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Tuesday, November 30, 2010

ALBÓNDIGA WITH CHICKEN MEATBALL RECIPE FROM ANON ANDALUS

SPICY FISH BALLS ON A STICK
Photo by: johnharveyphoto.com
al-bunduga (hazelnut), Eng. meatball or fish ball. Apicius provides a recipe for crayfish balls mixed with liquamen and eggs and another for chopped meat with liquamen and pine kernels and pepper corns. In medieval times in Iberia, meat or fish balls were thought of as a typical Arabian food but they were no bigger than a hazelnut, as indicated by the Arab word for them. The English liked colored meatballs as per the pome dorres recipe for meatballs boiled, roasted and glazed in colored batter and another for pork meatballs was boiled in herbs with saffron as per Cure Cocorum. Avenzoar indicates that meatballs are easier to digest then meat that is not ground. [Anón/Huici. 1989: 140:94-95:208:130:209:130-131:etc; Apicius/Flower. 1958: II:I:7:64:IX:I:4:207; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02:ftn 1; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:92; and ES: Liber/Renfrow. Sep 23, 03. 93:37:10:44]

MEATBALLS FROM CHICKEN BREASTS ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF 
ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #209 HECHURA DE ALBÓNDIGAS DE PECHUGA DE GALLINA, pp 130-131
For 4 persons

two dozen mini chicken meatballs
Photo by: sokolokophoto
Ingredients

1 egg
*1 lb ground chicken breasts
1 tbsp Byzantine murri  (see almorí for the recipe)
salt to taste
1 tsp lavender
1 tsp cloves
1 tbsp chopped almonds
1 tbsp chopped pistachios
3 tbsp olive oil for frying

Preparation

Beat egg. Add the remaining ingredients and knead until well mixed.. Make meatballs small like hazelnuts. Fry in olive oil.

*Note: Although this recipe is for chicken breasts, Anon Andalus frequently calls for partridge breasts as it says that the meat is not good for anything else because it is so dry.

ALBARICOQUE - JUDHAAB - SWEET APRICOT PUDDING 9th C RECIPE

APRICOT IN BLOOM
Photo by: GRAZIA ZITARA (Medorra) (85)
OCast. prisco, albérchico, albérchigo albérchigo, quasi persico, Arag, Cat alberge, L. Prunus armeniaca, Ar. tuffāh armīnī (Armenian apple), al-barqug, al bérchigo, Fr. abricot, Eng. apricot. This fruit is over 4,000 years old. It is thought to be a native of China but is sited in the first Sumerian herbal written some time after 2500 B.C. The Armenians introduced the tree to Greece. Records show it spread from Mongolia to Turkey. It appeared in Italy in the 1st C. A.D. Since, apricots have been cultivated in all parts of central and southeastern Asia, southern Europe and North Africa. Spain is a leading producer followed by Iran, Syria, France and Italy. The tree blossoms before the peach and bears fruit earlier in summer. The skin and meat are yellow and the meat is very juicy. It is rich in vitamin C, a good source for vitamin A and high in natural sugar content. It is slightly laxative. Apricots were served as a dessert, fresh, as compote seasoned with any variety of spices from aniseed to nutmeg or baked in a variety of pastries. It can be made into marmalade or dried, which is rich in iron. Some kernels are sweet and can be made into oil like almonds. There are used to make liquors. Other kernels are poisonous. The Archpriest refers to them in a stanza saying a tambourine or flute are more worthless than an apricot. The small ones were held in low esteem Avenzoar states that if inhaled, the aroma strengthens those with fainting fits; if eaten, it produces vitreous and noxious humors and at times long and fatal fevers. [Cajador. 1990:321; Font. Plantas. 1999:222:349; Gázquez. 2002:249; ES: Renfrow.Glos. Jun 16, 04, Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:75; Ruíz/Brey.1965:1230d:193:271; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

JUDHAAB - SWEET APRICOT PUDDING - CHARLES PERRY'S TRANSLATION IN COOKING WITH THE CALIPHS 

"This favorite dish of medieval Baghdad consisted of a sweet pudding which was set at the bottom of a tannuur oven to catch the juices of roasting meat, which would be served with the pudding. Here we have a recipe from the collection of Caliph al-Wathiq (842–847)."

JUDHAAB
Drawing by: turntoislam.com
Ingredients

1 chicken
¼ c plus 2 tbsp rosewater
ground saffron
1 lb dried apricots
2 fresh lavashes, Mexican flour tortillas or other flatbreads, 12″ in diameter
½ c sugar

Preparation

Wash chicken and pat dry. Mix 2 tablespoons rosewater with pinch of saffron and rub on chicken, inside and out. Set chicken on high rack in 350-degree oven. Put apricots in small saucepan, add water to cover apricots by ½ inch and stew until softened. Place one lavash in baking pan. Arrange stewed apricots on top, sprinkle with sugar and ¾ cup rosewater in which pinch of saffron has been dissolved, then cover with remaining lavash. When juices begin running from chicken, set baking pan under it. 

Monday, November 29, 2010

ALBARDILLA - HOW TO BARD

BARDED PARTRIDGE
Photo by: forums.comicbookresources.com
Ar barda ‘rah, Eng barde, barding, barding fat, barding bacon or fatback, thin slices of fat placed on fowl, meat or fish for roasting and secured with a string. After roasting the bard is discarded and the roast is carved and served. It is strange that barding is not mentioned in Sent Soví nor in Anon Al-Andalus as it  is an excellent way to make roasts tender and to preserve the moisture. [ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn 27; Nola. 1989:lxx-3;xxiiii-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:195]

HOW TO BARD A ROAST:

Season meat with herbs and pepper.

Cut barding fat into strips.

If very salty boil it for five minutes to remove extra salt.

Cover the entire body of the poultry or meat with the strips.

Secure each piece with by tying it with kitchen string. First wrap the string around the middle of the meat, secure it and wrap it lengthwise around the meat and secure it. Then make a series of loops width-wise down the length of the roast.  Turn the roast over and tread the string through each of the loops and tie it down.

Put the roast in a preheated oven.

About 15 minutes before fully cooked remove the roast from the oven. Cut the string, remove the barding and return the roast to the oven letting it cook uncovered until done.

Friday, November 26, 2010

ALBARDAR, REBOZAR WITH RECIPE: ARMORED CAPON (OR CHICKEN) FROM NOLA

"CHICKEN ARMOR" A ZELDA MOTION COMIC 
Photo by: Zac Gorman, howtocarveroastunicorn.blogspot.com
OCast aborrazar, emborraçar, Eng to bard: to cover with lard. Emborrazar actually means to cover with batter as seen in Nola's recipe "Gallina armada" (armored chicken). Small fowl, especially, was prepared for roasting by wrapping it in wide slices of streaky bacon and fastening them with thread. Whether with bard or batter, the system prevents the fowl from loosing its substance in the heat, preserves it and the juice from the bacon augments it. The slices or the dough are removed before serving. See emborrazar, mechada, pavo and tocino entreverado. [ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn 27; Nola. 1989:lxx-3;xxiiii-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:195]


ARMORED CAPON (OR CHICKEN) RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA xx-3 CAPON ARMADO

Chicken Skin
Photo by: by: devlyn 
Ingredients

1 capon or chicken
20 slices lardo (salted, cured pork back-fat)
4 egg yolks
2 tsp chopped parsley
1 tsp sugar
1 ½ c pine kernels finely ground
1 ½  c peeled almonds finely ground

Preparation

Preheat oven to 375ºF/390ºC

Clean chicken and remove any excess fat. Wrap chicken in lardo slices and secure them with thread see arbardilla. Roast ½ hr  and remove from oven.
Remove lardo. Beat egg yolks and mix in parsley and sugar. Paint chicken with this mixture.  Mix nuts together and cover chicken with them making a thin layer of the nuts. Put lardo back on the chicken over this mixture and secure them with thread. Roast 30 minutes more or until done. Discard lardo. Carve and serve. 

Thursday, November 25, 2010

ALBARDA, ALBARDERA, AGUJA DE MECHAR WITH SPIT ROASTED PHEASANT RECIPÈ

LARING A JOINT OF BEEF
Photo by: stockfood.fr
Cat agulla llardera, OCat bastóbastonet, Hisp Ar alb’arda-, Ar barda-ah, Eng barding or larding needle used to thread lard or bacon to be tied around or inserted into meat or poultry. The lard or fat inserted adds tenderness and flavor to the roast. During the Middle Ages, it was made of iron and had a wooden handle. The needle was about 12” long. Brett indicates that there was an instrument appearing to be a needle that was kept in a leather case with knives used by carvers in the late 15th C. Sent Soví uses one to thread slices of fat and pieces of diced oranges that were tied around pheasants or peacocks like garlands. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:I:63:X:69:Apè II:233; and Brett. 1968:73]


*SPIT ROASTED PHEASANT OR CAPON ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #I CON SE DEUEN ADOBAR PAÑOS E FAYSANS, pp 62-63

chicken spit roast
Photo by: geeklips
Ingredients

1 pheasant or capon
salt and pepper to taste
3 slices of salt pork 3’ long or 9 rashers of streaky bacon unsmoked
4 oranges (2 diced and two whole)

Preparation

Bleed the bird from the vein in the mouth instead of the ear. Do this at sunset. Hang the bird overnight. Pluck all, except the tail, head and neck.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 375ºF / 190º C

Remove the innards, heart liver and kidneys. Wash it. Rub salt and pepper in the cavity and all over the body. Before roasting tie the claws. Wrap the tail and then the head and neck in a washed linen cloth covering up the heathers. Roast one half hour. Remove from oven and let cool.

Securely place the bird on a rotisserie skewer. Thread 3’ long slices of salt pork or rashers in barding needles: and on each needle place  pieces of diced orange. Put one whole orange on the top of the bird and one on the bottom securing them with turkey skewers or lacers. Place a pan half full of water under the area where the bird will be roasting and keep it half full of water during roasting.  

Tie towels or small linen towels over the bird. Dampen them with cold water to prevent burning. Place the fowl on the grill with medium heat. Cook for approximately one hour. Remove the barding 15 minutes before it is done to brown the skin. Baste with drippings from the pan. When cooked and placed on the carving board, remove the cloths and carve like a goose.

*See asaz, published on December 5, 2011, for a variation of this recipe.

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

ALBAÑAL, ALBAÑAR

ERIE SEWAGE CHANNEL 
UNDER EUROPEAN CITY
Photo by: thenetherregions.com
OCast alvanar L. alveus, water canal, 1. a large earthenware vat or basin for dishwashing especially pots and pans and kitchen utensils. Although not mentioned in Nola's surviving MS in Catalan, the Pérez edition of Nola relates to this basin in reference to the cook’s duties to insure that the kitchen is kept clean. 2. sewer drain, water canal, gutter or pipe through which rain water or dirty water from the home flows. One is mentioned in the city of Burgos in Alfonso XI’s (1348-1379) Chronicle but it seems to be bigger then just a household pipe or gutter. Hita’s use of the word could be interpreted to be either a washbasin or a gutter. [Covarrubias. 1998:66:31; ES: RAE. 2001; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:41; Nola/Pérez. 1994:33:35:187; and Ruíz/Brey. 1965:199:1277:b]

ALBAICÍN

PRODUCTS OF ALBACIN - 
PEREGRINE FALCON
Photo by: wolfiewolfgang.com



(falcon district). It is a district of the city of Granada running from the Duero River to the top of San Miguel Hill. As indicated the area became famous at least 700 years ago thanks to the peregrine falcons that supplied Muslim lord’s tables with fowl, foxes and other game. Some of the recipes have been carried down through the ages. [Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:140; and ES: “Granada.” Apr 10, 03]

Monday, November 22, 2010

ALBAHACA WITH NOLA'S RECIPE CHICKEN BROTH WITH BASIL

FAVA BEAN SALAD WITH BASIL VINAIGRETTE & CRUMBLED EGG
Photo by: onehungrymama.com

OCast alhabaca, Hisp Ar. habáqa, Cat. alfábrega, L. Ocimum ocimum, Ar. alhabéga, al-habac, Fr. basilic, alhabega, Eng. basil. This is an aromatic shrub with white or purple flowers in the summer. Being a Mediterranean herb, common in tropical and subtropical regions, it was not introduced to northern Europe until the 16 C. In Spain, basil was cultivated by the 12th C at least and it was commonly called the ‘herb of fables’. The word “basil” is derived from Greek meaning “kingly,” “royal,” as it was thought to have been royal medicine used as an unguent or in baths. Due to confusion in Latin, at one time it was thought to be an antidote for the poison of the legendary Basilisk (from Gr. meaning little king), the king of all serpents and dragons, who killed with his breath or stare and by hissing, he drove away all the other creatures. During the Middle Ages, it was believed that if a sprig of basil was put in a jar it would produce a scorpion. In Al-Andalus and all along the Mediterranean coast, it was a very important herb grown in the gardens. The fresh, large tender leaves were added to mint syrups, sweet dishes, pasta, and garlic sauces for their gentle clove-like aroma. It was thought wonderful with cheese, olive oil and pine kernels. It was an ingredient for sausages and egg dishes. Sent Soví uses it to flavor a dish of favas with almond milk. It is not a stewing herb as the leaves whither in a short time. It was thought good to have basil around in the summer as it detracts mosquitoes. Medicinally, it was thought to be a good stimulant for the nervous system and to calm stomach problems. For a good night’s sleep, a sprig was placed on the pillow. The smell was thought to cause headaches for people with this tendency. If a woman in labor held the root in her hand with a swallow’s feather, it was thought to ease labor pains enormously. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CXV:140-141:CXVI:141:Apè III:237; Anón/Huici.1966:69:50:83:59-60:282:162 etc; Bremness. 1990:101; Chirino/Herrera. 1973:xxxiv; Gitlitz. 1999:111; ES: “Hierbas.” Jun 28, 98; Nola. 1989:xviii-4:xxxii-4:xxxiii-2; and Nola/Pérez. 1992:186-187]

CHICKEN BROTH WITH BASIL FOR THE SICK ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xxxiii-2
PARA ENFERMOS CALDO DESTILLADO, Y PARA DEBILITADOS MUY SINGULAR

Chicken soup
Photo by: ericman967
Ingredients

1 3–4 lb whole chicken 
2 bay leaves
salt and pepper to taste
5 cloves
1 cinnamon stick
5 fresh basil leaves
about 6 c water
3 tbsp rosewater

Preparation

Wash chicken, remove wings and legs and cut into fourths.
Put the chicken and bay leaves in a pot and add salt and pepper.
Make a sachet with the cloves, cinnamon stick and 3 whole basil leaves, tie it and put it into the pot.
Add just enough water to cover. Cover the pot and simmer about 1
hour for a chicken and 2 for a hen. Skim off fat from top half way through cooking.  
Remove chicken and put one piece into each bowl. (It is easier for the eater if it is cut in cubes at this point.) Keep it warm.
Remove the spice bag and discard it. Bring the broth to a gentle boil. Chop the 2 remaining basil leaves and add them to the pot, add rosewater and simmer 5 minutes. Pour the broth over the chicken pieces and serve.

50 PIECES OF GOLD:

Nola says that bruised basil leaves make the broth a little bitter which is marvelous for this broth and a very nutritious and for those wanting something more nourishing to resurect the bodies of the half dead and about to die but 50 pieces of gold on the fire and when they are red hot remove them with pinchers and put them in the broth and do this two or three times. This will make the more powerful and the more times this is repeated the more the powers will multiply and this broth is so excellent that there is no way to estimate its worth.

Friday, November 19, 2010

ALBA WITH WHOLE WHEAT & CARAWAY SEED BREAD RECIPE

A YEAST THAT WILL GET A RISE OUT OF ANYTHING!
Photo by: masquecolores-victoria.blogspot.com
1. dawn. 2. MEng berm(e), Eng yeast from fermenting of malt liquor used in leaven bread. [Curye. 1985:IV:205:145:V:8:149:V:22:155:171; and Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:156]



WHOLE WHEAT AND CARAWAY SEED BREAD RECIPE

Ingredients

Fresh Baked Bread
Photo by: meg williams2009
1 ¾ c whole wheat bread flour
1 c warm water
4 tbsp brewer’s yeast
1 tsp sugar
4 tbsp clarified butter
¼ c  oz  milk
1 tsp sea salt


Preparation

Mix the sugar and the yeast. Set aside for 10 minutes.


Put the flour into a large bowl, add the salt and mix-in thoroughly then make a dip in the centre and fill this with the clarified butter and milk. Mix this in thoroughly.

Add the yeast to the flour mixture. Mix well.  Slowly add the warm water making a pretty dry dough.

Place dough on a floured surface and vigorously knead for at least five minutes Place the dough back in its original mixing bowl, cover with a damp cloth and set aside in a warm place for at least two hours to rise.

PREHEAT OVER TO 400º F / 200º C

Place the dough back onto the floured board, knead for another five minutes then shape into a round shape. Add caraway seeds, mixing them well throughout the dough. Place the bread on a greased baking tray, cover with a damp cloth then set aside in a warm space for an hour to rise. Place the bread in a pre-heated oven for about 40 minutes or until the bread is a golden brown in color.



Wednesday, November 17, 2010

ALANO

Photo by: outlawelarcabuz.blogspot.com



mastiff, wolfhound. It was used to hunt deer in particular. [Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:151; and Ruíz/Brey. 1965:1221d:191]

ALAJÚ, HONEY NUT SWEET RECIPE

Photo by: vercuenca.com



Ar. alhaxú (filling), Eng. almond or walnut paste mixed with breadcrumbs. Sometimes it was made with pine kennels. It consists of two wafers with a filling of the nut paste between, is practically the same as alfajores. [Barajas. Nueva Clássica. 1995:264]






HONEY NUT SWEET RECIPE
For 4 persons

Ingredients

1 1/2 c. honey
3 c sliced almonds or chopped walnuts
1 c breadcrumbs
8 round wafers 8” in diameter
confectioner’s sugar

Preparation

Put honey in a saucepan and heat on low stirring constantly to avoid sticking. Gradually add bread and nuts. When thoroughly mixed put some of it the middle of a wafer making it about ¾” high in center and less around edges. Place a wafer on top of this. Edges may by pinched shut or left open as in the photograph. Let cool. Sprinkle tops with confectioner’s sugar and serve.

AL BROU - CHICKEN RECIPE WITH ALMOND MILK & EGG "MUJOL" SAUCE FROM SENT SOVÍ

SLOW COOKER SHORT RIB BEEF STEW
Photo by: tinkeringwithdinner.blogspot.com
slow cooker, a long, slow cooking process (applied to meat). Gázquez compares the Sent Soví recipe with that from the Anon Andalus in which meat is boiled until it falls off the bone. It is possible that it is of Jewish-Arab origin. Maimonides tells us to boil chicken to death to make a nice broth for the sick. Dafina, a Jewish stew prepared in vespers of the Sabbath, is simmered throughout the night (see adafina). Slow cooking could come from Roman or Greek cookery. It was very extensive throughout the medieval world. It also could be a dish peasants prepared and left to simmer while they went out to work in the fields. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXX:187: ftn 1; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002: 185:212-213]


CHICKEN AU BROU ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ # LXI, QUI PARLA CON SE APARELLEN OQUES E CAPONS, E LA SALSA QUE S’I FFA AB LET DE AMELLES AB MUYOLS D’OUS*
p. 105

Cartoon by: Tonythescribe
Ingredients

2 lb whole chicken
salt
pepper
1 garlic head, peeled and minced
1 c raisins
¼ c solid fat
1 bay leaf
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp salt
1 tbsp olive oil
1 c white wine

ALMOND MILK AND EGG “MUJOLS” SAUCE

1 c almond milk, see recipe in almejas
2 hard boiled egg yolks
1 tsp ginger
2 tsp saffron crushed
¼ c breadcrumbs
1-2 tbsp honey
1 c broth from chicken


Preparation

Wash and pluck chicken and rub inside and out with salt and pepper. Mix garlic, raisins and fat and stuff cavity with this. Sow it shut with a string. Put bay leaf, cinnamon, salt, olive oil and wine in a pan. Add the chicken and cover with water. Bring to a boil and reduce heat. Gently boil it until very tender. It should take about 1 hour. 

Remove the chicken from pan and drain off excess broth. Remove the string from the cavity and spoon out the stuffing. Carve the chicken as per Villena's instructions: removing the wings, legs and thighs and slice the breast. Place on a platter with the stuffing on one side.

Sauce:
While the chicken is boiling, make almond milk using broth from the chicken as per the recipe in almejas. Dilute saffron in a little broth. Add that with the ginger to the almond milk. Mash egg yolks and mix them in the almond milk. Simmer for about 20 minutes. Slowly mix in breadcrumbs. When they have absorbed the liquid, slowly add the broth until it the liquid is thick like gravy. Before serving add honey and pour into a gravy boat.

*For a slightly different version see blog titled embutido, published February 14, 2014.

AL-ANDALUS

AL-ANALUS, ANDALUSIA TODAY IS THE TURQUOISE AREA INCLUDING:
CORDOBA, JAEN, HUELVA, SEVILLE, GRANADA, ALMERIA, CÁDIZ AND MALAGA 
Map from: barnafarma.es

Al-Andalus, the southern portion of the Iberian Peninsula occupied by those of the Islamic faith from 711 until 1492. During the 8th C they conquered the entire peninsula except Asturias. After that their possessions gradually receded until 1248 when Christians conquered Seville. Then only Granada remained under Muslim rule. Today, "Al-Andalus" symbolically signifies the transmission of Muslim scientific knowledge and gastronomy to the western world and Spain, in particular, and the fusion of the Muslim culture with Christian natives. The term is not necessarily confined to geographical boundaries although it is thought to be what is Andalusia today, as seen above. [Benavides-Barajas. Al-Andalus. 1988:5-33]

AL AMOR DEL FUEGO

OPEN HEARTH COOKING FIREPLACE
Photo by: genealogyintime.com
literally, "love for the fire," near the fire. Pottage was cooked near the fire but not on it to avoid burning. This was accomplished by hanging the pot on a chain over the fire, cooking over the embers or on the hearthstone. The term is used also for people gathering around the hearth on a cold winter night where they sing, tell stories or even sleep next to it. [ES: Perry. Sep 5, 2000:glos; Nola. 1989:xxvii-4:xxvii-1:xlviii-3; Nola/Pérez. 1994:186; and Trapiello. 1994:136]

AJONJOLÍ, JONJOLÍ, SÉSAMO WITH TAHINI, SESAME SEED DIP, RECIPE

THE CULTIVATED SESAME PLANT, 
WHICH GROWS FROM ONE TO TWO FEET 
(30 TO 60 CM)
Photo by: science.howstuffworks.com
L. Sesamum indicum, Ar. simsim Fr. sésame, Eng. sesame. This plant is a native of eastern India, which was exported to the Near East. It is first documented in the Sumerian herbal some time after 2500 B.C. The word itself is derived from Tales of the Arabian Knights (henceforth referred to as Knights). The story “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves” reveals that sesame was the magic word used to open inaccessible doors. With it, one could obtain favor or recognition. Sesame was a lucky charm. He who possessed it gained his objectives without obstacles. At the same time, it provided protection and shelter. The Arabs introduced the plant to Al-Andalus. In cookery, it was used as a spice in cakes, breads, in various kinds of pastries and in the preparation of delicacies. The seeds decorated dishes. They flavored stews and sauces or were eaten raw. Medicinally, Avenzoar states that sesame is hot and humid. It generates vapors in the stomach and produces vomiting; if taken by anyone with yellow bile in the stomach, it augments and is altered. Sesame seeds are very nutritious once they are well digested. The leaves, with the seeds, were used as a poultice. To treat bleeding hemorrhoids, the seeds were ground and mixed with water. Ground into powder form, it was added to wine for nausea and constipation. Although the leaves rarely appear in pharmaceutical recipes, they were thought to have the same qualities as the seeds and oil, which are nutritive, demulcent, laxative and emollient. See aceite de semillas. [ES: Shamsuddín. “Gastronomía.” Sep 21, 01; ES: Stuart. 1987:263; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:49]


TAHINI, SESAME SEED DIP, RECIPE

Ingredients

2 oz/60 grs fresh sesame seeds
salt to taste
½ c warm water
crackers or slices of celery and carrots

Preparation

Grind sesame seeds in a food processor. Add water very slowly in a steady stream and blend until smooth.

Place in a bowl on a plate with crackres or vegetables for dipping.

OPEN SESAME
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

AJO WITH CREAMED GARLIC SOUP RECIPE

Photo by: Lord-Williams

OCat anys, ayns, any, ays ayla, ayl, Cat alls, L. Allium sativum, Ar. thūm, Fr. ail, Eng. garlic, derived from the Celt. all, meaning hot. This seasoning originated in the Kirgiz Range formerly part of the Soviet Union and spread from there around the Mediterranean. The Romans brought it to Spain from Egypt. As it thrives best in sunny regions, Spain is a major world producer. Spaniards claim that as they ate more, they became more powerful and thus were able to throw the Romans out of the Region of León. A recipe for garlic soup from that period in León still exists today. 

Camba claims that no garlic is cooked until it has lost its power to ward off evil. Perhaps the Spaniards learned this from the Romans who placed garlic at the threshold of their homes to keep witches away. 

Arabs claim to have introduced or reintroduced it to al-Andalus. Garlic, however, turned against the Muslim invaders in Aragon. Muslims who laid siege on the King of Aragon, suffered defeat for trying to break lines to retrieve garlic heads on the river bank. From that came the expression “caro ajo me ha salido” (garlic turned out to be quite expensive), see azor. Garlic, nevertheless, is ever present in Fadalat and the Anon. Al-Andalus, the two surviving Hispano-Muslim culinary manuscripts. Garlic was part of the meal for medieval laborers with bread and salt pork. The entire plant is edible but a clove is most commonly consumed. It has been used to flavor almost all foods except desserts. Spanish proverbs about garlic date back to times so remote that it has been said that Spaniards themselves are all descendants of garlic. 

Medicinally, it has been thought to be a cure-all. In the Middle Ages it was used as a charm against plague and a talisman to protect children from evil spirits and to ward off the evil eye. In the 13th C it was an antidote for snakebites. In the 15th C its antibacterial properties were so well known in Spain that it was said that ‘garlic is the antidote for the villain’. As an antiseptic, it is used externally and internally. Not only can it hinder the lives of various microbes, it can even kill some species like intestinal worms. It is used also to reduce hypertension and combat arteriosclerosis. Garlic provides immunity against infectious diseases like dysentery, typhoid and even common colds. Further, a decoction including one garlic clove is recommended for colds and whooping cough. To treat pulmonary tuberculosis, the juice as been used has an inhalant. Today, it is known to cure certain types of cancer. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:33; Anón/Grewe. 1982:IIII:65:V:66: Apè III:236 etc; Camba. 1995:37; ES: Collins. Apr 1, 96; Curye. 1985:170; ES: Figueroa. “Refranes.” Jan 29, 03; ES: Gutiérrez. Jun 1, 98; ES: Ibarra. Sep 1, 03; ES: Sorrenti. Apr 4, 02; Ibn Razīn/Marín. 2007:38; Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:34:42; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:44] 



CREAMED GARLIC SOUP RECIPE

By medieval times at least, it is known that for mid-morning lunch, peasants drank a warm water or broth with garlic and stale bread that were previously fried in olive oil, especially in the winter, which today this is called Garlic Soup. Now it is served in all households regardless of social standing on Christmas Eve, other special occasions and without the egg as traditional Lenten Dish.

Ingredients for 4 persons

5 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
10-12 garlic cloves peeled and slices
(1 tbsp sweet paprika . – do not use if presenting a medieval dish)
4-8 slices French bread 1-7 days old, torn into small pieces
1 ½ quart vegetable broth made with broccoli or cauliflower
Creamed Garlic Soup
Photo by: by negora
½ c blanched, peeded and ground almonds
Salt and pepper to taste
4 eggs (1 for each serving)
1 tbsp chopped flat leaf parsley
1/4 c slivered almonds to garnigh
a splash of dry Sherry

Preparation

Preheat oven to 350º F / 177º C

Heat the olive oil in a medium saucepan oven medium heat. Add garlic and sauté until golden brown for a couple of minutes (during which paprika is added if used).
Add the bread and fry until browned.
Pour in the vegetable broth. Add almonds. Stir and bring to a boil. Then, reduce the heat and simmer for about 5 minutes.
Pour half the soup into the food processor and grind until thick and smooth. Pour into an ovenproof soup bowl or individual bowls and do the same with the second half.
Break whole eggs over the soup and swirl the whites with a wooden spoon to make noodle-like strands. Heat in oven until eggs have solidified   Sprinkle with parsley and almonds. Give it a splash of sherry and serve.

Monday, November 15, 2010

AJETE WITH GARLIC SAUCE FOR GEESE ADAPTED FROM NOLA


1. sweet garlic sauce. Nola’s consists of ground roasted garlic, almonds and pine kernels mixed with fatty broth and seasoned with sugar and cinnamon. He recommended serving it with goose. 2. tender garlic prior to the growth of the stem or the bulb. 3. wild leek. See ajo and puerro. [Nola. 1989:xlii-1]

Duck with Garlic Sauce
Photo by: Magalle L’Abbé


RECIPE: GARLIC SAUCE FOR GEESE ADAPTED FROM NOLA xlii-1

AJETE PARA ANSARONES

(It can be used on chicken.)


Ingredients


3-4 garlic heads
6-8 tsp olive oil
1 lb pine kernels
½ lb peeled almonds
2 c broth
4 oz sugar
1 cinnamon stick
2 tbsp rosewater


Preparation

Preheat the oven to 400°F/200ºC

Peel off the outer layers of the garlic skin on the garlic heads, leaving the skins of the individual cloves intact. Cut off ¼” - ½” of the top of the cloves, exposing the individual cloves of garlic.

Put the garlic heads in a baking pan; pour a couple teaspoons of olive oil over each head, using your fingers to make sure the garlic head is well coated. Cover with aluminum foil. Bake 30-35 minuntil the cloves feel soft.

When garlic has cooled enough to handle pierce the skin around each clove with a small knife. Pull or squeeze the garlic cloves out of their skins.

Taste a clove; and if too strong put them all in a pot of water. Bring it to a boil and remove cloves.  Grind  pine kernels, and  almonds in a mortar or food processor.  When more than half ground, add garlic and continue grinding until the consistency is like a paste. Stain broth through a cheesecloth. Put it in a pot on simmer. Add sugar and a cinnamon stick tied with a thread. and soaked in rosewater. Add the nut and garlic mixture and cook until thickened, about one hour. Remove the cinnamon stick and serve with goose. See alcatraz, ánsar, ansarón.

Friday, November 12, 2010

AJENJO

ABSINTHE, A STRONG-HERBAL LIQUOR 
DISTILLED WITH WORMWOOD
Photo by: zeynosworld.blogspot.com

OCast axenxios, L. Artemisia absinthium, Fr. absinthe, Eng. common wormwood. According to Pliny the word is derived from Artemis, the Greek goddess of the hunt and chastity. The wood is hot and dry. In Spain there are three types: greater or common wormwood, L. Artemisa absinthbium, lesser or Roman wormwood, L. Artemisia pontica and marine wormwood, L. Artemisa marina. All are therapeutic and used as tonics, febrifuges and carminatives. For centuries it has been used as a bitter tonic, in herbal wines and aperitifs like vermouth. Laguna claimed that they killed tapeworms for being so bitter. Although it is now known that it produces some of the most dangerous and strongest alcoholic drinks for the hallucinogen and santonin content, the ancients thought they lessened intoxicating effects and, therefore, added the leaves to wine. Absinthe is the main ingredient for an aromatic French liqueur, which is a bitter dark green oil obtained from wormwood. With time, the drink irritates the stomach, increases the action of the heart and upsets the nervous system. Restlessness, convulsions and vomiting can result from continual use although taken in the Middle Ages to stop vomiting. An overdose may cause delirium, intoxication, vertigo and cramps. It is known that the plant was used medicinally between 400-500 B.C. Hippocrates thought it restored 179 disorders. One cup before meals or mashed with mint, yeast and pink vinegar and applied to the stomach was prescribed to act like a poultice restoring the appetite if lost over a long period due to the volatile oil and bitter principle of the plant. The entire plant, including its leaves and flowers, are considered an antipyretic, anthelmintic, stomachic and antiseptic. It is used to stimulate digestion. Formerly, the tincture was used in nervous diseases. It is taken as an infusion with coriander, sage and liquorices for dyspepsia. For vomiting and nausea, it is mixed with peppermint, spearmint, chamomile and European centaury and drunk as an infusion. Drunk with wine, it was used for seasickness, thought to be a good anti-toxicant for hemlock and ixia mushroom poisoning and to relieve mouse and sea dungeon bites. The syrup was used to combat jaundice and to clean the liver and the spleen. The juice performed all these operations. Avicena wrote that the syrup was drunk to diminish hemorrhoids. It was good, he continued, to drink the juice or use as a poultice against quartan fever. Wormwoods make one sleepy. Mixed with water, it has been used as like a shampoo to kill fleas and lice. During the Middle Ages, throughout Europe, it was a principal strewing herb. See manguiñada. [ES: “Medicinal.” Sep 30, 02; Font. Plantas.1999:593:819; Laza. 2002: 104-105; and Stuart. 1987:158]

Thursday, November 11, 2010

AJEDREA WITH ARRICOCH/NERRICOTE - HARICOT OR MUTTON STEW RECIPE


SAVORY PAIN PERDU WITH STRAWBERRIES
Photo by: Iron Chef America: Breakfast battle

OCast axedrea, L. Satureja, Fr. sarriette, MEng sauerey(e), sauery, Eng. 1. savory, any of over a dozen Mediterranean aromatic herbs, especially the annual herb Satureja hortensis (garden, summer savory) and the perennial S. montaña, winter savory. All are grown in the Spanish provinces of New Castile, Andalusia, Murcia, Catalonia, Aragon and Navarre. The Aragonese added savory to marinades for olives, which they served as dessert until the 19th C. In Al-Andalus, different species of garden savory were cultivated to flavor meat. The Romans took it to England and it is mentioned in the Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery Books and in at least five recipes in other texts of the period but savory was not popular there. Sass provides a recipe for a sauce for geese and another for capon in milk calling for savory. Muslims in al-Andalus used it from the 11th–14th C. It was probably grown there and sold in souks. It is thought it was used to flavor the Archpriest of Hita’s chicken broth. Nola used savory to flavor pottages for it’s hot flavor. He also recommended it to flavor bovine. It was thought that it lead men to lechery unless consumed with wine, which incidentally soothed the stomach. It was used as a digestive herb in Spain and England for upset stomach, stomach pains and spasms. As a decoction, it bleached tanned complexions. Rubbing wasp and bee stings with crushed leaves relieves the pain. In Valencia, it was mixed in powder form with spiny alyssum, snakeroot eryngo and common viper’s bugloss to alleviate pain from dog bites. Valencians administered this internally to prevent rabbis. [ Anón/Grewe. 1982:Apè I:59:226-227; ES: Two. Feb 16, 05:74: folio 5b:115:leaf 34b; Bolens. Cuisine. 1990:207; Bremness. 1990:127; Gázquez. Cocina.2002:179:221; Nola 1989:xxvii-4:xxxvi-4:xxxvii-1; Nola/Pérez. 1994:60:186; Sass. 1975: 21:57:67; Stuart. 1987:261; Tuña.1996: 146; and Wilson. 1973:202:203:204:etc]


HARICOT OR MUTTON STEW RECIPE ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ Apè I:59 *ARRICOCH
pp 226-227 AND NOLA xxvii-4 POTAGE QUE SE DIZE *NERRÍCOQUE
For 4 persons:

Ingredients

2 lb lamb
Mutton Stew
Photo by: Premshree Pillai
1 cup mixed fresh herbs (parsley, basil, chives, chervil, marjoram, thyme, mint, basil, savory and hyssop)
2 lbs thinly sliced onions
2 oz or ½ c slivered, peeled and blanched almonds
2 chopped chicken livers or 1 kid liver
1 ¼ chicken broth or red wine
4 eggs
1 c whole milk or cream
2 sprigs thyme
chopped parsley to garnish

Preparation

Preheat oven at 325º F /163º C

Cut lamb into small finger sized pieces. Dip into seasoning Heat 3 tbsp olive oil in a casserole and fry the eat over high heat for around 8 minutes turning until well browned. Set aside when done.

Add the onions and fry about 10 minutes until they turn color. Add left over herbs and almonds, Season with salt and pepper. Add the liver. Cook until tender.

Place all the ingredients except the lamb in a blender and add chicken broth. Grind until smooth. Strain the mixture through a cheesecloth into the casserole. Add milk and eggs and blend. Add meat and cook in oven ½ hour until thickened.

Serve in soup bowls and garnish with thyme and chopped parsley.

*The name is not from Harricot beans as there are no beans in this recipe. It is debated whether the name if from and English cook named Harry or the French word haricoter, "to cut into small pieces".ES: Brighid. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01: 97:ftn 46]


Wednesday, November 10, 2010

AGUJA PALA WITH CRISPY FRIED GARFISH RECIPE

Garfish
Photo from: ask.com
aguja paladon, aguja paladar, Cat agulla, L. Belone belone or vulgaris, Eng. garfish, hornfish, needlefish. It is found in the Atlantic around the Iberian Peninsula, the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean. Consumers are not attracted to its dry meat and the bluish color of their scales, although inadvertently caught in nets. Pole fishermen do catch them from time to time. It is carved lengthwise like sturgeon. See esturión. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXVIIII:195:Apè III:240; Corbera. 1996:111; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a:38a]

CRISPY FRIED GARFISH
Deep-fried garfish with lemon
Photo from: international.stockfood.com

Ingredients

12 garfish (scaled, cleaned and bones removed)
lemon juice
4 tbsp flour
6 sprigs fresh thyme chopped
½ tsp salt
½ tsp freshly ground black pepper
1 egg, beaten
1 cup breadcrumbs
oil for deep fryer

Preparation


If purchasing garfish whole, the gut must be removed very carefully to avoid staining the flesh with the gut contents. To remove bones, put the fish belly-side down and roll along the length of the backbones a few times with a rolling pin. This separates the bones from the flesh, allowing them to be removed easily. Fish can be butterflied or prepared whole with heads.

Sprinkle the garfish with lemon juice. Coat the fish lightly in flour that has been seasoned with the thyme, salt and pepper. Dip into  beaten egg and then roll in breadcrumbs.Deep fry the garfish in oil and serve with a green salad and lemon.


Tuesday, November 9, 2010

ÁGUILA

Photo by: anderle.smugmug.com
L. Aquila, Eng. eagle. The eagle, as a bird of prey, was part of the stamp for hunting with the greyhound and the horse. Of all the rapine birds, it is the most handsome, the most agile and the most valiant. The female’s plumage covers long wings that can endure flights that are longer and swifter. It maintains more constant speeds than the others of its family, including even its own mate. While the males is smaller and less adapt in the chase, the female is so rapid that Henry IV of Castile’s falconer lost one that flew more than 300 leagues, i.e. half the distance between Malta and Paris, in one day. When it wants to elevate its position, it flies against the wind. It swoops down on its prey in a twinkling of an eye catches it in mid-air and zooms up again and out of sight in no time. It has one or two upper teeth on each side permitting it to kill its prey with more facility than other family members. Its long, curled, gripping, powerful claws bring fear to the bravest being. Eagles trained for falconry learned only to seek game the owner wanted. They have been known to hunt four or five foxes in a day. Although trained from the nest, at first they hunt anything with no distinction, including the lord’s children if allowed. Falconry training was an art passed on from father to son. Boys began training the sparrow hawk, working up to the goshawk and the peregrine. The last and most difficult bird to train is the eagle. If and when allowed to that the young man knew he had reached the summit of professionalism. The Iberian imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) lived throughout Iberian and NE Morocco during the Middle Ages. It especially likes thickets and woods, building nests in holm oak and cork oak trees. It can breed before becoming an adult at age five and lays one to four eggs. It eats some 90 species of vertebrates, including wild boar. It only eats about 10 oz (270 gr) per day, i.e. 6.6.% of its weight. See alcornoque, encina and halcón. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:199, 219; Espasa 1988:27:GUB:554; ES: Bedwell. Jan 4, 03; ES: Gypaetus. Apr 23, 02; ES: Rud. Mar 23, 01; Ency Brit. 1998:4:Delusion:664:2b; and OXF Eng Dict. 1989:V:Dvandva:16]