Entradas populares

Friday, July 29, 2011

ALHEÑA

PRE-WEDDING HENNA
Photo by: Ashley Dinges
OCast alcana, alfeña, Hisp Ar. alhínna, L. Lawsonia intermis, L. alba, Ar. hennā‘, hínna, Heb. chana, Eng. henna, alcanna. It is a shrub from which a green powder is extracted from leaves and dissolved in water to dye hair or skin a reddish orange color. It represented fire and the blood of the earth. Egyptians dyed mummies with henna. The Bible mentions henna in Song of Sol. 1:14 and 4:12-13. In Yemen, Jews smeared the bride’s body with henna dye. A person paid for the privilege to do this by giving the couple a present. From there came the expression “henna night” instead of wedding night. This custom is still exists in some parts of Israel. Jews also used henna to combat urinary infections. Muslims introduced henna to Spain. When Ziryab, the famous Kurd musician, arrived Cordova from Baghdad in 822, his beard was dyed with henna as Arabs throughout the Middle East. This was first sign of how he would change the styles and manners in the emir’s dining rooms. As dying hair with henna became the rage for both men and women, he left specific instructions on how to do it. Still today henna is known as “Ziryab’s dye.” It has been used to dye fabrics. Arabs found it useful medicine. Ibn Massouih used it to minimize the effects of smallpox. It also relieved nervous complaints, leper and tuberculosis. African Muslims apply the oil from the flower as perfume. A street, in the Jewish market of Toledo, Spain, was named Alcana and another in the town of Elche, Alicante continue to be called this. See aligustre. [Baena/Dutton. 1993:305:544:v202; ES: “Abderrahman.” Nov 6, 05; Stuart. 1987:212; and Usher. 1974:346-347]
WHAT WOULD A GOOD WIFE DO?
(Paint interesting areas with henna!)
Photo by: ROBERT KING and MICHELLE KING

Thursday, July 28, 2011

ALHARMA, HÁRMAGA, GAMARZA

Photo by: swbiodiversity.org 
L. Peganum harmala, Ar hârmel, Fr. harmale, pégane harmale, rue sauvage, Eng. harmal, Syrian rue. It grows around the Mediterranean from Syria to northern Africa and from Greece to Spain. This is a shrub, one to two hands high. The white flowers begin to appear in April in Andalusia and a little later at the basin of the Ebro River and on riverbanks in central Spain and continue to bloom throughout the summer. The angular seeds are extracted from the capsule in late summer. It has been known from ancient times. Arabs especially ate the seeds to become happily inebriated. Arabs planted it in Granada to treat dysentery. They have been employed for lethargic encephalitis (sleeping sickness, brain inflammations caused by a virus), tapeworms and parasitic worms, in general, as it is an anthelmintic medication. The seed contains psychoactive beta-Carboline alkaloids, the most important are harmaline, a white crystalline alkaloid, and harmine, another alkaloid. These are extracted for narcotic use. Until recently, a special wine was made in Castile by macerating harmal seeds in ordinary wine. It was used to fight off depression.
The Dan Burgess Commemorative...
Photo by: WFMU
It is said that there are few bald Moroccans as harmine is an ingredient in a shampoo preventing this. Moroccans also boiled the seed, mixed with lemon juice and water and then sun dried the mixture, which resulted in a paste that is smoked with tobacco to excite sexual desire and to become extremely sensitive. Witches used it along with humans to ward off evil spirits and people used it to protect themselves from those who speak badly about others. This plant , today, is not recommended for use. [ES: “Alharma.” Feb 7, 05; ES: “Diccionario licencioso.” Aug 6, 04; and Fericgla. Nov 10, 02]

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

ALGARROBA WITH CAROB MUFFIN RECIPE


CAROB BEANS
Photo by: Diane 2006
 L. Catania siliqua, Ar. al jarröda, Fr. caroubier commun, Eng. carob, carob bean, carob tree, St.John’s bread. It is known that this tree is a native the eastern Mediterranean. It is claimed to be Moroccan, but also it could be a native of Spain, as it has grown on the peninsula from time immemorial. It is common on the coast in the provinces of Alicante, Valencia, Tarragona, Barcelona and Gerona. The bark is an astringent. The tree bears red flowers followed by flat leathery horn shaped pods, 3-12” long containing hard brown seeds embedded in sweet edible pulp. The seeds, equal in size, were used as weights from which "carat" is derived. This fruit is consumed for its laxative effect. Dioscorides recommended it for this. Actually, the seeds produce an abundance of mucilage, a gum used as a laxative in pharmaceutical preparations and as an adhesive. It is mentioned in Matthew 3:4 and Mark 1:6 of the Bible, which relates that John the Baptist subsisted on the pods while in the wilderness (therefore the flour is called “St .John’s bread”). Carob trees were growing on the banks of the Jordan River. Christians traditionally make the bread on June 24th, the saint's birthday. Muslims drink the juice from the fruit during Ramadan and Jews eat the fruit on Tu Bishval, the New Year for Trees. In the Middle Ages it came to be synonymous with protection and health. Formerly, it was laid out in lines to catch birds. Today it is a substitute for chocolate. See yero. [ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:248]

Carob Cake Mini Muffins 
Photo by: Ciao Hound

CAROB MUFFIN RECIPE
RECIPE CAROB MUFFINS:
Ingredients

3 eggs
1  banana, mashed
½ c. butter, softened
1 ¼  c. milk
2 tsp. vanilla
1 ½  c. flour
¾  c. carob powder
2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. baking soda
1 c. chopped walnuts

Preparation

Preheat oven to 250º F

Beat eggs until very foamy. Add mashed banana, soft butter and milk. Continue beating until creamy. Add vanilla, flour, carob powder, baking powder and baking soda. Beat well. Stir in walnuts

Spread batter evenly in a greased and floured 9 x 13 inch pan. Bake at 350 degrees for 20-25 minutes or until a knife inserted comes out clean. Cool.











Tuesday, July 26, 2011

ALFORJAS (OBS), CARRILLADA, CARRILLERA, HOW TO CURE

OCast & Leon arganzas, argenzos, Hisp Ar. alẖurǧ, Ar. ẖurǧ, Eng 1. saddlebags, knap sack, small sack opened in the center and closed at the ends, which form two big handles. Normally they are square. In this way the weight is evenly distributed. They are used to carry items from one place to another. 2. food provisions needed during a trip. 3. guanciale, pork jowls, pig cheek, bacon from the jawbone. Today, this is considered exquisite pork fat. It is said that the custom of treating it as a delicacy originating from Jewish and Moorish converts’ forced to consume it. [ES: Decaer. “SC.” Mar 15, 99; ES: Martínez Rodríguez. Nov 3, 01; ES: Shamsuddín. “Gastronomía.” Sep 21, 01; --> Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003; and Sánchez Albornoz. 2000:116:188]

PIG HEAD PROFILE
Photo by: Lord-Williams

HOW TO CURE:

Cut the jawbone off the head. Remove the glands on the jowl. Place it in a bed of rock salt, covering it well on all sides. Leave it for seven days, turning it from time to time to make sure it is well covered and the brine is absorbed. Add more salt as necessary.  

Remove the jowl from the salt brushing it off. Tie a rope around one end and hang it in the rafters for 1-3 weeks in a dry cool place with good ventilation until the meat and fat is stiff.  If mold forms scrape it off and rub the surface with very salty water.

Slice the bacon into ¼” stripes and fry.  Eat directly from the frying pan. It is to exquisite to eat with anything else.
 

Monday, July 25, 2011

ALFORFÓN, TRIGO NEGRO, SARACENO WITH CHEESE FRITTERS IN BUCKWHEAT BATTER 15th CRECIPE

L. Fogopyrum esculentum, Eng. buckwheat, Saracen wheat. It is believed to be a native of central and western China. It is a phylum herb. It has alternate broad arrow-shaped leaves and clusters of pinkish white flowers blooming throughout the summer. It is planted in the beginning of summer. Within 40 days the flowers begin to bloom. Its triangular seeds are used as cereal grain to make brown bread. Seeds take about 35 days to ripen after which they are threshed or mowed and the plants are left to dry. This process continues until early fall. The seeds range from 4 to 6 mm long and about 2 mm wide. Each has a hull, the outer layer, and inner layer and a “middling” or seed coat. Inside this are the germ and the starchy endosperm. The hull is milled first. During the second milling the “middlings” are removed. The remaining substance is light brown flour. Another milling is required for it to become white. From the Romanesque Period to the 16th C north of the Alps, buckwheat was a basic nourishment for the poor as it can be  grown in very humid climates and in poor and sandy soils. Buckwheat flowers are a good honey source into the fall months. In Spain, during Muslim domination, new varieties of buckwheat were introduced and disseminated throughout Europe. In Spain it was used to make gachas and couscous. During wheat famines it was used to make bread. The English make cakes, bread and pancakes with it but usually blend it with other flours. The French crepes (galettes de sarrasin) are renown in Paris. Nola provides a recipe, below, which can be interpreted as pancakes or fritters. Buckwheat is added to poultry feed and middlings, rich in protein, are given to livestock. Although the straw is not as digestible, due to the carbohydrate content as other grain grasses, it is higher in protein than most. Juice, extracted from the leafless stems for the resin content, is used medicinally as a purgatory. [ES: Lunde. Mar 8, 05; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:69:ftn 135; Martínez Llopis. Historia. 1981:145; Matossian. 1989:6; and Nola. 1989:xliii-1]

RECIPE FOR CHEESE FRITTERS IN BUCKWHEAT BATTER ADAPTED FROM NOLA
#xliii-1 REUANADAS OR TAJADAS DE QUESO FRESCO*

For 18-20 fritters

Ingredients

4 oz cream cheese
1 lb grated semi-soft cheese
salt to taste
2 c. buckwheat flour
2 c. whole milk
4 c. bread crumbs
4 l. regular olive oil
Cheese Fritters
Photo by: fabricyoyoqueen

Preparation

Mix the cheeses and salt until combined. Chill overnight.
Roll pieces of the cheese mixture into smooth 1” balls.
Put the flour, milk and breadcrumbs in three separate bowls.
Bread the fritters by placing a ball of cheese in the flour and rolling it until completely coated. Dust off excess. Put the cheese ball into the milk and completely coat it. Roll it in the breadcrumbs and press the breadcrumbs into the cheese. Then repeat the milk and breadcrumb steps (the balls of cheese need to be completely coated or the cheese will leak out during frying). Continue until all of the cheese is breaded.
Chill for 1 hour.
Heat four liters of olive oil in a pot or deep frier over medium heat. Fry fritters until golden brown, three to four minutes. Continue frying until all of the fritters are fried.

NOTE: Today’s Mexican recipe “Buñuelos de Queso Fundido” is practically the same with chorizo, peppers added and pepper jelly as garnish.

*Slices of Fresh Cheese, which are translated as Fritters or Pancakes.

Friday, July 22, 2011

ALFEÑIQUE, 13th C ALMOND TAFFY RECIPE

Alfeñiques from Ciudad de
Santiago del Estero(Argentina)
Photo by: ANI1709

OCast alfenique, Hisp Ar fa[y]níd, Ar fānīd (refined sugar or pulled taffy), Pers pānid, Sans phanita, Eng 1.  sweet boiled almond paste. Sugar is boiled three times and poured into cone shaped molds. These were then softened with almond oil and made into a paste. Anon. Andalus used it as an ingredient added at the end of cooking sweet bread or breadcrumbs. It is mentioned in the Archpriest of Hita among other sweets consumed in Christian Spain during the 14th C. It is a custom inherited from the Moors to eat it to clear the throat and chest and it was given to sickly children. It was cut into narrow strips and rolled into pellets to be placed in the mouth of the child. Today it is a Mexican sweet made into figures and decorated especially for Halloween and Christmas. 2. col. skinny, weak. [Anón/Huici.1966:392:214:426:235:467:255-256: etc; Covarrubias. 1998:83:b34; ES: RAE. 2001; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:248; Ruíz/Brey. 1965:1336a:206:263; and Singleton. 1975:127]


Toluca Feria Alfenique 15(Mexico)Photo by: dimitridf

ALMOND TAFFY RECIPE ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION  OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS
#474 ALFEÑIQUE, p 259
For 1 batch

Ingredients

2 cups granulated sugar1 c water
lemon juice from two lemons
orange peel or anise seeds
2 tsp meringue powder (added today to harden sugar)

Preparation

Place sugar, water and meringue powder in a saucepan and heat until it becomes a thick syrup. Add lemon juice. When it reaches the consistency of a ball, add orange peel or anise. Beat until the syrup reaches a spreading consistency. Pour it on an oiled surface and stretch it by hand until it turns white. They take small portions and roll them into balls and left dry for 15 hours. If figures, such as skulls, are desired pour the sugar mixture into molds. After 12 hours remove the candy from the molds and scrape each piece. Let them dry three more hours. Then decorate them with sugar and water icing.

Thursday, July 21, 2011

ALFAJORES WITH SUGAR SANDWICH COOKIE RECIPE

ORIGINAL ALFAJOR FROM MEDINA SEDONIA
Photo By: El Pantera
Hisp Ar. fašúr, Pers afšor, jugo, Eng almond, walnut or pine kernel sandwich cookies eaten as a dessert. They are similar to macaroons today. The recipe was adopted from the Arabs in medieval Iberia that consisted of a paste mixed with breadcrumbs, honey or sugar and cloves or spices to which ground roasted almonds or nuts added. Each locality in Andalusia has its own recipe. In Latin America, with the evolution of the recipe, this has become a wafer biscuits one on top and the other on the bottom with blancmange in between and sprinkled with powdered. See alajú. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva Clasica. 1995:265; and Gitlitz. 1999:264:275]

SUGAR SANDWICH COOKIE RECIPE FROM BENAVIDES-BARAJAS
NUEVA CLÁSICA, ALFAJORES ANTIGUAS, p 265
for 4 persons:

Ingredients
2 c. flour
1 c. sugar
6 egg yolk
1 egg white
1 tbsp butter
1 tsp yeast
marmalade or syrup
confectioner’s sugar

Preparation:
Preheat oven to 250º.  
Put sugar in mixing bowl. Add butter and beat until fluffy. Beat egg yolks and blend. Dissolve yeast in a little water. Little by little add this with the flour to the mixture. Fold in a well beaten egg white. Place in bowl and cover with a clean cloth and let dough raise. Roll out dough 1/10" thick and cut into desired shapes. Place them on a greased cookie sheet 2” apart. Bake them in oven until golden brown, about 8-10 minutes. Let cool on cookie sheet 1-2 minutes and then transfer wafers to a rack to cool completely. Serve with syrup or put ½ tsp of sweet or sour orange marmalade in the middle and top this with another cookie. Sprinkle tops with confectioner’s sugar.

ALFAJORES TODAY
Photo By: wenday :D
If rolls are desired cut dough into 8 rectangles. Spread filling on dough and roll them up. Bake about 30 minutes until golden brown.

ORIGINAL RECIPE from: Benavides-Barajas. Nueva Clasica. 1995:265:

ALFAJORE ANTIGUOS.
    Cada lugar Andaluz prepara los alfajores de forma diferente por ello presento el más antiguo.
    Ingredientes para 4 personas:
    1/2 kg de harina. 250 grs. de azúcar. 6 yemas de huevo. 1 clara de huevo. 30 grs de mantequilla. 1 cuch. de levadura en polvo. Mermelada o sirope a discreción.
    Diluir la levadura en un poco de agua y mezclar con la harina y sobre un mármol poner la masa y añadir la mantequilla, las yemas, la clara, el azucár y mezclar todo bien (hoy en día le ponen vainilla).
    Trabajar la masa y extender sobre una superficie harinada. Cortar la masa haciendo la forma deseada y poner en una place engrasada. Cocinar en un horno precalentado. Servir con el sirope o mermelada a su gusto (naranja Sevilla o amarga), unidos de dos en dos.


Tuesday, July 19, 2011

ALFAJANA, ALJAFANA, ALJOFAINA (OCast)

HERMOSISIMA JOFAINA Y PANAGANA
MFD REED & BARTON
('Very beautiful basin and basin,' [sic should not read panagana: basin, but aguamanil: ewer] 
Photo by: welcomesantelmo.com

Cast jofaina, Hisp Ar. alǧufáyna, Ar. ǧufaynah, dim. of ǧafnah, Eng a large round basin used with ewer for washing hands and face. Basins used in banquets were metal, while those for consecrations were stone. Earthenware basins were for daily use and aslo used as mixing bowls in the kitchen. Nola uses them in preparing food such as turtle doves or wild duck in thin sauce. Villena soaks bread for Almodrote in one. See aguamaniles. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:41; Nola. 1989:xxii-1:xxix-5:xliii-1; and Villena/Calero. 2002:60b]

ALERÓN

AILERON, HIGHLIGHTED BONE
ON RIGHT WITH POINTED TIP
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Fr. aileron dim of aile (wing), Eng aileron, wing flap, the moveable part of a bird´s wing, a tuft of feathers, forms an aileron divice at the tip of the feathers that flaps. This mechanism increases the lift or drag providing lateral balance in the bird’s flight. Sent Soví instructs that the ailerons should be cut off with the claws. As feathers would be plucked, it appears that Sent Soví is referring to the wing tips. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:LXII:106; and Decker. "Aileron." Jul 10, 11]

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

ALCUZCUZ, CUZCUZ, WITH AL-ANDALUS COUSCOUS RECIPE

Arabian Lamb and Veggie Couscous
Photo by: tr1stero
Ar. al-kuskusū, kuskus, Eng. couscous. The word alcuzcuz could have come from the Magheb, derived from the Ar. al-kuskus; this, in turn, comes from the expression "kaskassa," to grind or pound or from "kuskus," the rattling and rushing sound of couscous grains when rolled by hand. It is thought to have been a Berber invention first made with millet but later with durum wheat with its introduction into North Africa during the 8th or 9th C. Brought from northern Algeria and Morocco to Al-Andalus, durum wheat began to be cultivated there by the 10th C. With couscous, gachas and harira became generalized dishes after 12th C. In Andalusia, the dish was not called couscous until the 13th C when the first recipes for it appeared in the Anon Andalus and Fadalat. Prior to that it was referred to as harira or gachas. Between the 13th and 15th C. recipes for couscous evolved into what the dish is today. Basically, fatty meat was added with vinegar to break up the grease. As fat was then synonymous with sweet, this was another sweet and sour dish in Arab style. See migas and polenta. [Anón/Huici.1966:370:203-204:371:204; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:85-86; ES: Lord. Culinary. ES: Morse. Mar 27, 03; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:78; and Perry. “Couscous.” 2001:235-238]

COUSCOUS ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF
ANÓN AL-ANDALUS,  #370 ALCUZCUZ FITĪYĀNĪ, p 203-204
For 4 persons

Ingredients

4 ½ tbsp butter or 3 tbsp butter and 1½ lamb fat
1 tbsp extra-virgin olive oil
1 large onion, thinly sliced
large pinch of saffron threads
water
4 meaty lamb shanks (about 1 pound each)
salt and freshly ground black pepper
2 teaspoons ground cumin
10 parsley sprigs and 1 large thyme sprig, tied in bouquet
3 large celery ribs, cut into 2” lengths
2 large carrots, cut into 2” lengths
2 diced eggplants
1 cup peas
1 cup couscous
1 tsp cinnamon
1/4 cup slivered mint leaves

Preparation

In a large, enameled cast-iron casserole, melt 3 tablespoons of the butter in the olive oil. Add the onion and cook over moderate heat, stirring occasionally, until softened, about 5 minutes. In a small bowl, crumble the saffron into 2 tablespoons of hot water and let stand 10 minutes.

Season the lamb shanks with salt and black pepper. Add them to the casserole and cook over moderate heat, turning occasionally, until the shanks are well browned, about 7 minutes. Stir in cumin and cook, stirring, until fragrant, about 1 minute. Add 3 quarts of water and bring to a boil over moderately high heat. Skim off fat and add the saffron and its liquid, the parsley bouquet and a large pinch of salt.

Reduce the heat to low, cover partially and simmer until the lamb is tender, about 2 hours.

Transfer the lamb shanks to a large plate and cover tightly. Add celery and carrots to the casserole, cover and simmer over moderate heat until almost tender, about 10 minutes. Add the eggplants and simmer uncovered until all the vegetables are tender, about 10 minutes longer. Remove from the heat and discard the parsley bouquet; set aside 2½ cups of the broth. Stir in the peas.

Remove the meat from the lamb shanks and cut it into ¾-inch pieces. Return the meat to the stew and discard the bones.

In a large saucepan, melt the remaining 1½ tbsp butter. Add instant couscous (see alcuzcucero) if using tradicional couscous). Cook over moderate heat, stirring, until lightly toasted, about 3 minutes. In the meantime bring the reserved broth, with a large pinch of salt, bring to a boil. Slowly add the broth to the couscous fluffing it with a fork. (Some instant couscous brands do not require so much water.)

Season the lamb stew with salt and pepper. Put the couscous in a mound on a large platter with a high rim. Ladle the lamb and vegetables around the couscous. Sprinkle the lamb and couscous with a little broth., cinnamon and chopped mint leaves. Put the remaining broth in a bowl to be passed to eaters once they are served.

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

ALCUCUCERO, WITH COUSCOUS (THE GRAIN) FACTS AND RECIPE

EARTHENWARE COUSCOUS COOKER FROM SOUTHERN MOROCCO
Photo By: Wolfert

MODERN COUSCOUS COOKER
Photo by: best-b2b.com
Ar. qidr kuskusū or qidr al-huskusual-matquba, Eng. couscoussier, couscous cooker. Formerly, it was a perforated earthenware, cooking vessel. Four from the Nazari Period, during the 13th C, found in Castillejo, Granada consist of unglazed clay marmites for boiling water under a marmite with perforated bases for couscous. These are covered with lids having flat bases. The lid is called the "gita" and has a small hole in the middle or perforations around the border to concentrate the steam or to function like a chimney. [Anón/Huici.1966:204:371; and Misc. Conversations. Manuel María Vías Guitián. Nov 20, 02]

Couscous Facts:

1 cup dry couscous = 2-1/2 cups cooked.
As a side dish, plan on 1/2 to 3/4 cup cooked couscous per person.

Today, instant couscous is sold in supermarkets, see alcuzcuz. Traditional couscous is more difficult to find. The difference is like rice, whether the eaters prefer pre-cocked or raw rice.

If one is not available, a vegetable steamer may be used without the lid. If covered with a lid without holes as the steam cools it moistens the couscous too much making it mushy uchy!

Ingredients
for 4 persons

1 ½ tsp butter or  animal fat
2 ½ broth from boiling meat and/or vegetables with herbs and spices
1 c couscous

Preparation
When meat and vegetables have finished boiling, strain needed broth and put it in the bottom of a couscoussier. Bring to a boil. In the meantime, melt butter or heat lamb fat in saucepan. Add couscous to coat and toast it a little. Place it in the upper part of the cooker and cover. Reduce heat to simmer or place the pot on the hearthstone if using an open fire.  In about 20 minutes the grains should be cooked, like rice, not raw and not mushy. Fluff the grains and pour a mound on a platter with two inch sides.

Another method:
Like rice, after coating couscous with butter or fat, add stock, bring to a boil, reduce heat to simmer, cover and cook until liquid is absorbed. Fluff to separate grains.


Menu ideas:
Add couscous to salads.
Some serve it as porridge If couscous is not eaten in two or three days freeze it.

Monday, July 11, 2011

ALCORZA WITH 13TH STUFFED QURSAS TURNOVER & CUPCAKE RECIPE

REAL SUGAR ICING & FINE SUGAR WORK, INCLUDING 
THE STORE ON TOP. IT TOOK 7 WEEKS TO MAKE.
(One of 17 wedding cakes on display at Harolds during 
wedding festivities of the Duchess of Cambridge and Prince William.)
Photo by: Thecakestore.co.uk
OCast alcorça, Eng sugar work, icing. A very refined sugar used as icing which was very popular among the Muslims and sold in Suks. It could be made into decorative dainty pastries in the form of flowers or leaves. Fadalat provides a recipe for stuffed alcorzas, which are turnovers or flat round
cupcakes filled with sugar and almonds and topped with honey. The cake above could have been a subtlety at a medieval Christian banquet. [Castro.Alimentación. 1996:240; Covarrubias. 1998:7:b:45;  Lord. Culinary. Mar 4, ‘08; and Ibn Razīn/Granja.1960:52:21-22]


STUFFED QURSAS* TURNOVER AND CUPCAKE RECIPE
ADAPTED FROM FADALAT 52 ALCORZAS RELLENAS, pp 21-22
(see almizcle for another version of the same)
10 servings

Tarea Modulo #8
(Qurza Turnovers fresh from the oven)
 Photo by: mijinchy
Ingredients
1 cup whole wheat flour
1 cup all-purpose flour
1 pinch of salt 1 pkg yeast olive oil
3/4 cup hot water or as needed
2 c chopped almonds
2 c honey
1 c pinenuts
2 tbsp musk
1 c chopped walnut

Preparation

 PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F / 175º C

 Knead the flour with water, yeast, 2 tbsp oil and salt to make soft dough. Then mix sugar and almonds and roll out half the dough with half of the filling and continue patting it with oil, make a turnover, cover it with a cloth and let it rise. Bake it oven in a glass dish greased with oil about 12 minutes. When lightly browned put it on a serving plate and pour 1 c hot honey over it. Then make holes in the turnover with the fingers to absorb the honey. Sprinkle pinenuts on top and perfume it with 1 tbsp musk.

Fried (Qurza) cupcakes
(with a different garnish)
Photo by; jpotisch
With the other half of the dough make flat cakes and fill them with rest of the stuffing. Deep fry then in extra virgin olive oil, drain off oil when done,  place them in a serving dish and pour 1 c boiling honey with chopped walnuts. Perfume with 1 tbsp musk and serve.

 *Perry explains this is a small, flat round loaf similar to a small pita.
See almizcle published on August 23, 2011 for a variation of the same recipe. Also, a similar recipe from Anón Al-Andalus was published on November 17, 2011 in arroba.

Friday, July 8, 2011

ALCORNOQUE

CORK IS HARVESTED BARK FROM THE CORK OAK TREE
Photo by: americasfloorsource.com

L. Querus suber, Eng. cork oak tree. Beware of champagne drinkers who blow their corks! Chances of being killed by them, descending from ceilings, are better than being killed by poisonous spiders. The Castellan word is derived from querus, with the Arabic article al. From ancient times, medicinally, cork was boiled in water for 15-20 minutes and imbibed or plied for diarrhea, enteritis and hemorrhoids. Cork, myrtle leaves and Cyprus nuts are ground and mixed with ointment to apply to externally for hemorrhoids, burns, cuts and abrasions. At 20 years old, the tree begins to grow sweet and bitter acorns. For uses as food see bellota. Further, the cork tree was an important source for firewood and charcoal. The tree can live for 500 years but 150 is average. It is an evergreen type of oak tree typical of the Mediterranean growing in dry areas. It is abundant on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, in NE Catalonia and in the Andalusian mountains around Cadiz, especially in those near the sea from Sierra Bermeja to Alpujarra in Granada. The average height is 20-25 meters. The cork or outer bark is not stripped until they are 20-25 years old or older. Then the cork is uneven and rough, unlike subsequent productions. After that they are stripped every 6-12 years. This is not vital to the tree’s functions or for survival. When stripped, the inner bark reproduces outer bark, a process that takes between 3-10 years. Stripping, today, continues to be accomplished by hand. First slits are cut in the outer bark and then it is pried loose without harming the inner bark. The surface is scraped by hand before boiling to remove the tannin content and to increase flexibility. See cerdo ibérico and encina. [ES: Junta. Apr 26, 02; ES: Groomed. 1998; ES: Joffre. 1999; and Pencho. 195:128-129]

ALCAUDÓN - WITH SUMPTUOUS ROYAL RECIPE WITH SMALL BIRDS

Photo by: http://www.losgazquez.com/blog/?cat=6
OCast caudón, L. Lanius senator, Eng. woodchat. This is another example of the rich variety of birds hunted and served as roasted small birds during several courses medieval banquets including dessert in England, while in Spain they are fried. Woodchat is a handsome member of the thrush family generally spending winters in the bush country south of the Sahara Desert but some do stay around the Mediterranean. In Spain they inhabit cork oak forests and olive groves. In the summer all enjoy a Mediterranean vacation but occasionally venture to other European countries. Aren't they handsome with their black and white feathers with orange crowns? [ES: Seago. “Woodchat.” Oct 03; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:189]


SUMPTUOUS ROYAL *SANHÂJI RECIPE ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION
OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #8 RECETA DEL “ŞINHĀŶĪ,” REGIO, p. 19
For 8 people:
Tajine
For those who worry about having one big enough
Photo by: mansimed
Ingredients
oil
¼ c vinegar
**1 tbsp murri naqi
1 tsp pepper
2 tsp saffron
1 tsp cumin
2 garlic cloves mashed
l2 lbs lamb
2 lbs chicken, cut into pieces, partridges, young pigeons or wild doves and other small birds (their average weight is about 1 lb per bird)
1 lb merquez sausage (small and spicey lamb sausage)
2 lbs beef cut up
1 lb meatballs (can be lamb or beef, although incorrect for Muslim dishes those containing ½ ground pork are the tastiest)
1 c fried or roasted split almonds
salt to taste

Pre heat oven to 325º F/166º C 

Put the following ingredients in a large frying pan or tajine : 1 c oil, vinegar, murri naqi, pepper, saffron dissolved in water, cumin and  garlic cloves mashed and the lamb. Cook over low heat until the lamb is half done. Add fowl and sausage, beef and meatballs. Sprinkle with almonds and salt. Pour remaining oil over this and roast until done about 1 hour. This is a sanhâ ji, for nobility. The MSS promises to provide a sanhâ ji for commoners with time, ‘God willing.’

*Charles Perry explains that the name sanhâ ji,  is derived from the Sanhaja, a famous Berber confederation, which included the Tuareg (nomads of the Sahara Desert) and played an important part in the Almoravid Empire, which also governed Al-Andalus during the 11th and 12th C.

**See ALMORÍ for recipe.

ALCEA - MALLOW POTTAGE WITH MEAT AND CHICKPEAS RECIPE

MALLOW DISH
Photo by: fotosearch.com
L. Malva sylvestris, Fr. mauve alcée, Eng hollyhock mallow, cheeseweed because the seedpods look like miniature cheeses. Malva, the Latin name, is derived from the soft, emollient feel of the plant. Mallow is a native of China. The English believe it was brought to the British Isles from the Holy Land. Romans cultivated it as an herbal plant. The roots, pods and seeds, like other species of the Malva family, are eaten raw in salads. Anon. Andalus provides a recipe for a meat and chickpea stew in which the leaves are cooked as a vegetable. The purple edible flowers have been used to decorate dishes in the daylight. They close at night. The roots and leaves were dried to use in infusions with honey to relieve coughs and irritated throats. In large doses, infusions were drunk as a purgative. Also, they were taken to relieve gastro-intestinal irritation. Laguna prescribed a remedy calling for roots boiled with sweet wine. The English added mallows to medicinal baths. [Alonso, Martín. 1994:I:A:226; Anón/Huici.1966: 286:164; Espasa. 1988:4:ALAL:265:965-966: Font. Plantas. 1999:282:404-406; Layton. 1948:34; Nuevo dicc. 1888:I:87; Rickert. 1966: 68; and Usher.1974:37]

DISH OF MALLOW WITH FLOUR ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION
OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #286 HECHURA DE MALVA CON HARINA, p. 164 
For 4 persons

Ingredients

1 ½ lbs beef (Perry says jerked, Huici says meat mashed in a mortar)
8 oz chickpeas soaked overnight
1 chopped onion
1 tsp coriander seed
½ tsp freshly ground pepper
1 tbsp olive oil
salt to taste
1 cup mallow leaves
1-2 tbsp flour
2 eggs

Preparation

Cut meat into cubes and roast it (Perry says on a spit). When done put it in a pot and cover with water. Add soaked chickpeas, chopped onion, coriander seed, pepper, oil and salt place on medium to low heat and simmer for one hour or until chickpeas are tender. Wash mallow leaves and chop them. Add them to pot. Beat two eggs, slowly mix in flour flour, add some broth and stir until smooth and pour into the pot to thicken broth and serve.