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Monday, October 31, 2011

APROVECHABLES WITH DEWLAP IN MOSCATEL WITH CEPS AND FIGS RECIPE



Justo Kneading Scrapes of Meat
Ricardo Supervising
Photo by: Lord-Williams
scraps of meat; residue of fatty parts after scrapping the pieces; scarped pork rib ends (in Segovia). Although these are actually seasoned scrapings used to stuff large sausages or tripe, the word has come to mean the sausage or stuffed tripe. They are tied or sewn, hung and eaten after boiling especially in carnival season. The term extended to mean scrapings used in dishes of Arab origin such as androllas (in this case the stomach stuffed with entails and scraps of meat), eggplant, squashes, millet, Moorish gachas, tajines, pine kernels from Huelva, gitanillas or trianeros and harisa in the Maghreb. In the Middle East, it referred to a popular pastry made with semolina and syrup. It is also a sauce containing ground wheat, moistened with a meat broth, boiled until the wheat is completely dissolved. The consistency is not thick but like a rice soup. Further, the term extended to “rice hairs” with fermented breadcrumbs. Also see alcuzcuz and cideruela. [Cejador. 1990:99; and Sanz 1967:15]



Photo by: Lord-Williams

DEWLAP IN MOSCATEL WITH CEPS AND FIGS

Ingredients
2 oz dewlap, skin and meat below pig’s chin
3 ½ oz salt
1 ¾ oz. sugar0.8 oz pepper
1 chopped onion
1 chopped leek
1 chopped carrot
1 tsp cloves
1 bay leaf
1 tsp thyme
1 ½ oz fresh figs
1 oz ceps (Boletus edulis, mushrooms)

For the Sauce:3 tbsp muscatel wine
¼ c broth made with bones, celery, carrots, onion and a leek
1 tbsp butter

Garnish:
chopped chives
salt
Entire Jaw Showing Dewlap  from Pig Slaughter 2000
Photo by: Lord-Williams


Preparation

A dewlap is considered to be a scrap of meat and, therefore is inexpensive. As it contains a large percentage of inter-muscular fat, consumption is limited. It is recommended that a person should not eat more than 3.5 oz of this meat in a day. A small amount is enough to get a taste of it.

The dewlap, as other parts of the pig’s body, contains a large quantity of short hairs, which are most disagreeable if swallowed. Burn all the hairs before beginning to cook this product. This can be done with a blowtorch or by holding the dewlap over a gas burner on the stove using kitchen thongs.

Once all the hair is removed, prepare a marinade for the dewlap. Mix the salt, pepper and sugar. Cover the dewlaps with this. Cover and let sit for at least 6 hours but no more than 10. This process brings out the flavor of the dewlap and it will tighten the meat in case it is not as tight as desired.

Once marinated, wash the dewlap well with cold water. Boil it in broth made by covering it with water and adding the onion, leak, and carrots. For aroma add cloves, thyme and bay leaf.

Bring to a boil and then lower heat to boil gently for 3 to 4 hours depending on the quantity. Test for doneness sticking it with a thin sharp needle taking care not to hurt the piece of meat. When the needle enters and comes out easily it is cooked. Turn off the heat and let it sit in the broth until it cools down. Very carefully remove the pieces from the broth and let it cool down completely. After a few hours the dewlap will acquire a more solid consistency and can be easily carved.

Clean the ceps, especially the stem. The best way to clean them is to rub the bottoms and turning the mushrooms to wipe off the dirt. Never peel them for they are not like potatoes and never submerge them in water. Avoid using brushes or instruments that could damage the skin. Once cleaned, slice them 1/3” thick and grill them.

Prepare the sauce for the dewlap. Sauté the moscatel until the volume is reduced to one half. Add the broth concentrate made with bones, which has been strained. Continue reducing the sauce until it becomes a thick sauce. At the last moment add 1 tbsp butter to give it a little shine.

Peel the figs and quarter them. Cut the dewlap in half. Score all four sides of each piece on a grill or in a non-stick frying pan. It is not necessary to add oil or lard as the dewlap has enough to prevent it from sticking. Cook each side until crispy on the outside. This crust adds more flavor to the meat.

Place the dewlap and the mushrooms in a serving dish with the figs around them. Pour the moscatel sauce over the meat to make it shine. Garnish with chives and sprinkle salt over it. Serve warm.



Friday, October 28, 2011

APOSTEMA - WITH 13th C CURE FOR ABSCESSES & OTHER ILLS

abscess. Throat and other abscesses were common during the medieval times. The appearance of them was attributed to extreme cases of gluttony. In Iberia, they were treated with Arab medical prescriptions. Nutmeg and walnuts were prescribed to soften them. The Anon Andalus cookbook states that hyssop syrup stops brain abscesses. [Anon/Huici. 1966:505:275-276;  Castro. Alimentación. 1996:213-214:228:292:302; and ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 00:146]

hyssop
Photo by: laurielabar
HYSSOP SYRUP ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION OF ANON ANDALUS #505 JARABE DE HISOPO, pp 275-276

Ingredients

2 tbsp and 1 tsp hyssop
2 tbsp and 1 tsp fennel
4 ¾ tbsp anise
2 tbsp and 1 tsp jububes
2 tbsp and 1 tsp melon seeds
2 tbsp and 1 tsp serpent melon seeds
6 figs
2 tbsp lavender
2 tbsp maiden hair
4 ¾ tbsp skin from fennel roots
4 ¾ tbsp skin from celery roots
4 ¾ tbsp sugar

Preparation

Put all the ingredients except the sugar into a pan. Cover with water and covered the pan with a lid. Bring it to a boil. Let steep one half hour. Strain it into another saucepan. Add sugar and cook over medium heat until the consistency is like syrup. Drink mix 3 tbsp with 6 tbsp hot water before breakfast. It eliviates productive cough and stops brain abscesses. It dissolves phemgm from other parts of the body and stimulates urination and menstrual flow. It fortifies the stomach 

Take an ûqiya of hyssop and two of fennel and anise, and an ûqiya each of jujubes, watermelon seeds and cucumber seeds, and a handful of cleaned figs, two handfuls each of lavender and cilantro of the spring, and two ûqiyas each of the skin of fennel stalk and the skin of celery stalk. Cook all this in water to cover until its substance comes out; then take the clean part of it and add it to two ratls of sugar, and cook all this until it takes the consistency of syrup. Drink an ; ûqiya and a half of this in three of hot water when fasting. It benefits in moist coughs and stops intracranial abscesses; it dissolves phlegm from the other parts of the body and causes urine and menstrual fluid to flow, it fortifies the stomach, and it held in esteem for its benefits.
44f3dfa596eaade775fo
Photo by: stikygooeycremychewy.com

...[ the upper third of this page is cut off]...

with 4 ¾ tbsp of hot water,  it eliviates various types of dropsy; it fortifies the stomach and prevents hepatitis, it increases the appetite, cools fevers, and is not harmful to those who have caught a chill.

Thursday, October 27, 2011

APIO AND A 4TH C CELERY PURÉE MADAME POMPADOUR DIDN' T TRY!

Madame de Pompadour at her...
Photo by: renamototest5
Gr. sélinon, L. Apium graveolens, Ar. karafs Fr. celery, ME. smallage, Eng. celery. It is believed that the plant is a native of the Mediterranean but that is not confirmed. Greeks and Romans thought the plant an aphrodisiac. Centuries later, Madame Pompadour tried the theory when she “invented” celery soup to revive her inflamed relations with Louis XV. Spaniards, who drank the soup in the Middle Ages, countered saying that a nice bowl of celery soup will make anyone urinate. Celery is a diuretic. Spaniards came to know celery during Roman occupation of Spain. Apicius uses it whole including the root in his puréed recipe, which is a laxative. He added the greens in other recipes. In other recipes, he calls for it but does not specify which part is used. Avenzoar instructed that celery, fennel and lemon balm could be eaten before and after meals without causing any harm. Then plant lost morbid connotations applied to it during the early Middle Ages and became an important summer food for celery has no calories. To eat it, the body must use up calories. It grows throughout Spain and on the Balearic Islands. During the late Middle Ages, it took on the significance of good luck, mental powers, lust and psychic powers. The root is rich in Vitamin C. It is good for liver, kidney and bladder problems and rheumatism. Although Perry claims that the thin stems were thought inedible for their bitterness until the 16th C. in his translation of Anon Andalus, he demonstrates that the MS calls for them in three recipes for drinks. The leaves are used for their fragrance in four other recipes. They are pureed or simply boiled as a vegetable. As garnish, the branches are sliced. The seeds are added as flavoring for a fish dish, a drink and murri, while the juice was added to a recipe for lamb and prunes. Fadalat uses the sprouts in a baked fish dish. There is some confusion about celery in cookery books of medieval Spain because at times they call for “ancient celery,” which in fact is parsley or “celery of the mountain,” a plant similar to fennel. Wild celery was eaten until the 17th C when Italians began cultivating it. It is interesting to note that many items which fell into disuse after Roman occupation were brought back during the Muslim occupation but celery is not mentioned in the medieval MSS from Catalonia. Villena includes it in his list of herbs but does not elaborate on it. [Anón/Huici.1966:10:20:69:50:192:123 etc; Apicius/Flower. 1958:III:IV:5:75:III:XV:2:85:IV;V:1:119 etc; Ibn Razīn/Granja.1960:287:28; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez 1992:92; Simonetti. 1991 :15; Stuart. 1987:154;and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

PURÉED CELERY ADAPTED FROM APICIUS’ CHAPTER III, XV. VEGETABLE PURÉES,  2, ALITER HOLUS MOLLE, p 85 FROM THE 4TH CENTURY
serves about 12

Ingredients

2 large bunches of celery
1 tsp baking soda
A Delicious Change in Greens
Photo by: Lord-Williams
snorkel mask and snorkel
2 onions (use red for color and strong taste)
*1/2 tsp lovage seeds
1 tbsp olive oil
½ tsp freshly ground black pepper
1 tsp oregano
*1/2 tsp lovage seeds
½ tsp cloves
1/2 tsp nutmeg
1 tsp cinnamon
1 c white wine
**1 tbsp Byzantine murri
1 tsp salt or to taste
Preparation

Separate the celery stalks. Wash them well and quarter them horizontally. Set a few leaves aside for garnish. Put them in a large pan, add baking soda and cover with water. Bring to a boil then reduce to a simmer and cook until tender, about 15 minutes. In the meantime put on mask and snorkel. Chop onions. Grind lovage seeds and cloves. Heat olive oil in a non-stick frying pan because the murri sticks. Add onions and the rest of the ingredients and mix well. Bring to a boil and reduce heat to simmer for about 5 minutes until onions are tender.  Discard water from the celery or save it for another recipe.  Chop the celery and puree it in a food processor. Combine the puréed celery with the onion mix. Stir all together, salt to taste and heat until warm. Serve in soup bowls and garnish with celery leaves. Coutons can be added but the cook ate them before the photo was taken.

*Celery seeds or caraway may be used as a substitute.
**See almori for recipe.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

APICIUS, CAELIUS WITH 4TH CENTURY LUCANIAN SAUSAGE RECIPE

Apicius, Caelius, (4 C AD?) author of De Re Coquinaria (“The Art of Cooking”). It contains 500 recipes divided into ten books of recipes for the upper classes. The book was printed in Milan in 1498 and in Venice in 1500. Then it became a widespread novelty being the oldest cookbook on record. Little is known about him. It has been conjectured that he was Marcus Gavius Apicius who lived during the reign of Tiberius. M.G. Apicius was known for a few anecdotes about him and numerous culinary inventions. According to Seneca, he committed suicide when he found that he had spent his fortune on food and would starve to death. [Apicius/Flower. 1958:13]


Sausage Making


LUCANIAN SAUSAGE ADAPTED FROM APICIUS
LUCANICAE, P 68
for 6 persons

Ingredients

1 lb belly pork, minced
2 tbsp pine kernels
25 peppercorns
1 tsp chopped fresh or dried rue
2 tsp dried savory
1 ½ tsp ground cumin
2 tsp chopped fresh parsley
20 laurel berries, if available
*3 tbsp garum
6 sausage skins, 12” lengths


David Teniers 'Sausage Making. . .
Photo by: hanneoria

Preparation


Grind all ingredients in a meat grinder. Knead the mixture well.

Tie a knot at one end of the sausage skin with one end of the string. Place the funnel attachment on the meat grinder. Attach a sausage skin and stuff it, leaving about 1” of skin to allow for shrinkage. Tie the sausage into four links and tie the other end shut. Prick each link several times with a pin.

Smoke them. In northern Spain, the links are hung from the rafters or mantelpiece in the kitchen. They are left until needed. Wood is preferred fire for the aroma. Today, coat hangers are arranged over open fires from which the sausage is hung for a few hours.

*See almorí for recipe.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

APARARLAS WITH A 15TH C ALMOND SHAKE FOR SMOOTHIES RECIPE

to prepare them. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:119-120:186]

ALMENDRADA – 15th C ALMOND MILK SHAKE FOR THE SICK WITH HIGH FEVERS AND HEARTBURN ADAPTED FROM NOLA/`PÉREZ,  pp 120

The Bill Clinton Smoothie
Photo by: Barry Gourmet and Raw
For 4 drinks depending on the size of the gourd


Ingredients

1 lbs or 1 ¼ c shelled almonds
2 ½ c broth
1 tsp salt
1 grourd
2 1/3 tbsp sugar
¼ c rosewater

Preparation

Heat water in a saucepan. Do not let it boil. Blanch almonds by leaving them in the water a few minutes. (Interestingly, Nola explains that boiling water takes away the almond’s “virtue” and flavor.). Peel them. Grind them into flour. Place this in a saucepan. Heat adding broth a little at a time. When mixed, add 1 tsp salt..  If cooking over an open fire keep the pan away from the smoke. 

Boil gourd in 1 tsp salt and water. When done take two cutting boards or two silver plates and put the gourd between them. Press out the water in which they were boiled. Throw out the water in the saucepan and add the gourd. Add almond milk little by little, stirring continuously until thick and the gourd is thoroughly mixed with the almond milk. Add sugar and rosewater. This drink comforts the heart of the sick.

Monday, October 24, 2011

AÑOJO WITH 13TH C WHITE TAFAYA (WITH A HOGGET) RECIPE

When's shearing time? I'm boiling!
Photo by: mafleen

añojo, yearling,  a young bull, steer or heifer (becerro) or a hogget  (borrego), a sheep that is one year old. (The Spanish word does not include horses, deer or other animals as in English.) [Berceo. Antología. "Vida de Santo Domingo." 1986:587d:40; and ES: RAE. 2001]

WHITE TAFÂYÂ (WITH A HOGGET) ADAPTED FROM FADALAT RECIPE #108 PLATO LLAMADO TAFAYA BLANCA, p 25*




Ingredients for 10 persons

4 lbs hogget (breast, trotters and/or flanks)
2 tbsp oil


Spice bag:
1 slice of ginger about ½” thick
1 tbsp coarse salt
1 tbsp coriander seed
1 onion quartered

Meatballs:
1 lb ground lamb or beef for meatballs (pork is tastier but this is an Hispano-Arab dish)
09_09_26_10e
Photo by: make me one bernie b
(A photgrapher who was not fast enough!)
1 egg
½ c milk
¼ c breadcrumbs
1 tsp salt
½ tsp freshly ground pepper
½ tsp cinnamon
½ onion finely chopped

Preparation

Select favored parts of a yearling lamb such as the breast, trotters or flanks. Cut, clean. Heat pot. Add oil. When warm brown the meat. Cover it cover with water Make a spice bag with ginger, washed salt, coriander seed and a little chopped onion. Tie it and add it to the pan with the meat.  Heat uncovered until boiling briskly, skim off fat, cover and simmer 1 ½ - 2 hours.

After about 1 hour, when the broth becomes flavorful from the seasoning remove the spice bag to avoid spoiling it and continue cooking the meat. Meatballs may be added if desired. When the meat is done, skim off  the grease and serve, placing the meat on a large plate and the sauce in a bowl for eaters to dunk the meat into it.

If preferred the recipe may be made with suckling lamb or chicken and hens in the same way as the above.

Meatballs;
Mix all the ingredients in a bowl and make meatballs the size of a hazelnut. One half hour before the end of cooking the lamb, add the meatballs to the pot.

*See blog titled espeso published May 5, 2014 for a different version of this recipe.

Friday, October 21, 2011

AÑEJO - RECIPE FOR MATURE COCKTAILS!

bodegon_embutido
(STILL-LIFE COLD CUTS)
Photo by: Grupo Lamarca Almería
añejo, OCast anneio, L. anniculus aum, Eng. mature(d), fermented, cured; rancid. In the Maragato Region of León, the word is applied to food and drink over one year old, such as ham and wine but generally it can mean food that has matured a few days, months or years. [Dialecto. 1947:141; García Rey. 1934:41; Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:132; and Viñayo. 1944:62]


RECIPE FOR MATURE COCKTAILS
Ingredients


1 friend
1 bottle of mature wine
1 plate of sliced serrano ham, sausage and/or chorizo
1 cheese board
1 baguette
Frank Sinatra (medieval no?) background music 
candle light


Preparation
Remove the mouse from the cheese before the friend arrives.

mouse inside cheese
Photo by: ive7845

Thursday, October 20, 2011

ANTAÑO WITH A 13TH C JEWISH DISH OF STUFFED EGGPLANT


Concepción, the Slaughter Man's Wife Preparing Sausages
While He Looks on
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
last year; formerly, the bygone days. The term is used especially in connection with the loss of customs and traditions such as the ritual of the slaughter. [Baena/Dutton.1993:380:652:v12; Fernández González. 1994:192; and Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:155]

A JEWISH DISH OF STUFFED EGGPLANT
ADAPTED FROM ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #451 PLATO JUDÍO DE BERENJAS RELLENAS CON CARNE, p 248

(Although this is obviously not a Sabbath day dish, Juan Alfonso Baena,. Secretary and Scribe of Juan II of Castle, Isabel I's father, during the first third of the 15th C,  wrote in Cancionero that eggplants were associated with Jews who included them in dishes made for the Sabbath day and other days. If this was a Jewish dish, it would have been made with kosher meat, however, it is one of 19 recipes calling for eggplant in the Hispano-Arab MS. It is believed that Baena was a Jewish convert to Christianity.)
For 8 persons:
Formerly, it was said Jews ate so many eggplants that their eyes looked like them.
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

4 eggplants

Stuffing:
1 lb ground meat from a leg of lamb
2 tbsp virgin olive oil
1 tsp salt
1 tsp pepper
1 tso cinnamon
1 tsp spikenard
8 eggs

1st Pot:
¼ c virgin olive oil
1 tbsp onion juice
1 tbsp mixed spices and herbs
2 tbsp rosewater
2 tbsp pinenuts
2 tbsp citron leaves
1 tbsp mint
1 tsp salt

2nd Pot:
1 tbsp vinegar
1 tsp murri
1 onion grated
1 sprig of thyme
1 sprig of rue
1 citron leaf
2 stalks of fennel
2 tbsp oil
2 tbsp soaked garbanzos
½ tsp ground saffron
3 cut garlic cloves

3rd Pot
1 ½ tbsp virgin olive oil
1 tbsp cilantro water
½ tbsp sharp vinegar
1 onion chopped
2 tbsp almonds
2 tbsp pinenuts
1 sprig rue
3 citron leaves

Garish
2nd pot:
2 hard-boiled egg yolks
1 tbsp chopped rue.
1 tbsp aromatic herbs.

3nd pot:
1 egg
1 tsp chopped rue
1 tbsp rosewater
1 tsp spices
1 tsp pepper

STUFFED JEWISH EGGPLANTS

Fill a pan with water and bring it to a boil. Add whole eggplants and continue boiling 20-25 minutes until soft. Remove the flesh leaving the skins whole.

Heat a frying pan. Add 2 tbsp virgin olive oil. When hot sauté lamb unti browned. About 10 minutes.

Remove lamb and knead it with the seasoning and the flesh from the eggplants. Separate whites from the yolks.  Beat the whites from 8 eggs. Then beat the yolks from 6 eggs. Mix the yolks with the stuffing. Fold in the whites. Stuff the eggplant skins with this. 

*Prepare the 3 pots:

Put a sufficient amount water in the 1st pot to cover the ingredients listed. Bring it to a boil. Add half of the stuffed eggplants. Cook 30 minutes.

In the 2nd pot add enough water to cover the chickpeas. Bring them to a boil. Simmer, boiling gently for 15 minutes to 2 hours depending on the size of the peas. Add the other half of the stuffed eggplants ½ hour before the end of cooking time.
 
In the 3rd pot mix the ingredients for it sauté until the onion is translucent.

Place the ingredients from the 1st pot on one end of a platter. Add those from the 2nd pot on the other end and garnish them with chopped hard-boiled egg yolks and rue. Sprinkle them with aromatic herbs.

Put the ingredients from the 3rd pot in the middle of the platter and garnish with egg cooked with rue and sprinkle it with rosewater, spices and pepper and present it.

*Traditionally today, stuffed eggplant is baked at 350º F / 175º C for 20 minutes and is topped with grated cheese. The latter does not appear in Spanish culinary books until the 15th C with Nola. It could be that Jews did not have ovens as the Sabbath Day meals were cooked in bakeries over night. 

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

ÁNTIMA WITH RECIPE FOR BELLY PORK MARINADE

belly pork. When it is trimmed, smoked and sliced, it becomes bacon, which is the bacon commonly sold in supermarkets today. [Cerdo. n/d:no page numbers. Pers. Memories. Mostoles.1998-2001: 2003; and Serradilla. 1993:87:139]

Belly Pork
Photo by: gabster_ro
BELLY PORK MARINADE ADAPTED FROM SERRADILLA’S ANTIMA EN PUHERO ASADA FROM VERA (EXTREMADURA, SPAIN), p. 87

Ingredients

13 lbs (the average weight of) belly pork when extracted from a pig
2 tbsp olive oil



For the marinade:
Bacon Wrapped Chicken
Photo by: Lefroto
1 garlic head skinned and mashed
*1 bottle of red wine
1 tbsp salt
*2 tbsp freshly ground pepper
1 tbsp oregano

Final preparation:
2 tbsp olive oil
2 garlic cloves sliced


Preparation

Extract the belly from the pig. Wash it in cold water. Pat dry. Score the top in a diagonal pattern to allow the marinade to penetrate the meat.

Heat the oil. Brown the pork belly on each side. Pour the oil and the fat rendered into the pot for the marinade.

Prepare a marinade: mix the ingredients above. Add the pork belly. Add enough water to completely cover the belly. Leave for 7-8 days, stirring occasionally. Once it has absorbed the marinade, remove it, drain off the liquid and let it air dry.

For the final preparation: cut the belly pork into pieces or slices and place them in a container for storage. Heat the olive oil and fry the garlic cloves. When done pour them and the olive oil over the belly pork. The pieces of belly pork can be added to other food preparations, fried or simply heated. Traditionally, pieces or slices are served with wine and bread as a tapa

*Today paprika is used instead of wine and pepper especially that from Vera which is very famous.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

ANSARÓN - GOSLING WITH 13th C SWEET & SOUR ALMOND & ORANGE SAUCE

Gosling twins
Photo by: Rivertay
 gosling, young goose. Villena stated that in the 15th C they were abundant in Aragon. Nola thought they provided quality meat for kings and lords. It was recommended to hang them overnight after killing them. This process tenderized the meat. After roasting, Villena instructed to carve in the same way as a peacock, see pavo. Nola instructs that the legs should be removed first and then slice the breast beginning with the right side. Like the pig, all parts of the goose are used. The grease applied to the skin beautifies it. Farmers apply it to sooth sore hooves and paws. The feathers serve as quills and stuffing for pillows and comforters. The claws flavor the broth. The livers make exquisite pâte. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:LXII:105-106:LXIII:107:LXXVIIII:116-117 etc; Anón/Huici. 1966:48:38:229:139:105:72-73 etc; ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn 37; Nola. 1989:xxiii-2:xliii-1:lv-2; Nola/Pérez. 1992:62-63:188; and Villena/Calero 2002:22ª


HOW TO PREPARE GEESE, SENT SOVÍ #LXXVIIII QUI PARLA CON SA DEU FFER CARN AB BROU, MOLTÓ O VACA O CRESTAT O CABRIT, pp 116-117

Always roast geese on a spit or in the oven. A sauce should be served with it. Sent Soví recommends one composed of white sugar and almonds. This sauce can be used to accompany chicken, duck, and partridge as well.

SWEET SOUR SAUCE ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVI #LX, pp 104-105   (It seems that Nola copied his recipe from Sent Soví and added cinnamon, ginger and pepper and used pomegranate juice instead of orange or lemon. Nola calls for honey or powdered sugar which Sent Soví only calls for sugar.

Sweet & Sour Almond & Orange Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients
1  c almonds
2 c orange juice or juice from 8 oranges
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp ginger
½  tsp pepper
¼  c honey
2 tbsp rosewater


garnish:
2 tbsp orange peel
1 tbsp parsley or other herb

Blanch almonds in boiling water. Remove skins. Put them into a food processor and grind until the texture is like flour. Add cinnamon, ginger and pepper. Do not strain. Make strips of orange peel with a vegetable scraper, trim and set aside for garnish. Squeeze oranges. Put the almond mixture into a sauce pan and simmer, adding orange 1 tablespoon at a time. Mix well and continue adding the juice  until the consistency is like gravy. Add honey. Mix until the texture is creamy.  Add a splash of rosewater to perfume and garnish with orange peel and parsley or other decorative herb.


It is excellent with any kind of meat or fish and good warm in winter and cold in the summer.


Recipes for geese can be found in almendra and ánsar.


1 gosling 12-14 weeks old weighs as much as a full grown goose 


*Nola's recipe for Pomegranate Sauce, xxx-5 Salseron para perdizes o gallinas assadas,  is very simular, see azúcar en polvo published January 20, 2012.

Monday, October 17, 2011

ÁNSAR WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR STUFFED GOOSE

catedral de barcelona 10.7.08 - 61
(Since Roman times geese are the 
traditional guardians of Barcelona)
Photo by: by laura padgett

OCast ansarino, ansanrino, L. anser, Eng. goose. During the 15th C, Villena indicates they were abundant in Aragon and frequently served at meals. More than a dozen species wintered in Spain arriving in October and leaving at the end of February. Villena states that they should be carved in the same way as peacock but the sternum should not be cut into two parts. Avenzoar advised that geese and ducks have the same properties as cranes but more pronounced, see grulla. All these birds, he continued ‘are recommended for those suffering from prostration and hemiplegia, but they are harmful for people of a warm nature. They are digested with difficulty, especially during the summer season.’ Classical physicians customarily recommended that the throat of the fowl be slit and then hung with the feathers still on for a few hours before cooking. This procedure was recommended for digestion to be as rapid as possible for they thought this was this like yeast added to bread in that it facilitated digestion. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:LXII:105-106:LXIII:107:LXXVIIII:116-117 etc; Anón/Huici. 1966:48:38:229:139:105:72-73 etc; Baena/Dutton. 1993:367:643:4v; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:52; Nola. 1989:xxiii-2:xliii-1:lv-2; and Villena/Clavero. 2002:22b:26a]

GOOSE WITH STUFFING ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN ANDALUS #105

RECETA DEL PLATO DE OCA Y RELLENO, pp 72-73
for 6 persons

Ingredients
1 goose (9-11 lbs )

Stuffing:
4 tsp anise
½ tsp cloves
1 tbsp cinnamon
1 tbsp fennel seeds
*1 tbsp murri
1 tbsp cilantro juice
½ c crushed almonds
1 tbsp onion juice
12 eggs (the original recipe calls for 25 but eggs were smaller in the Middle Ages)
¼ c whole pine nuts
1 pinch of salt
2 sprigs chopped mint
2 sprigs chopped fennel
¼ c pistachios
2 tsp olive oil

After the breast is stuffed top the stuffing with:
5 hard boiled egg yolks

Coating for breast:
5 egg whites
1 tsp pepper
1 tbsp cinnamon
1 pinch of salt

Top that with:
1 c olive oil
*1 tbsp macerated murri

Seasoning for the rest of the meat:
2 tsp freshly ground pepper
½ tsp ground cloves
1 tbsp cinnamon
1 tbsp fennel seeds
1 tsp chopped rosemary
1 tsp dried marjoram leaves
2 garlic cloves
2 tbsp vinegar
4 tbsp oil
2 tbsp cilantro juice
*1 tbsp macerated murri
3 sprigs rue chopped
1 tbsp onion juice

meatballs:
½ lb lamb
1 tsp chopped thyme
½ tsp chopped cloves
1 tsp cinnamon
2 egg whites

to bread meat:
4 eggs
½ breadcrumbs
½ flour

garnish for breaded meat and meatballs:
3 hard boiled egg yolks
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp chopped cloves
½ tsp nutmeg

garnish for goose breast:
½ c toasted almonds
¼ c toasted pine nuts
½ tsp cinnamon
½ tsp anise
½ tsp freshly ground pepper
2 tbsp rosewater

Preparation

Slit the throat of a goose and inflate it, then pluck it. Remove the entrails and intestines, after cleaning them well chop them. Put the spices in a food processor and grind them into powder. Add them to the entrails with the rest of the stuffing ingredients. Beat all this and stuff the goose's skin with it.

Remove the breast from the body of the goose. Remove the meat from the breastbone. Remove the skin leave it intact and pound the meat. Cover it 5 egg whites, pepper and cinnamon beaten together. Put it in boiling water until stiff.  Remove it from the water, pat dry and cover it with the stuffing. Put egg yolks in the middle of the stuffing. Cover the breast with the skin and sew it up to prevent the stuffing from oozing out.

Beat the ingredients for coating the goose together and paint the skin adding boiling water until it thickens.

Sliced Goose Breast

Photo by: by Another Pint Please...

Preheat oven to 350º F / 175º C

Place the breast in a tajine or pot. Top it with oil and murri mixed with a little water and put it in the oven. Baste frequently, every 20 minutes or so with the pan juices. Cook until browned, about 1 hour.

Then take the rest of the goose meat chop it into bite size pieces removing the bones and skin. Put it in a pot and top it with spices and other seasonings. Cook it until it is done.

Grind lamb or mutton, season and add egg whites; make meatballs the size of hazelnuts. Take the goose meat out of the pot and cook the meatballs it.

When the meatballs are cooked, bread the goose meat that was cooked in the pan by dipping it into a mixture of 4 beaten eggs, then breadcrumbs and finally flour.  Return the meat to the pot. Pour the leftover eggs, breadcrumbs and flour over this. Remove the pot from the heat and leave it on the hearth until the dough wrinkles. 

Place it with the meatballs in a serving dish and dot it with chopped egg yolks and sprinkle spices on top.

Put the breast in another dish and garnish with toasted almonds and pine nuts. Cut it in half and sprinkle it with fine spices. Sprinkle with rosewater and serve.

*See almorí macerado for recipe.

Friday, October 14, 2011

ANÍS, CHICKEN (WITH CHICKPEAS) RECIPE FROM ANÓN AL-ANDALUS

Star Anise
Photo by: Lord-Williams
matalahava, matalahúva, matalalúa, OCast batalhalúa, matafalna, matafalúa, matahalúa, matalahuga, matalahau, matalahúga, matalaúa, matalava, anys, OCat batahaluua, Cat. all, matafaluga, Est matalauva, Hisp Ar matalahúga, al-hábba, , al-hulûwa (a sweet grain), Gr. anison, anneson, L. Pimpinella anisum, Early Ar. anysum, Ar. anisún, nafaa, habbata halúa, razianej rūmī (Byzantine fennel), MEng an(ne)ys, Eng. anise, the seed and the plant. Pimpinella, a medieval name, comes from the Latin dipinello, meaning bi-pinnate, referring to the form of the leaves. The plant is a native of Asia Minor, Greece, Crete and Egypt. By 1500 B.C. it was cultivated for culinary and digestive purposes. Following Charlemagne’s 9th C. edict that each of his estates be supplied with specimens of all the herbs growing in St. Gall’s monastery, anise spread all over Europe. Spain and North Africa became steady producers. The Arabs, however, claim they were ahead of the French monarch by reintroducing it to Al-Andalus. It was imported to England where it became very popular by 1305 in perfume and medicine. Edward I created a special tax on it to repair London Bridge. A special English treat was anneys in counfyte, candied spice seeds, especially aniseed. There was no attempt to cultivate anise there until the middle of the 17 C. The climate is unsuitable as a long warm season is required for the seeds to ripen. Although the seed is small, brown and ugly, the oil from it is preferred for flavoring, aroma and medicinally. In lozenges or in cough medicine, it relieves dry coughs for its carminative and pectoral properties. The principal component of anise oil is anethole, which is good for spasmodic asthma, bronchitis and the bronchial tubes. Expectant mothers took it to calm nausea, while nursing mothers ate it to stimulate milk. Northern Europeans save the flavoring or the seed for cakes and breads. In Asia and along the Mediterranean, whole or ground anise seeds were added to vegetables, meat dishes, marinades, breads, fruits, cheeses, cakes and liquor. The leaf was included in fruit salads and the roots and stems were added to stews and soups. From prehistoric times, it has been drunk as an infusion. Traditionally, anisette is thought of as a liquor but that is a Renaissance invention. Hippocrates drank a beverage flavored with anise called “anisum.” Arnold de Vilanova, Catalan alchemist, born in 1240, wrote The Boke of Wine in which he described the distillation of wine into aqua vitae and flavored with herbs and spices including anise. Both he and Raymond Lully, his student, thought this divinely inspiring as they found it vital and life restoring. For its magical powers see eneldo. [Aguilera. 2002:51; Alonso, Martin 1985:II:D:2740; Bremness. 1990:109; Corominas. 1980:III:G:877; Curye. 1985:170; Espasa. 1988:33:MARI:843; ES: Coleman. Feb 13, 03; ES: Gavalas. Sep 23, 02; ES: Meadery. Mar 3, 01; Serradilla. 1993:34; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

A DISH OF CHICKEN RECOMMENDED FOR THE ELDERLY AND THOSE OF A MOIST DISPOSITION ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN ANDALUS #197 PLATO DE POLLO QUE CONVIENE A LOS VIEJOS Y A LOS QUE TIENEN SEROSIDADES, p 125
For 6 persons

*Chicken with mashed chickpeas...
Ingredients
3-4 lb chicken
6 eggs
2 onions
1 c chickpeas
1 tsp freshly fround pepper
1 sp cumin
1 tsp caraway seed
1 tso anise
1 tbsp olive oil
salt to taste
2 tbsp or 1 oz rue
1 cinnamon stick
6 egg yolk
1 c chopped almonds
1 tsp mashed cloves
1 tsp crushed lavender florets

Preparation
Soak chickpeas overnight. Remove feathers from chicken, wash, cut off apendiges and quarter. Put chickepeans into a muslin bag. Put all the ingredients up to and including salt into a pot. Cover with cold water and bring to a boil. Add rue and cinnamon. Boil gently until the chicken is done, about 1 hour. Stir in egg yolks and almonds to thicken the broth. Add cloves and lavender florets and serve. For a more decorative dish mash chickpeas in a food processor.

*The chili in the photograph is not medieval. Bright pink and purple lavender florets can be just as decorative.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

ANGUILA WITH TYPICAL VALENCIAN RECIPE FOR BABY EELS

Cambridge - Fishing Cove - Eel (2)
Photo by:  jared422_80

L. Anguilla anguilla, Ar. silbāh, MEng angeylles, angoyles, eles, helys, Eng. European eel, baby eel, elver.  Theses fresh water fish include any of the group with long, slippery, snakelike bodies without pelvic fins found in rivers. Eels spawn in the sea and then enter the mouths of rivers where they live until about 10 years old. Then they return to their birthplace to spawn. Eels change sex and females are capable of mating with two males at a time. In Spain, they are found in the Basque country and in regions along the Mediterranean.  Hispano Arabs commonly ate eel fresh, salted or dried. A typical Al-Andalus dish was a casserole in which a large eel was skinned, chopped, boiled and then browned in the oven with coriander, saffron, garlic, garum, or broth, oil, salt and pepper. ;Murcia was a major provider of eel to parts of Christian Spain especially during Lent. In Valladolid eel was for those well off economically while in England it was a fish for the poor. There were so many eels in England during the Middle Ages that there was even a “bishop of  eels,” known as the Bishop of Ely, the see of which is located in the town of Ely, Cambridge. It houses an extraordinary cathedral, indicating that although a poor man’s dish especially in Cambridge and Norfolk during the Middle Ages, tithes from eel fishermen’s profits were outstanding. Eels were believed to have grown from horsehair in water. Like snakes, they do not die until sunset. Eel skins were wound around aching parts of the body to relieve pain. Eel-fat enabled one to see fairies and other supernatural beings. By dipping the skin of a live eel into one’s drink, drunkenness was cured. The eels of the Tober Monachan Well in County Kerry, Ireland have guardians that are magical spirits. Today, in Spain, these magical spirits are in the festive taste buds alone as baby eels are a luxury dish traditionally served during the Christmas season for those who can afford caviar prices. Villena advises to slice down the backbone of large eels, leaving the vertebra whole. Elvers need only a thorough washing with very cold water. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Classica. 1995:160; Castro. Alimentación. 1996:322:324:325; Curye. 1985:170 Ruíz/Brey. 1965:1105a 178; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a:38a]

A TYPICAL VALENCIAN RECIPE FOR BABY EELS
hors d oeuvres or an appetizer
¿Qué comí anoche? Project 365(2) Day 75
(What did I eat last night?)
Photo by: Keith Williamson
For 6 persons

Ingredients
2 tbsp virgin olive oil
1 ½  lb elvers
2 garlic cloves minced
1 tbsp chopped parsley
1 splash of Sherry

Preparation
Elvers are caught at night as they sleep on the bottom of rivers during the day. They are placed alive in special boxes with tiny holes and layers. The top layer is filled with ice, which melts and falls down to lower layers where the elvers are placed, according to size, keeping them cool. Their bodies are white when caught. During the boxing process they become darker. This does not happen if killed immediately. The elvers are kept in the boxes for a week to loose their muddy flavor and slim. Once this is accomplished they are washed thoroughly with very cold water. The heads are left on because eaters want to see their eyes. Fakes have crept into the market over the years that do not have a black dot in each eye like real elvers have.

Heat a frying pan. Add olive oil . When it is smoking add the elvers and quickly distribute them evenly. In very few seconds, they turn whiter. Sprinkle garlic on top taking care that it does not touch the frying pan for if it does it will acquire a bitter taste. Sprinkled parsley over this. Do not over-cook as it will loose its color and flavor. Finally, splash the elvers with sherry and serve them piping hot with wooden forks. Metal ruins the flavor.



Wednesday, October 12, 2011

ÁNGINAS DEL ESPARTO WITH VEAL STOCK RECIPE FOR FARMER'S LUNG DISEASE

Emaciated horse eats dry,moldy hay
Photo by: ispeak, in
Farmer’s Lung Disease. This is a type of pneumonia due to hyper sensibility or extrinsic allergic alveolitis. The sources of the antigens causing the disease come from mould spores in bacteria of molding grains and straw including sawdust from Sequoia wood, sugar cane, cork, damp hay, esparto grass, barley, malt, wheat and other grains and dust from coffee beans and thatched roofs (contaminated with fungus). Excretions from pigeons or other birds, rat urine and mushroom fertilizer (Termoactinomyces, bacteria and protozoa) can cause this disease also. Essentially, the illness is contracted by laborers inhaling organic dust from different animal and vegetable proteins, as well as inorganic substances, such as isocyanides, which encompass a large number of professions depending on this agent. It can produce various pathological forms: acute, sub-acute and chronic. It can be an allergy or a pulmonary condition. Symptoms include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, a dry irritating cough, fever and chills and feeling generally sick. It will disappear if the patient is removed from the situation immediately. Prolonged exposure causes permanent lung damage and death. Although the Al-Andalus prescribed meat and marrow to strengthen patients suffering from this disease during the Middle Ages, there was no cure. [Anón/Huici.1966:20:10; and ES: Protocolos. Oct 7, 03]

VEAL STOCK RECIPE ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS  #10 RECETA DEL PLATO QUE MENCIONA AL-RAZI p 20

Ingredients

10 lbs meaty veal bones including blade bones, breast and neck
entrails from 1 calf
1 stomach
1 ½ lb onion, peeled and chopped
Keller Veal Stock 012
Photo bybassomatic132
salt to taste

In a muslin bag put:
1 tsp coriander
1 tsp cumin
1 tbsp peppercorns
1 tsp saffron
1 cinnamon stick
6 Rue leaves
2 sprigs celery leaves
2 sprigs mint leaves
4 citron leaves
4 lemon leaves

¼ c virgin olive oil
1 c vinegar
8 qts water (the original recipe uses only vinegar, no water)
leavened breadcrumbs or slices of day old bread

Gives strength to the sick and those weakened by lengthy illnesses , and  for those with farmer’s lung disease and jaundice.

Preheat oven to 450º F / 230º C
Cut meat and fat off bones. Chop meat and fat. Cut bones in half lengthwise. Place them, cut side up, on foil-lined baking sheet or in ovenproof skillet. Cook until marrow is soft and has begun to separate from the bone, about 15 minutes.
Put the meat, bones, marrow, fat, entrails and stomach in a pot with onions, salt, the muslin bag and oil.. Cover with strong vinegar, add water and cook until the meat softens and falls apart. This can take from 8-12 hours. Remove muslin bag and bones. Strain the broth. Chop entrails and stomach. Put breadcrumbs or a slice of bread in each soup bowl to be used, add meat, onions, fat, entrails and stomach. Pour the broth over this and serve. Store left over broth for future use.

*Huici notes that he does not know whether this refers to one of the Razis, historians of the Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus, or to a doctor, a resident of Medina Sidonia, cited by al-Shaquri, folio 54 v and 56 r.