR MATÓ CENS BOLIR, O FFORNATGES, pp 173-174

Ingredients

300 g. (10 oz) fresh ricotta
1-2 tbsp honey or sugar
1-2 tbsp orange flower water or rosewater

Fluff the ricotta with a fork and whisk in the honey or sugar and the desired flavoring. Orange flower water and rosewater vary in strength according to provenance (and according to the time they have spent on your shelf) so add a small amount to begin with, and then more as necessary.





Homemade Ginger Bread topped with Angel’s Food & Walnuts

Saturday, October 23, 2010

AGUA BENDITA WITH RECIPE FOR HOLY WATER SAUCE FOR FISH OR CHICKEN

ELEVEN MADISON PARK_SNAPPER
(In "Holy Water")
Photo By: http://restomanifesto.com/european/french/eleven-madison-park
"Holy Water," ginger and sweet marjoram distilled in water. In the Middle Ages it was a sauce made with half a glass each of rosewater and sorrel, verjuice and a little of sweet marjoram as seen above. It was served on sturgeon or other fish. It is not known whether it is of French or Italian origin. It was sprayed on French fritters served at one of Suero Quiñones’s banquets during his 1434 tournament in Leon, Spain. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:41; and Villena/Calero. 2002:114]


HOLY WATER SAUCE FOR FISH OR CHICKEN

½  c rosewater
1 c verjuice
½ cups chopped sorrel incuding stems
1 tbsp fresh sweet marjoram  chopped
1 tsp grated ginger

Steep the sorrel in the rosewater and verjuice. Strain this through a cheesecloth. Return to heat and stir in sweet marjoram and ginger. 

AGUA

RELIEF. BAKHUS (Water Fountain Facing West)
Photo By: Wellych

water. Avenzoar stated that water should be drunk when the food has settled in the stomach. Pure water is preferable. He continued to state that it is not good to drink cold water during meals, especially during warm seasons. The best waters are those from fountains facing west. During the Middle Ages, water was discouraged on the pilgrim route of St James in Spain. Since it has been found that water along the route can be fine but the changes in the mineral content from one area to another can disrupt the stomach. In medieval times pilgrims were advised to drink wine. Today, they are encouraged to drink mineral water but to always buy the same brand. [Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:130]

AGRIO, -A, 15C ALMOND & POMEGRANATE SAUCE FOR ROAST PARTRIDGE OR CHICKEN

OCast agro, -a, Eng. acid, sour, tart, sharp. [Nola. 1989:xxx-5:xxxvii-4:xxviii-2 etc; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:167]

*ALMOND AND POMEGRANATE SAUCE FOR ROAST PARTRIDGE OF CHICKEN
ADAPTED BY BARBARA SANTICH p 57 FROM NOLA xxx-5
SALSERON PARA PERDIZES O GALLINAS ASSADAS

365 Nov 18
(As seen here - yummy on pork too!)
Photo by: rhiannon0320
Ingredients

2 tbsp ground blanched almonds
**1 tsp pomegranate syrup blended with 4 tbsp warm water
½ tsp sugar
½ tsp cinnamon
½ tsp ginger

Preparation

“Pound all ingredients together using a mortar and pestle (for small amounts, it is simpler than using a food processor). Taste and adjust seasonings if and as desired; add a squeeze of lemon juice if the flavour is to be sharpened.***

“Lemon juice could substitute for pomegranate juice in this recipe, as it does in others. . . .”

*Lord-Williams' version is in azúcar en polvo published on 20 January 2012.
**In the preparation, Nola calls for “juice of sour pomegranates.”
***Use seeds as garnish!

AGRILLO, -A (And) WITH EMPEROR'S SAUCE WHICH IS CHICKEN LIVER SOPES

slightly sour. [Nola. 1989:xvii-3:xxix-2:liii-2 etc; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:185]

EMPEROR'S SAUCE WHICH IS CHICKEN LIVER SOPES IN ALMOND MILK
ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S lvi-2 SALSA DE EMPERADOR

Serves 4-6

Photo by: bjandtony.com
Ingredients

4 chicken livers
1 c toasted almonds
1 slice of crustless bread
1 ½ c chicken broth
9 raw egg yolks
½ c sugar
1 tsp ground mustard seed
5-6 ground cloves
1 tsp grated ginger
¼ c sour juice, orange, grape pomegranate 

Garnish:
3 tsp sugar
3 tsp ground cinnamon

Preparation

PREHEAT OVEN TO 400º F / 200º C

Grease a cookie sheet and bake livers until done, about 20 minutes.

Grind one of the livers with the almonds and bread. Temper it with broth. When well ground add egg yolks. Add the other three livers and grind all together. Strain it though a cheesecloth into a saucepan and simmer. Add the remaining ingredients stirring constantly until the sauce is thick and dun colored. It should taste a little sour with a hint of spices, predominantly ginger. Pour into soup bowls and sprinkle garnish on top.

AGRIDULCE WITH SWEET & SOUR LAMB POTTAGE FROM NOLA

SWEET AND SOUR FISH
Photo By Shootalot
OCast agras dulces (sour and sweet), Eng. sweet and sour. This combination was appropriate with meat during medieval times but not in baked desserts. Hypocrites, Galen and Avicenna maintained that sweet and sour must be harmonized. Necessary acidity was obtained from vinegar primarily but acid cherries, plums, pomegranates, dry grapes, must, apples or quince could be used among other fruits. Nola called for cajín, bitter green pomegranates with caramel colored sweet and sour seeds (see granadas). Couscous was considered sweet for the fat in the meat and sour for the vinegar added. Honey or sugar cane was added to brines. Caper buttons or flowers helped maintain the lactic fermentation of uncured cheese; from time to time caper flowers are preserved in oil and vinegar and used in connection with curdled milk and immature cheese. [Bolens. Cuisine. 1990:190; and ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn 77; and Nola. 1989:xv-1:xliii-2:li-2 etc]

SWEAT AND SOUR LAMB POTTAGE ADAPTED 
FROM NOLA’S # li-2 ADOBADO DE CARNERO


Ingredients

Step #1
Quince Apple
Photo by: Natorra 
2 lbs lamb
½ lb neck of lamb
1 (6 oz/170 gr) carrot
½ (5 oz/150 gr) onion
2 chopped leeks
2 pears peeled and sliced in half
2 quince peeled and sliced in half (substitute apples)
salt and freshly ground pepper

Step #2
3 tbsp salt pork
1 tsp rosemary
salt and pepper to taste

Step #3
2 tsp saffron
3 tbsp honey
1 tsp cloves
2 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp pepper
3 tbsp vinegar

Step #4
2 egg yolks
2 tbsp vinegar
2 tbsp honey
2 tbsp hot broth
salt and pepper to taste

To garnish: mink leaves

Preparation

1. Put the ingredients for step #1 in a pan. Cover with water. Cover pan and bring to a boil, reduce heat and gently boil for 15 minutes. Remove the meat, the pears and the quinces but leave the rest to cook one hour.

2. Cut the piece of meat into finger size pieces. Fry them in salt pork. Add rosemary, salt and pepper to taste. Remove from heat. Remove cores from pears and quinces, chop and add them to the meat.

3. Dissolve the saffron with a little broth in a large pan.  Add the other ingredients for step #3. Add 1cup broth, mix well and the meat and fruit.  Mix all the ingredients and warm over low heat.
Photo by: Lord-Williams

4, In small bowl beat or whisk egg yolks. Add the vinegar and mix well. In a double boiler, melt honey. Add the egg mixture and beat until all well mixed. Add water and continue beating until it thickens. Pour over meat and fruit. Serve in individual soup bowls and garnish with mint leaves. (Save leftover broth with carrot, leeks, onion and lamb neck to serve as a soup for another meal.)
 

AGRAZ WITH 15TH C MOORISH EGGPLANT SOPES RECIPE

1. bitterness, bitter juice extracted from unripe fruit but not as bitter as vinegar. 2. L acraceum, unripe grapes, see zumo de agraz. Nola adds it at the end of cooking time to a recipe for Moorish eggplant, another for thick squash with meat broth, Moorish squash etc. Laza explains that the liquid is preserved in salt for a year. He believes that Celestina used it to thin facial skin.  [Laza. 2002:87-88; and Nola. 1989: xxiiii-4:xxv-2:xxv-3 etc]

MOORISH EGGPLANT SOPES ADAPTED FROM NOLA xxiiii-4 BERENJENAS A LA MORISCA

For 4 persons

(before garnishing)
Photo from: oldfoodways.info
2 eggplants
salt to taste
¼  c virgin olive oil
2 c meat broth
1 c grated cheese
1 1/3 tsp ground coriander
2 egg yolks
2 tbsp verjuice

Garnish:
mint leaves



Preparation

Slice eggplants in half. Rub with salt and place facedown on paper towels. Leave for 1 hr to bleed out bitterness. Rinse with cold water.


Peel the eggplants and dice them. Heat olive oil and sauté eggplants until browned and slightly soft.


Add broth and cheese. Mix well and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to boil gently. Stir frequently and cook until eggplants are tender. Add coriander and mix well.

Beat egg yolks in a bowl. Add verjuice and continue beating. Add them to the eggplants.
Stirring continually cook until the sauce thickens.

Serve in soup bowls and garnish with mint leaves.


AGRADARE WITH A SHORT LOIN ROAST

agradare, OCast ploquiere, Eng it pleases you. It is used in the sense of when you want to. [Villena/Calero 2004:29b]

From: steakperfection.com
The 8th Chapter of Villena’s The Art of Carving, instructs how to carve four legged animals. He states that one of the best cuts of beef is the short loin next to the ribs. Insert a trident carving fork from the side, below the top rib to hold the roast steady. Remove the fat and the skin on top of the meat. Do this with a short carving knife. Then change knives using a diner’s steak knife. Slice the short loin into small pieces letting them fall onto a platter placed underneath. Pour juices from the roast into a silver dish. Spoon some juice over each slice of meat making them moist because this is the tenderest and healthiest cut and the least harmful of beef. Continue carving. When it cools, if it pleases you, eat this part.


RECIPE FOR A SHORT LOIN ROAST
For 4 persons

Ingredients

1 lb Porterhouse Steak
salt and pepper to taste


Preparation

1 hr before cooking, remove the roast from the refrigerator to bring to room temperature.

PREHEAT THE OVEN TO 250º F / 120º C and set oven rack to the lower middle position.


Photo from: Dinner at Peter Luger: porterhouse steak
Take a heavy bottomed roasting pan or heavy skillet and set the pan on 1 burner or 2 burners. Set the temperature to medium-high. Once the pan is hot sear the roast on all sides for 1 ½  - 2 min per side.

Remove the roast, set it on a wire rack in the center of a roasting pan with the fat side up on the rack. Season with salt and pepper to taste and cook uncovered.

Roast the meat to a temperature of 135º-140º F / 55º-60º C (medium-rare) for maximum flavor and tenderness or 140º-150º F / 60º-65º C (medium) but no more, anything more will begin to dry out the roast. Roasting it will take 25-30 minutes per pound. Do not overcook. Remove roast from oven. Let it rest 15- 20 minutes to allow the juices to redistribute themselves evenly throughout the roast. Carve according to Villena’s instructions above, serve and if it pleases you, eat it.


AGALURA, SALSA - 15th C ALMOND SAUCE RECIPE

Almond Sauce 
Photo By: Lord-Williams
Cat agua-lura, agura, Cast aguado (watered down, which refers to the vinegar diluted with wine), Eng agalura sauce, almond, raisin sauce. It similar to the traditional peacock sauce using almonds, vinegar, egg yolk, cinnamon and spices. Note: as per my recipe (adapted from Nola) below, animal products such as eggs were prohibited by the RC Church during Lent. [Nola. 1989:xl-3]

ALMOND SAUCE RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA
xl-3 SALSA AGALURA PARA UNA ESCUDILLA

For 4-6 persons

Ingredients:

1/4 cup almonds
2 tsp olive oil
3/4 cup sweet wine
1/4 cup vinegar
1 egg yolk (2 tbsp breadcrumbs soaked in the vinegar if Lent)
1 tsp cinnamon
1/4 tsp ground cloves
1/8 tsp ground ginger
1/8 cup chopped raisins (chop with breadcrumbs if Lent)
sugar to taste

Preparation:

Shell almonds, boil in water and remove skins. Fry them in olive oil or roast them. When golden brown chop them in a food processor. Add egg yolk, cinnamon and other spices, wine and vinegar.  When thoroughly mixed strain them through a fine sieve or cheesecloth.  Add raisins. Heat to thicken but do not let it boil. It may be necessary to add sugar to taste as modern palates are not accustomed to the acidness in vinegar. Serve with chicken or other poultry.

AGALLAS

FISH GILLS
Photo by: pskf.ca



OCat guanyes, Eng fish gills. Sent Soví instructs that gills should be cut off small fish before frying. The Spanish saying that a person does not have gills is the equivalent of  having no guts. [Sent Soví. CLXXXXI:199]

AFILER DE CABEZA NEGRA WITH MEDIEVAL CHORIZO SAUSAGE RECIPE

Photo By: 
http://www.sausagedebauchery.com/products/?category=Kitchen Gadgets/Tools
sausage pricker, old needle, also called fat head, with a small black ball on the dull end and used by butchers to pinch sausages after they are stuffed to release the air and to prevent the skin of the intestine from exploding. As seen above more than one needle is used at a time. [Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003]


MEDIEVAL CHORIZO SAUSAGE RECIPE
foto_11
Photo by: slowpix.org
*Ingredientes

7 lb  lean pork
7 lb fatty pork
4 garlic cloves chopped
4 tbsp garum
1 c sifted flour
1 tsp nutmeg
1 tsp coriander
1 tsp lavender
1 tsp cinnamon
1 c white wine
2 tbsp black pepper ground
2 tbsp salt

Preparation

Grind meat add all ingredients in a trough and knead until thoroughly mixed. Cover and let marinate for one and a half days. On a clear day, stuff intestines.  If it is a rainy day let the meat marinate longer for if stuffed then the sausages will be soggy. Tie them first at one end then the other with the same string. Then still using the same string tie links at various intervals.  Prick the links a few time times. Hang in a cool dry place and fry as needed.

*See almorí for garum recipe. Note that wine and black pepper were replaced with cayenne pepper and paprika after the discovery of America and garum fell out of use after the 15th C.

ADORMIDERA WITH POPPY SEED SALAD DRESSING RECIPE

OPIUM POPPY (PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM)
Photo By: by Selectphoto


L. Papaver somniferum, Fr. pavot, dormidero (sleeping place), Eng. white or opium poppy. A plant with deeply cut leaves and red, white, pink, yellow or orange flowers found in spring in Europe, Asia and America. Papaver is believed to be derived from pap, milk-like juice located in the stem of the plant. It is said to have been cultivated from 2,000 B.C. Dioscorides defined the seeds as a means ‘to soften the belly.’ In medieval cookery, they were mixed with flour and dough, added to cakes and breads and used to decorate pastries. A specialty was leaf pastry filled with poppy seeds and honey. Crude opium is located in the pods. It is obtained by opening them when almost ripe with a five-edged instrument. This makes five incisions from the top to the bottom. The juice is poured out and saved. The following day the same process is carried out on the other side of the pod. Water is added to obtain the consistency of pitch. Then it may be used. During excavations in Crete, the body of the “Goddess of the Poppies” was found. In her hair are poppy flowers. During this project, it was shown clearly that opium in ancient times was extracted in the same way as today. Even before the Egyptians, it was used as a painkiller and to induce sleep as indicated by the Spanish and French names for this plant. Although used by the Romans, Arabs brought opium to stay in Spain. It appears in 10th C. inventories of their courts in Cordova and Saragosa where they used it as a painkiller and for painless deaths. Those under 50 drank it in small doses as an aphrodisiac. (Those over 50 were considered too old for such things.) During the Middle Ages, the ‘seed vessels’ were consumed. The taste of opium by itself is vile. It was not until the 16th C. that it was mixed with alcohol creating a drink called Laudanum. It was given to teething babies. Until Victorian times, it was obtainable in apothecaries in England. It was considered a stimulant and a narcotic. It was used as a diaphoretic, antispasmodic, sedative and febrifuge. It is said to have been the ‘most used and most abused’ herb. No household could be without it. The white poppy contains 21 different alkaloids. A few are codeine, heroin, morphine (for which this plant is called ‘the god of sleep’), codamine, narceine and papaverine. [ES: Calle. “Poetas.” Sep 21, 01; Font. Plantas. 1999:134:238-242; and Stuart. 1987.233-234]

EXTRACTING OPIUM
Photo By: http://uwf.edu/atcdev/afghanistan
/Society/Lesson12Crime2.html




POPPY SEED SALAD DRESSING RECIPE

Salads were common in the Middle Ages but more varied as not only lettuce was used but all the greens found in the garden.


Ingredients
Homemade Poppy Seed Dressing Image 2
Photo by: dineanddish

½  c white vinegar
¼ c honey
1 tbsp finely chopped onion
1 tsp salt
1 tsp dry mustard
1 c virgin olive oil
1 tbsp poppy seeds

Preparation




Mix all the ingredients except the oil and poppy seeds in a blender for half a minute. Slowly add, drop by drop, the oil. Remove from blender and add poppy seeds. Shake before serving.


ADOBOS, MARINADAS WITH MARINATED & GRILLED TUNA STEAK WITH ORANGES RECIPE


KITTEN RIPE MARINATING 
(see AZOTARLO to enhance tenderness) 
Photo By: Lord-Williams

pickles or marinades or pickles. For several reasons raw meat and fish were marinated. It made it tender and sharpened the flavor. This was done to preserve it and sometimes to change the taste. If placed in a strong marinade, lamb could be made to taste like deer, pork or boar. When the Picara Justina served cat, she said it as rabbit; chicken was capon; crows were doves; small carp were small trout; and ducks were peacocks, Marinating was a deviation from the traditional cooking method. In this way, whole or sliced fish was cooked and then marinated for several hours in lemon juice or oil and pepper. Christians used it especially to preserve pork. Normally pickles were prepared the day before they were to be consumed to allow time for the flavors to blend. Basic ingredients were vinegar, salt, garlic, parsley, oregano and pepper. Calero explains that it was considered to be a sauce like bancmange. See manjar blanc, aguasal, gelatina and sal. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:67; 151; Serrano. 2010:377:ftn 80; and Villena/Calero. 2002:116]


MARINATED AND GRILLED TUNA STEAKS WITH ORANGES 
For 4 persons


Ingredients


Tuna steaks are easy to cook 
Photo by: wikipeers.com
4 tuna steaks
freshly ground pepper
1 tsp cumin
2 garlic cloves mashed
2 tbsp olive oil
2 tbsp vinegar
juice from 2 oranges
1 orange sliced

Preparation


Rub steaks with pepper and cumin. Prepare the marinade: mix galic with oil and vinegar; add orange juice and mix well. Put the fish in a casserole and cover it with the marinade. Cover it and chill overnight or for 4 hours at least. Grill it for 5 minutes on each side basting continually and serve garnished with orange slices. Pasta, artichokes or asparagus  make good Spanish medieval accompaniments.
 

ADEREZA WITH 15TH C CHEESE CUSTARD RECIPE

to prepare, dress, season. [Nola. 1985:xiiii-5:xv-1:lix-5; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:185]

CHEESE CUSTARD ADAPTED FROM NOLA xv-1MANJAR PRINCIPAL
For 6 persons
                         
Flan-de-queso---16
Photo by: pepa cooks
Ingredients

6 egg yolks
4 oz or 1 c grated aged cheese
4 oz or 1 c grated hard bread
2 qts milk
½ lb or 1 c sugar
2 oz or ¼ c cinnamon


Preparation

Beat egg yolks. Add cheese and bread. Beat until well mixed. Slowly add milk. Add 6 oz or ¾ c sugar reserving ¼ c for garnish. Heat this mixture in a sauce pan over low heat stirring constantly in one direction until it begins to thicken. Set aside to cool.

To dress it melt sugar in a saucepan. Add the cinnamon. Pour this into the bottom of custard cups. Pour the custard over this and refrigerate. When ready to serve invert the mold on individual dessert plates.  Berries and a little raspberry sauce give it an added touch to the dressing!

ADEMÁS

"cutting" food
(Villena states:"Besides there is other food for cutting. . . .)
Photo by: virginija2001

OCast. allende, Eng. further, furthermore, besides, moreover. [Alonso, Luis Miguel. 1994:198; and Villena/Calero. 2002:43b] 

ADARME WITH 15TH C BLANCMANGE RECIPE

OCast adarhame, darhame, adarme adarque, adareme, Hisp Ar dárham, Gr drachma, MEng drachm, dragm, Eng dram, weight of 60 grains equal to 1/8 oz in Avoirdupois weight. [Chirino/Herrero. 1973:75:8:77:6:239; and OXF Eng Dict. 1989:IV:Creel:1017]


BLANCMANGE RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA xiiii-2 MANJAR BLANCO
For 6 persons

This recipe is  an appetizer not a dessert as known today. There were blancmange recipes for desserts in the Middle Ages when they did not have chicken breast as an ingredient. Although the recipe contains Arab ingredients: almonds, sugar and rice, it is believed to have originated from Provence, France. Sent Soví, the 13th C Catalana cookbook has a recipe for it, while Chaucer relates that his 14th C cook in Canterbury Tales made it with fish instead of meat during Lent.  


MANJAR BLANCO(before garnishing)
Photo by: RODRIGO CAICEDO LÓPEZ
Ingredients


1 chicken breast
2 c almonds
olive oil
1 c ground rice
1-2 tbsp lard or chicken grease from broth
1 dram or 3/4 tsp salt
1 tbsp sugar


Garnish
1/2 c of the almonds above
2 tbsp pomegrante seeds


Preparation


Put the chicken breast in a sauce pan just the size of the meat. Cover with water and bring to a boil. Skim off the grease and the foam. Boil gently 25-30 minutes or until tender. Let cool in the broth so that it does not dry out. When the meat and the broth are cool, remove the skin and the bones. Separate the meat into threads. Set aside with just enough broth to cover it.


While the chicken is cooking scald the almonds and remove the skin. Fry them in olive oil until toasted. Remove them and pat dry and set aside. Reserve 1/2 c of these almonds for garnish.


Measure out 3 cups of broth. Put the 1 1/2 c almonds in a blender and grind them. Add the broth and continue grinding. Strain the mixture through a cheesecloth. If the strained mixture, which is almond milk, does not measure three cups add more broth.


Put the almond milk in a sauce pan and add the ground rice. Bring it to a boil and reduce heat. Boil gently stirring frequently until the rice is cooked and the mixture has the consistency of risotto or a pottage. Be very careful not to let it burn. Add the chicken and stir constantly until all is well mixed. Add lard or chicken grease which should be cold. Stir the mixture until the rice has totally absorbed the fat. Add with salt and sugar. 


Pour into soup bowls and garnish with almonds and pomegranate seeds.