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Friday, September 30, 2011

ANDAGA WITH WEIGHT CONTROL SOLUTION

PETE'S DRAGON "LOWERING" THE WEIGHT
AFTER  A PARISIAN RECEPTION
Photo by: Gonzalo Montero

Ast. and Bie andorga, Eng. stomach, belly; a stomach full (used in a humorous context); a guest invited to eat (a stomach full) at someone’s home. The expression goes back to the Middle Ages. Stuffing guests’ stomachs was a sign of good hospitality. [García Rey. 1934:40; and Tapiello. 1994:137]

Thursday, September 29, 2011

ANDA WITH ARMORED CHICKEN RECIPE FROM NOLA

OCast ande, armado, ME cofyn cophyn, Eng coffin, pastry shell, container or case. Chicken, particularly, has been cooked in hard pastry shells to prevent it from drying out. When carved the crust is discarded being inedible. [Berceo. Libro. 1983:272:2565; Curye. 1985:179; Nola. 1989:xx-2:xx-3; and Sas. 1976:54]


ARMORED  CHICKEN RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S #xx-2 GALLINA ARMADA

Armored Chicken in the Rain
Photo by:  Generik11
For 6 persons

Ingredients

4-5 lb chicken
5 oz/150 gr bacon
3 egg yolks
1 tsp salt
1 c flour

Preparation

Preheat oven to 350º F  / 175º C.

Lard the chicken by placing strips of bacon over it. Roast 1/2 hour. Sift flour and salt together. Separate yolks from egg whites and beat the yolks well. Take the chicken out of the oven. Remove the bacon. Paint the chicken with the egg yolks using the handle of a wooden spoon. Sprinkle flour over it turning the chicken to coat all sides. Return the chicken to the oven and roast 1/2 hour or unti done. Remove the crust and carve.




Wednesday, September 28, 2011

ANCHOA, LACHA, BOQUERÓN WITH THE QUEEN OF MEDIEVAL TAPAS RECIPE ANCHOVIES IN VINEGAR

THE QUEEN OF MEDIEVAL TAPAS' LITTLE SISTER
SMALL ANCHOVIES SAVED FOR FRYING 
Photo by: mrsamper

OCast alcha, alache, aleche, haleche, seitó, Cat. seitó,  OCat. saitón, saytón, varial, varral, L. Engraulis encrasicholus, Ar. shutūn, Eng European anchovy. It about three inches in length and is found and caught in vast numbers in the Mediterranean and in the Basque country on the Atlantic Ocean. They are salted and packed headless and gutted or whole in salt and oil in barrels and allowed to marinate for about four months at temperatures up too 30°C until the flesh is completely red. Nola states that they must be eaten in April. He provides a recipe for baked anchovies with raisins, almonds and pine nuts. [ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01: ftn 144; Gázquez. Cocina, 2002:244; Nola. 1989:lxv-1:lxvi-4; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:172; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:171-172:214]


THE QUEEN OF MEDIEVAL TAPAS - ANCHOVIES IN VINEGAR 
Boquerones en vinagre
(Anchovies in vinegar) Photo by: carme-cuina MiK
RECIPE BY MRSAMPER 
for 6 persons

1 lb fresh anchovies
1 tbsp salt
wine vinegar (sherry vinegar containing 7º of acidity is recommended)
extra virgin olive oil
1 bunch chopped parsley
1 sliced garlic clove

Preparation

Snap the backbone just behind the head and pull the guts out with the head or take a small sharp knife to cut through the backbone, taking care not to cut all the way through and pull. Remove the backbone by running a finger along the spine of the fish, flattening it out into two fillets. Wash them with salt in a bowl with very cold water and ice. Change water as needed. This makes the meat firm. Separate the small anchovies from the bigger ones and save them for frying.

When well washed fold them back together and place in layers in a glass or earthenware dish (never use metal). Cover with quality vinegar. The acid content should not be high or the flavor will be too strong and kill the flavor of the anchovies. If it is too strong add a little water.

Refrigerate covered until they begin to change color becoming white, about 2 hours but if small one hour is enough. Watch carefully so as not to let them become too white. When ready drain off the vinegar and cover with olive oil. Sprinkle with parsley and garlic. Serve with bread (chips are good but not medieval) and wine or beer.

They will keep 4-5 days in the refrigerator if completely covered with olive oil and if the no two legged cats steal them!

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

ANCAS & BEEF TENERLOIN WITH CABRALES CHEESE SAUCE

"A Flying Butt-Bird"
Photo by: Glen Combat Beard Holman elfwood.com

haunch, behind. Villena instructs that the behinds  of large birds, like the pheasant, should be cut into two pieces. Small birds were simply cut in half if at all. (Ancas de ranas are frogs legs.) Villena/Calero. 2002:26a]


RECIPE FOR BEEF TENDERLOIN WITH CABRALES CHEESE SAUCE
 "Simplify, simplify, simplify"

Photo by: by She Who Shall Not Be Named    

For 4 persons

Ingredients

1½ lb beef tenderloin steak (butt-end)
extra virgin olive oil
salt and freshly ground pepper
3 tbsp butter
½ c dry red wine
½ lb Cabrales or other blue cheese crumbled

Preparation

Brush the steak with olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Grill over moderately high heat, turning occasionally, about 15 min for medium-rare. Place the steak on a platter and let stand 5 min.
Cabrales
Photo by: Ricard2009

In the meantime, put the melt butter and wine in a saucepan. Heat to melt the butter. Add the cheese and cook over low heat, stirring constantly until very hot. Carve the steak,  pour the sauce over the steaks and serve.

Monday, September 26, 2011

ÁNADE WITH SAUCE FOR WILD FOWL FROM NOLA

Old Coot
Photo by: by Talsi1

ánade, Val fotja, L Fulica atra, Eng. common coot (duck). Sánchez-Albornoz indicates that they were common in León in the 11th C. During the 15th C, Villena reported that they were abundant in Aragon and frequently served at meals. He directed that they should be carved in the same manner as peacocks (see pavo). Nola instructs that they should be cut up before cooking and soaked in a vinegar, orange juice and wine sauce and then served in the sauce. Avenzoar advised that domesticated and wild duck have the same properties as cranes but more pronounced, see grulla. Ducks were recommended for those suffering from prostration and hemiplegia, but they are thought harmful for people having a warm nature. They are digested with difficulty, especially during the summer season. Classical physicians customarily recommended that the throat of the fowl be slit and then hung with the feathers still on for a few hours before cooking. This procedure was recommended for rapid digestion. [Anón/Huici.1966:42:35-36; ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn 51; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:52; Nola. 1985:xxix-5: xlii-1; Nola/Pérez- 1992:63; Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:154; and Villena/Clavero 2002:22b:26a]


SAUCE FOR WILD FOWL LIKE PIGEONS, DOVES AND DUCKS
ADAPTED FROM NOLA xxix-5 SALSERON PARA AUES SALVAJES, 
COMO SON PALOMAS SALVAJES Y TORCADAS, Y ANALES SALUAJES

For 6 persons

birthday dinner, dec 20th, 2005
Photo by: ya ma
2 ¼ c red fruity Beujolais wine
 ¾ c or 3 large shallots
4 ½ tbsp balsamic vinegar
22 black peppercorns (crushed)
12 coriander seeds (crushed)
orange skin from one orange
1 c or juice from 4 oranges
3 c chicken broth
3 lb duck
Salt and additional black peppercorns to taste

Preparation

Sauce can be made 2 days ahead of time

Combine Beuijolais, chopped shallots, balsamic vinegar, peppercorns and coriander seeds in a saucpan. With a vegetable scraper, cut off the orange part of the skin of an orange. Slice it into narrow stripes and Add them to the saucepan. Boil until reduced to 1 ½ c, about 12 minutes.

Add 1 c orange juice and boil 5 minutes

Add chicken broth and boil until reduced to 3 cups, about 15 minutes

Stain.

Cover and chill.

Preheat oven to 250ºF / 120º C

Roast the duck. When half done, remove it and carve it like a chicken. Put the pieces in two bowls, sprinkle them with salt and pepper and pour the sauce over them. Put the pieces in a frying pan and cook until skin is brown, about 8 minutes. Simmer for about 6 minutes until meat is done.  Serve.

Friday, September 23, 2011

AMUGRONAR, MUGRONEAR

Growing Grapes From Cuttings
Photo by: eccevines.com

to propagate, to bury vine shoots or cuttings to take root.. At the end of winter, the cane, a branch-like section on the grapevine, is cut into 1 ½” sections called cuttings. The cuttings are buried in the ground. This is how create new vineyards producing good wines were common in the Middle Ages according to the Archpriest of Hita. This system is still used today and was used in California where French cuttings were planted. [Ruíz/Saínz. 1986:1281b:217]

Glass Cutting Boards ... -
(THE ARCHPRIEST'S WAY OF CUTTING)
Photo by: jackiejacobson.com

Thursday, September 22, 2011

AMPOLLA

Ampulla (Flask) of Saint Menas, late 500s–mid-700s
Photo by: metmuseum.org
ampulla, glass flask. Between the 13th and 15th C it was what today is understood as a round bottle or tube. It could a round glass flask with a long, narrow neck and a wide base. It was known since Roman times having two handles and was used for wine or oil. Pilgrims carried them filled with water or oil. Cooks kept them in kitchens among their supplies of oil and wine. They were used also for making and storing medicines. In churches they were vessels for consecrated wine or holy oil. [Baena/Dutton.1993:587:781:v64; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:41]


0103613
Charlemagne, King of the Franks, 768-814, and Emperor of the West, 800-814. Gold talisman of Charlemagne, late 8th-9th century, a reliquary in the shape of an ampulla purported to contain fragments of the True Cross, which can be seen through the large gems on the back and front.
Photo from: The Granger Collection


Bronze Ampulla Statue
tPhoto by: opfreebiz.com

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

AMOMO

Green and Black Cardomom

Photo by: 123rf.com

L. Amomum subulatum (awl-shaped of the leaves), Eng black cardamom. This spice is a member of the Zingiberaces or ginger family. It is an inter-tropical plant found between the Himalayas and southern China. The seeds are used as its relative grains of paradise. The two are confused, as the taste is similar. Due to the drying method used, black cardamom has a smoky aroma, an intensive woody taste and smells like camphor In cookery, it is not a substitute for green cardamom, see cardamomo. Black cardamom seeds are sold in their pods, which are added while cooking stews and pottages, not sweet desserts, but removed before serving. During the medieval times the 3% essential oil content was extracted and used in electuaries such as al-Fārūq theriaca, an antidote against poison. Aside from Avenzoar’s, no other Spanish references to it have not been found to date, not even in any recipes. Today it is an ingredient for garam marsala. [ES: Katzer. “Black Cardamom.” May 18, 03; and García Sánchez. 1992:115-116] 

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

ÁMBAR GRIS WITH LORD CONWAY'S RECIPE FOR AMBERGRIS PUDDING


Ambergris
Photo by: Christian Loader
Ar. ’anbar, ‘abir, Fr. amber gris, MEng. amber of grece, ambergrease, ambregris, ambergris, amber-greece, Eng. ambergris, a fragrant grayish waxy substance that is the intestinal secretions that the sperm whale excretes in their feces and by regurgitation. Usually, it is found floating on the surface of the ocean, sometimes in masses from 60 to 225 lbs. On the Portuguese Atlantic coast, it is abundant. Muslims there imported ambergris from the Algarve and Madagascar. It was highly valued for its fragrance once aged as it was used in expensive perfumes around the Mediterranean. In Al-Andalus, it was used frequently not only in perfumery but in Aphrodisiac products as well. It was added as flavoring to sweets and beverages in the Middle East. The English added it to sweat dishes such as “Paste-Royal,” custards and pancakes along with musk (see almirze). It is said that Charles II of England ate it in his eggs for breakfast. During the Middle Ages it was added to ragouts and jams as well. Hispano Arabs used it in incense burners as the fragrance lasted a long time. Al-Andalus poets lauded ambergris to the extent that it became the synonym for perfume. Abu Yahya Mu’izz ad-Daula al-Mu’tasim billah (g. 1052-1091), sovereign of Almeria, sent the following message to one of his wives by carrier pigeon: “This pigeon will transmit, as proof of my affections, fragrant, perfumed messages with sweet-smelling odor of ‘abir (ambergris).” In 1362, during a reception offered by Muhammad V, the Nazrid Sultan, to inaugurate various new rooms in the Alhambra palace an uprising almost occurred during the responses in unison of the dikr (remembrance of Allah) when they turned into a competition between the elite and the commoners. The incident was quailed by filling the hall with the smoke of “magic” ambergris and then showering the guests with rosewater. The awe was so great that the guests were silenced and the ceremonies resumed. Ambergris was used also as an antispasmodic and a stimulant. Laguna maintained that it fortified the brain and the heart. It is so smooth, he continued, that it comforts weakened limbs, sharpens understanding and clears foul air. [Alberry. 2001:57: ftn 4; ES: Caroline’s; ES: Shamsuddín. “Aromas.” Jul 23, 05; Groundes-Peace. 1971:118; and Pullar. 1970:255]

LORD CONWAY'S AMBERGRIS PUDDINGS
From: W.M., The Queen's Closet Opened (London: 1655)

Two Stuart sweet puddings in skins - rice puddings and ambergris puddings
These 'sausages' browning on a seventeenth century gridiron, are in fact two different sweet puddings from the reigns of James I and his son Charles I. The large ring on the left is a Rice Pudding, made from a recipe in Gervase Markham's The English Huswife (London: 1615). The three smaller ones on the right are Lord Conway's Ambergris Puddings from The Queen's Closet Newly Opened (London: 1655). Both recipes are given below.
Photo by: Ivan Day 

Ingredients

pig intestines
1 ½ lb blanched almonds
1 lb lard
1 ½ lb sugar
4 loaves of white bread (8 cups = 1 lb loaf of bread?)
½ oz amber grease
1/8 oz musk
¼ pt orange blossom water

Preparation

Thoroughly wash intestines and hang out to dry. Chop the almonds. Then grind half them into powder. Mix all the almonds with the lard. Add sugar. Grate the bread over this mixture. Add ambergris. Bruise musk in a marble mortar with orange blossom water and mix well. Fill the intestines with the mixture. Tie intestines shut and prick holes in them. As this is a 17th C recipe the pudding is grilled. During the Middle Ages it would have been boiled.

This recipe was given as a great rarity to Lord Conway at a reception in his honor by an Italian. The lord in turn gave the recipe to the queen’s ladies of honor.

Monday, September 19, 2011

AMASAR WITH RECIPE FOR FRITTERS CALLED CASQUETAS FROM NOLA

OCast massar, Eng. to make bread, which includes whole process from making dough, mixing, kneading and removing the bread from oven. In Nola's case this included bake goods in general. Nola. 1982:xlv-3:xlvii-2; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:170]

FRITTERS CALLED CASQUETAS IN VALENCIA AND BARCELONA ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S #:xlv-3 ROSQUILLAS DE FRUTA QUE LLAMAN CASQUETAS EN VALENCIA Y EN BARCELONA (Also called pastissets, fonuts, panadons, panadetes and tortas de alma)*


Ingredients

Filling:
1 tbsp breadcrumbs
½ c toasted hazelnuts
½ c toasted almonds
½ c toasted pine nuts
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp nutmeg
Photo by: Flourish Bakery
½ tsp ground cloves
½ tsp ground ginger
½ tsp pepper
1 c honey

Dough
1 ½ c all-purpose flour
1 tsp bakng powder
1 tsp saffron
1 tbsp water
2 egg yolks
1 c olive oil

Garnish:
confectioners sugar

Preparation

Preheat oven to 400ºF / 200º C

Filling:
Put the breadcrumbs in a saucepan. Grind the hazelnuts, almonds and ½ of the pine nuts into a paste and add them to the breadcrumbs. Add the spices and pepper and mix well. Add the honey and stir over heat and bring it to a boil. Skim off scum. Remove from heat and let cool.

Dough:
Place flour and baking powder in a mixing bowl. Dissolve saffron in water and add to flour to give the dough color. Beat in egg yolks and slowly add oil. Knead vigorously on a smooth surface. Roll out dough making it very thin and cut circles in it. Remove excess dough. Place a spoonful of filling on each circle and sprinkle the remaining pine nuts over that. Fold them in half like half moons. Press the edges down with a fork so the filling does not escape when baked. Prick a few holes in tops and place on greased and floured cookie sheet.


Bake for about 25 minutes until golden brown. Garnish with confectioners sugar and serve.

turnovers.jpg
from lizmathile

If “royal casquetas” are desired make a marzipan paste, one of almonds or of royal paste which are fit for a king or great lord.
*See biscochar blog published on February 14, 2012 for a different adaption of this recipe. 


Friday, September 16, 2011

AMARRAR WITH RICE AND MINCED OFFALS RECIPE

Slaughter a pig.
Photo by: bobinchina.wohlhueter.us

to tie up; to hold fast. Holding a pig tightly down when killing is rather important. If the pig escapes it is capable of killing all participating in the slaughter in self defense. [Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:97:108; and Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003]

In the photo to the left the pig's aorta has been severed causing instant death. A pan is being held below the neck to catch the blood spirtting out, which will be used to make blood sausage. 

After this the pig's hair will be singed with grass and scraped off the body. Then the slaughter man will slit the body open vertically, extract the offals and hang the body from a tree to let the remaining blood to drip out. 
At this point the women begin preparing a typical midday meal using the offals, which today will be:

RICE WITH MINCED PIG OFFAL 
For 4 persons

Yellow Rice
Photo by: khaulah_tc
1 lb  offal (kidneys, liver, mesentery . . . )
*1 ½ tbsp coriander seed
1 ½ tsp cumin seeds
1 star anise
½ cinnamon stick
1 ½ tsp nutmeg
½ tsp black peppercorns
½ tsp turmeric powder (known as “Indian saffron” in the Middle Ages)
2-3 tbsp oil
1 onion chopped
3 garlic cloves, finely minced
1” (3 cm) grated ginger root
1 c rice
1 bay leaf

Preparation:

Mince offal and place in bowl with 2 c water.
Grind coriander seeds, cumin seeds, star anise, cinnamon stick, nutmeg and black peppercorns into a fine powder.
In a small bowl, combine the ground spices, turmeric powder and add 1-2 tbsp water from the offal bowl to make a thick paste and set aside.
Remove the oval from the water and save the water. Fry oval and set aside.
Fry onions and garlic for about 1 minute. Add the spice pâté, sliced fresh ginger root and gently fry until it turns a shade darker.
Add rice and lightly toast. Add 2 c water bring to a boil. Add offal, bay leaf and season with salt and pepper.  Simmer uncovered for about 20 minutes. Turn off heat and cover letting the rice settle for about 10 minutes and serve.

*Today spices are substituted with cayenne pepper and paprika.

Thursday, September 15, 2011

ALUDIR WITH HOMEMADE BREAD RECIPE FROM FADALAT

to rise (the effect of yeast when added to dough), see leudas[ES: Lord. Culinary. Mar 4, ‘08]
Photo by:


SEMOLINA BREAD RECIPE ADAPTED FROM FADALAT #PAN COCIDO EN EL HORNO, p 19

for one loaf:

Ingredients

3 ¼ c semolina (durum) flour
1 ½ tsp salt
1 tsp yeast
¼ c virgin olive oil or fat (in Fadalat it would be lamb's tail fat)
1 ½ c warm water
flour for sprinkling
powdered sugar for sprinkling

Preparation

Add salt to the flour. Dissolve yeast in water. Add it to the flour. Dip hands in oil or fat and begin kneading adding the water little by little until it reaches the desired consistency, about 10-12 minutes.

Make it into the desired shape for the loaf. Wrap it in a linen or woolen cloth and cover this with lamb skin or something similar (today it is plastic wrap) and let the mass rise (1 ½ - 2 hours). When it has risen sufficiently, it will emit a noise when struck.

PREHEAT OVEN 375º F / 190º C


homemade bread
Photo by: queencashmere

Immediately bake on a greased and floured cookie sheet for
35 to 45 minutes.

Once baked, remove loaf from the cookie sheet and allow it
to cool about 1 hour. Clean the loaf,sprinkle it with powered
 sugar and put it in a breadbasket for consumption.

It will keep about 3 days in a zip lock plastic bag or 1 month
in a freezer bag in the freezer.

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

ALTRAMUZ, LUPINO RECIPE: LUPINES & BEER

Photo by: Arthur 2105

OCast tarmûs, Hisp Ar turmûs, Gr. termos, L. Lupinus, Fr. dupin, Eng. lupine. The Spanish name is a composite of the Arabic article al plus a corruption of the Greek ter-mus, meaning hot. Lupines and the broth in which they are boiled have a burning effect. Some 300 species contain beanlike eatable seeds in the shape of kidney beans. The most common species in Spain is the angustifolius, with blue bell shaped flowers and yellow beans with white spots. The plant fertilizes the soil while growing. Later, it was spread on fields as fertilizer. 
The five or six seeds or beans found in every pod are used as food by steeping them in salt water, which makes them sweeter, or they are eaten raw. The seeds are popped out of their skins into the mouth. This tradition was adopted in Spain. “La Picara Justina” provided baskets full of them during her 16th C wedding. The beans are fattening and easily digestible. Livestock must learn to eat them as they are bitter and not served with beer. 
Lupines were consumed in Al-Andalus during Muslim domination. Malaga was the primary producer. They grow around waterbeds and rocks in central, eastern and southern Spain. As the bean can be toxic, those who did not know how to handle it could put it to ill use. Spanish Christians thought it good for the Moors as it could produce their death. The sour juice is a good lice killer. Dioscordes recommended burning them to be rid of mosquitoes. Being a cheap product it has been called also “the poor man’s purgatory.” Lupine flour was used for bread making in the Middle Ages during wheat famines. La Celestina used it to ‘purify the face.’ 
Today, patients with celiac disease are using lupine flour to replace soybean flour for its protein content. Those suffering from asthma, however, are allergic to it. See aceite de habas. [Chirino/Herrera. 1973:176:23:188:18:189:7 etc; Covarrubias. 1998:106:a:21; Ency Brit. 1998:7:Krasnokmsk:5663a; ES: Dendle. Feb 9, 05;  Espasa. 1988:4:ALAL:1004-1005; Laza. 2002:95-96; and Martínez Llopis. Historia. 1981:106]

RECIPE:
for 4 persons

Ingredients

4 beers
4 beer glasses
1 bottle opener
1 saucer
1 cup of lupines

Preparation -
Lupins boiled, drained, cooled and salted
- ready to pop out of skins into mouths
Photo by: askville.amazon.com




Tuesday, September 13, 2011

ALTICAS (Arag) WITH CHICKEN TART RECIPE FROM NOLA

a little high as in the edges of a pastry. [Nola. 1989:xxxiiii-4: Nola/Pérez.1992:188]

NUTRITIOUS CHICKEN TARTS FOR THE SICK WHO HAVE LOST THEIR APPETITE
(AND FOR THOSE WHO HAVEN’T) ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S xxxiiii-4 MAZAPANES PARA DOLIENTES QUE PIERDEN EL COMER MUY BUENOS Y DE GRAN SUSTANCIA

Ingredients

Little chicken tarts
Photo by: canelakitchen.blogspot.com
1 chicken breast boneless weighing 3-4 oz. or ½ c
3-4 oz. or ½ c blanched and peeled almonds
3-4 oz or ½ c sugar
ready made dough for 1 pie
small cupcake liners
orange blossom water
powdered sugar
parsley or chives for garnish

Preparation

Preheat oven to 350º F / 177º C

Boil the chicken breasts and salt to taste. Remove the skin from the breasts. Grind the meat and the almonds. Add sugar and grind all together. Roll out the dough and cut it to make tiny tarts  making them deep in the middle with edges. Place them in small muffin tins with small cupcake liners. Moisten the dough with orange-blossom water by stroking them with a feather. Sprinkle with powdered sugar. Spoon the chicken and nut mixture into the baskets and sprinkle with powdered sugar on top.  Bake for about 20 minutes. When done immediately but carefully discard liners so that the tarts do not break. Garnish with a parsley leaf or chives. Nola recommends this and the broth from the chicken breasts particularly for the sick and those who have lost their appetite.  

Monday, September 12, 2011

ALPH DÁTIL WITH DATE FILLED TARTS ADAPTED FROM FADALAT


colloecting dates
Photo by: Experience Nubi
L. Phoenix dactylifera, Ar. tamr or rutab (fresh date), najīl (the tree and the fruit), Heb. dátle,Fr. datte, MEng datys, Eng, date palm. Diosorides claims that it is a native of Egypt. It spread throughout the Middle East, North Africa and southern Spain, especially along the coast. It can grow to 23 m. or 75’ tall and live for 150 years. It bears male and female flowers, which must be artificially pollinated. The tree does not produce dates during the first four or five years. When it reaches full maturity at 10 to 15 years, it can produce more than 1,000 dates or 18 lbs per season. All parts of the tree are used. It was the Christian symbol for “this is my blood.” In some areas it was believed that Mary gave birth to Jesus under this tree. New mothers ate three dates for better health. Dates were a staple food among the Arabs, including those in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages. The sap was used as to make fermented and unfermented drinks, vinegar and syrups. Date and flatbread crumb paste recipes are found in the Anon Andalus. Fadalat suggests date filling for donuts. If the seeds were not used as medicine, they were given to livestock as feed. They signified material help. After eating dates or fritters with date filling, the mouth was cleaned and one gargled with cold water. The poor and the rich ate dates alike. In Al Andalus they were thought to be hot and dry and to have a heavy substance and a noxious chyme, capable of obstructing the liver and numbing the brain. Fresh dates were believed to be worse than dried for producing tumors in the liver and kidneys. It was a fruit that was little appreciated, except for people who perform hard labor, those who suffer from fatigue and those who eat little The results were believed to be less noxious than for others. Large dates were thought to be more flavorable but more harmful then small ones. The medulla of the date palm was thought to have a heavy, cold substance. When eaten, it was believed that it generated very potent sperm and, therefore, employed as an aphrodisiac. Crusaders were the first to bring dates to England. [Aguilera. 2002:84; Anón/Huici.1966:419:231:424:233-234:425:234; etc; Bolens.Cuisine. 1990:328; Ency Brit. 1998:3:Ceara:897:2a; ES: Shamsuddín. “Gastronomía.” Sep 21, 01; Groundes-Peace. 1971:29; Font. Plantas. 679:957-959; Granja. 1960:44:21; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:80]


DATE FILLED TARTS RECIPE ADAPTED FROM FADALAT
#45 ROSQUILLAS RELLENAS DE MIEL pp 20-21

Ingredients
Be daring and try these exotic date filled . . .
Photo by: egglesscooking.com  

½ tsp active dry yeast
23 c warm water
½ tsp salt
½ tsp white sugar
½ tsp cinnamon
3 3 tbsp olive oil

Preparation

In a large bowl, dissolve yeast in warm water. Let stand about 10 minutes.

Add 1 c flour, salt, sugar cinnamon and 1 tbsp olive oil to the yeast mixture. Stir until combined and then work in the last cup of flour. Knead the dough until smooth, about 10 minutes. Add only enough flour to keep the dough from being sticky. Lightly oil a large bowl, place the dough in it and turn to coat with oil. Cover with a damp cloth and let rise in a warm place until doubled in volume.

Deflate the dough and turn it out onto a lightly floured surface. Roll out the dough into two rectangles, about 1/2 inch thick.

Place both layers on a greased pan or baking sheet. Cover with and let rise until doubled in volume, about 40 minutes. Prepare date filling, instructions below.

PREHEAT OVEN 400º F / 200º C

Poke dimples in both. Place the strips of the date mixture on top of one layer and cover with the second layer of bread and drizzle 1 tablespoon of the olive oil on top that layer. Bake at 400 degrees for 15-20 minutes.
·        
         Ingredients for Date Filing

Jack O’Lantern
(BE MORE DARING! ADD GOURDS NOT PUMPKIN
TO BE MEDIEVAL!)
Photo by: thecookingphotographer.com    
1 ½ c pitted and chopped dates
1 c sugar
½ c chopped nuts
juice from 1 orange
shredded rind from 1 orange
½ tsp nutmeg
½ tsp ginger
1 tsp cinnamon
vegetable oil for hands


Preparation

Mash the dates until they look like brains and mix with the other ingredients. Grease hands with oil. Hand make strips of this paste.  Complete the preparation as explained above.


Friday, September 9, 2011

ALOSA, SÁBALO - SHAD TURNOVERS WITH ORANGE SAUCE RECIPE


Savelha // Twaite Shad (Alosa...
Photo by: Valter Jacinto / Portugal

OCast sávalo, L. Alosa, Ar. shābal, Eng shad, the “king of the herrings.” It is a herring-like fish that enters large rivers to spawn in the spring. When they return to the ocean, fishermen are unable to find them. Although first documented in 1335 in a meal for a French ambassador in Bailén during Lent, it would appear that shad could have been used to make garum, see allec. During the 15th-16th C, the shad industry was developed in Azemmour, at the mouth of Oum er-Rbia in Morocco, which attracted Andalusian vessels from Palos and Puerto de Santa Maria, Andalusia, in particular. Villena explains that it is very tender, salty and dry. It is so bony that it has been likened to a porcupine with fins. Villena instructed carvers to slice the meat into small pieces and to use a two-pronged fork to remove then. Spanish recipes include broiled, boiled and baked shad. Nola was against boiling it. He recommended baking it in a piecrust or grilling it and serving with an orange sauce. See aloja. [Castro. Alimentación. 1996:324; Nola 1998:lviii-3; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a:38a:39a]

SHAD TURNOVERS WITH ORANGE SAUCE RECIPE

Ingredients

Pastry:
Empanadas
Photo by:  Claudia_midori
5 c all-purpose flour
1 tbsp salt
½  tsp ground cloves
½ tsp nutmeg
1 tsp cinnamon
1 lb butter
1 egg
¾ c ice water
1 tbsp cider vinegar
Flour for dusting and rolling


Fish:
1 qt fish broth or water and wine
1/8 tsp freshly ground pepper
1 tsp ground ginger
1 tsp salt
oil for frying
wax paper

Orange sauce:
1 bitter orange
1 tsp sugar
3 tbsp bitter orange marmalade

Preparation

Pastry:
Beat the flour, salt and spices in a bowl. Cut the butter into 1” pieces and beat until mixed in with the flour. Make a hole in the center and set aside.
In a small bowl beat the egg. Add the water and vinegar and mix well.
Pour the liquid into the well. Turn the beaters on slow and mix the liquid into the flour and butter. Then knead all by hand. Divide dough in half and roll out into a disk. Place a sheet of wax paper over that. Roll out the second half of the dough and and place that on top of the first disk. Put another sheet of wax paper over this. Roll it up and put it in a plastic bag and tie or seal it shut.
Chill until firm. This can be kept in the refrigerator for a couple of days or frozen for a month.
When ready to prepare the fish, remove pastry and let sit in room temperature. Roll it out and cut into 4” squares.

Fish:
Clean well removing the scales. Heat the broth and poach the shad. When finished save the broth. Cut the meat into small pieces and remove the bones. Pick towards the back of the fish, going with the grain, as the bones tend to face the tail. There are some 3,000 but it is worth it for shad is of the tastiest fish.

Place pieces of fish in a bowl and mix them with the pepper, ginger and salt. Place pieces on pastry, sprinkle with a little of the broth on each piece and fold the pastry over forming a triangle. Wet the edges and seal by pressing a fork around the edges. Prick the tops of the turnovers two or three times to let air in. Fry until golden brown. Serve warm. They should be eaten daintily with the index finger and thumb of the right hand in the medieval manner.

Orange sauce:
Squeeze the orange into a sauce pan through a strainer to prevent the seeds from falling into the pan. Separate the orange rind from the pith, the white part. Shed the rind. Add it to the sauce pan with the sugar and marmalade.  Warm but do not boil. Place it in a bowl for eaters to spoon the sauce over the turnovers.