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Friday, December 30, 2011

AVERROES WITH 14TH C CATALAN VERSION RICE PUDDING

 Averroes
Photo from: Sibad
Ar. Ibn Rushd, Mohammed (1126-1198). He was first known for his studies in theology, law, medicine, mathematics and philosophy and observations in astronomy in Cordoba. He went to Seville where he was a judge in 1169. In 1192, Abu Ya’qub Yusuf, Almohad ruler in Cordova, appointed him to be the court physician. He was the author of Kitāb al-Kulliyat fi-l Tibb (Book of General Medicine) in which he recommended an olive oil diet, rice pudding, spinach, gourds, eggplant, figs and grapes for good health. The majority of his manuscripts have not survived but translations into Hebrew and Latin have been found. He studied Qur’anic and natural sciences including medicine, biology and physics as well. Also, he was versed in philosophy and theology. Due to his assimilation of Aristotelianism, Muslim scholasticism was created 400 years prior to that of western scholars who had forgotten the masterworks of Plato and Aristotle after the fall of the Holy Roman Empire. He died in Marrakesh. See Nueva-Clásica Cocina Andalusí. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:14-15; Donzel. 1994:42; ES: Shamsuddín. “Gastronomía.” Sep 21, 01; and Gibb. 1955:92]



RICE PUDDING ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #CVII, QUI PARLA CON FFAREU MORTEROL DE AR ÒS, pp 135-136
It is curious to find two very similar recipes from the same period in two different regions of Spain, see aceite de almendras published on Oct 13, 10 for the Anón Al-Andalus version. 

Rice pudding
Photo by: by pineconekaty
Ingredients

2 ½ c vegetable broth
1 c almonds
1/3 c uncooked short grain white rice
1 tbsp virgin olive oil
1 pinch of salt
2 eggs
1 tsp saffron
¼ c sugar

Garnish
1 tsp cinnamon
1/3 c raisins

Preparation

Wash rice in hot water 2 or 3 times. Spread it on a large wooden platter and dry it in the sun or by the fire. Immediately, wash the pan and put it on the fire. Add 2 c almond milk that has been well strained with oil and salt. Bring to a boil. Immediately add the rice and simmer uncovered, stirring frequently to prevent rice from sticking to the bottom of the pan. Cook until mushy about 20-25 minutes.

Whisk eggs, dissolved saffron and sugar in a small mixing bowl. Put 1 tbsp of the hot rice to the egg mixture and beat vigorously. Add another tbsp of the rice and beat vigorously. Repeat until ½ c of the rice is mixed. Then pour this mixture into the saucepan with rest of the rice.
Place it over low heat, for about 10 minutes until thickened, stirring frequently. Serve it in bowls. Sprinkle garnish on top.





Thursday, December 29, 2011

AVENZOAR WITH CREAM OF SPINACH AND ALMOND SOUP RECIPE

Photo by: fayyadhmetusin.blogspot.com
Abā Marwā Abd Al-Malik ben Sur or Ibn Zuhr, 1091-1162, physician of the Almoravide and Almohad Emirs of Cordova. He was born in Seville. He came from a long line of scholars and physicians living in Spain, including two females who worked for the emirs in Al-Andalus, and he was considered one of the best. Averrores praised him as the greatest physician after Galen. He graduated in medicine from the University of Cordova and returned to Seville where studied under his father and practiced medicine.

 He carried on Galen’s theories based on the four elements. Between 1121-1161 he wrote some 10 books on medicine mostly dealing with liver, spleen and abdominal diseases. Not only was Kitab al-Taysir one of his most important works, it was one of the most outstanding Arabic works on medicine. During the following eras, Christian physicians kept copies of it.

Avenzoar was especially remembered for his observation. At one point Caliph Abd-al-Mumin needed to drink purgative drugs, which he detested. Avenzoar put the drug into 10 grapes. When the laxative content of the grapes was strong enough, he gave them to the caliph to eat, which cured him. Another man complained of a large stomach tumor. Avenzoar, to the patient’s horror, broke his water jug. Inside was a frog. Avenzoar then told the man that that was the cause of his illness and that now the man would recover. He did.

Avenzoar remained in Seville until he fell out of grace during the end of the Abu Yusuf Ya’qub’s reign. In 1131 Avenzoar was exiled and then imprisoned in Maraakesh. It is not known for how long but thought that he was set free between 1142-1143. Following the Almohad dynasty conquest of Seville at the end of the decade, Avenzoar returned to teach and practice medicine until his death in 1162. [Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:13; and ES: Pena. Aug 14, 01]


CREAM OF SPINACH AND ALMOND SOUP RECIPE
for 4 persons


Of spinach, Avenzoar indicated that it is cold and dry. It was cultivated in the Middle Ages and the leaves were cooked in the winter. He claimed almonds are hot, humid and have an agreeable taste. If eaten with the skin, it will not produce nausea, for it has astringent powers that prevent it. If eaten [alone], it produces tranquil sleep and hydration. If included in dishes, it gives them humidity that is not excessive and if prepared in soup, the result is very useful for the breast and lungs, calms burning in urine, cleans the ducts, discharges and, finally, is good for the underweight and those suffering from consumption.Milk should be drunk that has just been milked, but if drunk when thick, honey or salt should be added. He found goats milk the most satisfactory of all.. [Ibn Zuhr/ García Sánchez. 1992:78:83:97:142]

Ingredients
Cream of Spinach Soup
Photo by: jugglerpm




¼ c or 20-25 almonds
3 c water
1 tbsp oil
½ chopped onion
1 garlic clove chopped
1 tsp ground ginger
salt and pepper to taste
2 c spinach
1 c whole milk
1 cinnamon stick
1 c liquid cream

Preparation

Boil 1 c water. Add almonds and blanch for a few seconds. Remove from heat, remove almonds from water, remove skins and set aside.

Heat oil. Add onions and sauté. Add garlic, ginger, salt and pepper. Cook for 2-3 minutes. Add spinach. Sauté until spinach leaves are tender. Add 2 c water and boil for 5 minutes.

Put almonds and the mixture in a blender and puree. Pour this back into the pan. Add milk and cinnamon stick. Bring to a boil and simmer 5 minutes. Stir in the cream.

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

AVENATE WITH 16TH C OATMEAL IN ALMOND MILK RECIPE

Traditional Oats
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OCast auente, OCat avenat, Eng oat caudle or gruel, oatmeal. It could be consumed as a drink or as a hot or cold soup. It was made of oats, which are boiled and then the hulls are removed. They are washed well, mashed and boiled again. Sent Soví and Nola’s recipes called oatmeal boiled with almonds. Sugar and cinnamon were sprinkled on top before serving. These recipes have been carried down to present times and are found in general Spanish cookbooks. The medieval English versions were made with beer or ale, served warm and were prepared especially for poor men and convalescences too tired or too weak to eat. Their ingredients included eggs, milk or ale and sugar. See formigos, ordinate, polenta and trigo guisado. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:LXXXXVIIII:130: Apè I:32:223:Apè IV:245; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:79; Groundes-Peace. 1971:112; Hartley. 2003:522-523; and Nola 1989:xl-4:xl-5]

OATMEAL OR BARLEY GRUEL IN ALMOND MILK ADAPTED FROM NOLA xl-5 AUENATE Y ORDIATE

For 4 persons

Oatmeal with Strawberries
Photo by: kiai_77
Ingredients

1 c almonds
4 c broth
¾ c oatmeal
¼ c sugar

Garnish
Cinnamon, honey, sliced fresh fruit, dried fruits including raisins or nuts and/or strawberries

Preparation

Take peeled almonds and grind them in a food processor; then blend them with broth and strain it through a cheese cloth into a saucepan containing the oatmeal. Cook 5 minutes over moderate heat. Stir in sugar, garnish at will and serve. Nola calls for white sugar but many prefer brown. Barley gruel is made in the same way. 

Tuesday, December 27, 2011

AVENA WITH 13TH C OAT COLADA RECIPE

OATS
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
L. Avena sativa, Eng. oat. The exact origin is unknown. It is thought to have come from the lake regions in Europe. Wild oats were weeds. Those cultivated are the result of mutations. Oat seeds are stripped of all their teguments. The innermost fibrous covering is called grouts; these are ground into flour and meal. In Scotland the seed is kiln-dried and husked. Oatmeal is the result of grinding this. Oats best adapt to moist, cool climates like Scotland, the largest consumer during the Middle Ages. The English chided that it was the poor man’s meal in Scotland and horse feed in England. Of course the Scots retaliated stating their men were more robust, healthier, hardier and lead a longer life because of it. In Spain, oats were primarily cultivated for livestock but they have been ground into flour and included in the human diets as drinks for children, the elderly and the sick. In the hills of Scotland and Wales, oats are ground into flour and this is used for bread making in marginal barley and wheat areas. Oats have been used to make cakes, porridges flummery, puddings, dumplings, caudles and even sausages. Recipes for these have varied slightly since the Middle Ages. Oatcakes (also called havers or clappers) were introduced to northwestern districts of England by John of Hainault in the 12th C. Although, the product is poor due to its limited gluten content, it actually has proved good for nervous exhaustion, low fevers and weak heart muscle. For coughs, throat and chest problems rock candy or violet preservers were mixed with oats. It was thought that oats separated viscose humors, which relaxed the stomach. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:LXXXXVIIII:130: Apè I:32:223:Apè IV:245;Covarrubias. 1998:167b-68ª:52-9; ES: Felter. “Avena.” Feb 9, 03; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:69; Hartley. 2003:515-525; and Nola. 1989:xl-5]


OAT COLADA ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ APÈ I 
#32 AVENAT EN ALTRA MANERA p 223
Refresco de avena
Photo from: mis-recetas.org
For 4 persons

Ingredients
1 c almonds
4c water
¼ c oatmeal
3 c boiling water
1 pinch of salt
1/8 c sugar

Preparation

Grind almonds inn a food processor. Add water and blend. Put oatmeal in a sauce pan and addd boling water with a pinch of salt. Cook over moderate heat until done, about 5 minutes. Add the almond milk. Mix well and strain through a cheese cloth. Add sugar and serve as a drink, warm or cold.

Monday, December 26, 2011

AVE MARÍA WITH 15TH C MEAT OR FISH TURNOVER RECIPE

Hail Mary, a measurement of time when cooking. It indicates to wait during the time it takes to recite a Hail Mary before taking the next action. For longer or shorter times the Lord’s Prayer, prayers to Our Lady or the Creed were recited. Today prayers are reserved for bad cooks. The longer the prayer, the worse the cook is. [Nola. 1989: xliiii-2 and Nola/Pérez. 1994:189]

MEAT OR FISH TURNOVER ADAPTED FROM NOLA 
#xliiii-2 EMPANADA DE CARNE O PESCADO

empanadas 2
Photo by: by josquin2000
Ingredients

2 ¼ lbs meat or fish
2 tbsp parsley
1 tsp freshly chopped basil
½ tsp oregano
½ tsp marjoram
1 tsp freshly ground pepper
salt to taste
2 pks turnover pastries (16 pieces)
1 raw egg
¼ c verjuice, orange juice or  white vinegar scented with rosewater

Preparation

Nola says to boil the meat or fish. It is more common to gently fry it and if it is meat it is ground first. Today, onions, a garlic clove,  tomatoes and bell peppers are added but latter are new world products. Nola, on the other hand, instructs that meat should be cut into pieces as large as two fingers or smaller. instead of being ground. Season it with the herbs and spices. Let cool.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F / 175º C

Place 1 tbsp of meat or fish in the center of each piece of pastry. Fold it over and seal the edges shut using the prongs of a fork. Make a vent hole in top for the turnover to breath. Otherwise, it will explode in the oven. Place the turnovers on a baking sheet and bake them. They take about 15 minutes to bake.

Beat the egg with the juice. A little before done, remove the turnovers from the oven and pour 1 ½ tsp of the egg mixture into each turnover through the vent hole in the top. Put the turnovers back into the oven and recite the Lord’s Prayer and a Hail Mary. When finished remove the turnovers from the oven and serve. 

They can be served for lunch or dinner with a salad or a rice dish. If serving as hors d'oeuvres, smaller turnover pastries are recommended.

Friday, December 23, 2011

ATÚN BLANCO & 14TH ATLANTIC TUNA WITH CAPERS RECIPE

bonito del norte, OCat tunyina, Cat tonyina, L. Thunnus alalungaEng. Atlantic tuna, Atlantic bonito or albacore tuna, These are fished off the Bay of Biscay in summer. In the 15th C,  the fishing grounds in area were controlled by the Marquis de Santillana of the Mendoza family. They can grow to be one meter long. The color of the dorsal is a strong blue almost black. The pectoral fins are large. The meat is a better quality than that of tuna (Thunnus thynnus), see atún aleta azul. This species has been called palamida in Spanish but this in English is skipjack tuna (L. Katsuwonus pelamis). Also see bonito, melva, mojama, palamida, rabil, and toquilla.  [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXVIIII:195:CCVI:208-209:CCVII:209 etc]


FRESH ATLANTIC TUNA WITH CAPERS ADAPTED BY *JOSEP LLADONOSA FROM SENT SOVÍ # CCVII QUI PARLA CON SA DEU APERRELLAR TUNYINA FFRESUA, p 209
For 4 persons

inmagine.com
Ingredients

2 lbs fresh Atlantic tuna
3 onions
7/8 c  capers
½ c vinegar
1/3 c oil
salt to taste

Preparation

Thinly slice the onions. Heat oil in an earthenware dish. Add the onions and the tuna cut into four steaks. Cover and cook lowly over moderate het. When almost done add vinegar and let it reduce in volume. Pour the sauce over the tuna. Place the capers in a saucepan with water. Bring to a boil and simmer 4 or 5 minutes. Strain the capers and pour them over the tuna. Season to taste with salt and serve.  

*Published in La Cocina Medieval, ATUN FRESCO CON ALCAPARRAS, p 32.


Thursday, December 22, 2011

ATÚN ALETA AZUL & GRILLED BLUEFIN TUNNY STEAKS WITH BITTER ORANGE JUICE SAUCE

Photo from: spearfishingmotion.com


atún de toquilla, tonina, tonina de sorra, toquillas, torquellas, Cat. tonyina, L. Thunnus thynnus, Eng. bluefin tuna, bluefin tunny. It is found throughout the Atlantic from Norway to the Canary Islands and in the Mediterranean. From a very young age, it swims in pools with other fish migrating north in the summer. It can swim as fast as 45 mph and across the Atlantic in less than 60 days. It eats anchovies, starfish and shallow water fishes smaller shoaling fishes and kelp but only bite when shoaling with other species such as the albacore, yellowtail, yellowfin, frigate tuna and bonito. It is thought that the bluefins are stimulated by the intense feeding activity of their shoalmates. Today, they are caught by hook and line but in the 15th C, the Andalusian Duke of Medina Sedonia’s fishermen speared them. It appears that they were beaten to death by the Catalans as the name tonyna means tuna + beating.  Currently, in Japan, the bluefin can be sell for a much as $45,000. So who wants to go to Japan to eat bluefin tuna? See toquilla. [ES: Gardieff. Dec 27, 03; ES: Sala. Sep 00; Espasa. 6:ARD:979; Moliner. II:H:1332:1336; ; Nola. 1989:lxii-4:lxii-5:lii-6 etc; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a:39a]

GRILLED BLUEFIN TUNNY STEAKS WITH BITTER ORANGE JUICE SAUCE
ADAPTED FROM NOLA #lxiii-1 TOÑYNA EN PARILLAS
For 4 persons

Ingredients

For sauce:
GrilledTunaOrangeSauce_ 20090427-17
(Garnished with Shrimp)
Photo from: www2.readersdigest.ca
1¼ cups freshly squeezed orange juice with pulp
1 cup pieces of peeled orange (about two oranges)
½ cup (white wine
2 tsp chopped fresh tarragon
2 tbsp grated orange rind
½ tsp black pepper
½  tsp salt

For Tuna:

2 bluefin tunny steaks, cut in half (1/3 – ½ lb per person)
¼ c olive oil

Garnish:

grilled orange slices

Preparation

In a saucepan, combine 1 cup of the orange juice and ½ cup of the orange pieces. Add wine and heat, cooking for 3 to 4 minutes to reduce liquid. Add remaining ¼ cup of orange juice, remaining ½ cup of orange pieces, tarragon, cilantro, orange rind, pepper and salt, and simmer about 10 minutes. Keep sauce warm. Select meat from the part near the belly. Once cleaned, grease it with oil and grease the grill.  Place the tuna on the grill tuna, occasionally brushing with oil, 3 to 4 minutes on each side until tuna turns light.
Serve tuna with sauce, garnished with orange slices. (Nola does not call for shrimp.)

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

ATÚN WITH 15TH C TUNNY TURNOVERS

Tuna at the Fishmongers
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Eng. tuna fish, tunny. Any of several large, edible salty and dry sea fishes of the mackerel group, with coarse somewhat oily flesh. It can include those no more than 80 cm. long that have the whitest and the choicest meat, to those 300 cm. long and weighing up to 1,500 lbs. The flavor of darker grades is inferior. Tuna is found in the Atlantic and is abundant around Santander, an area controlled by the Marquis de Santillana of the Mendoza family in the 15th C. In the Mediterranean they are found especially around Cádiz. In that area, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, heir of the Guzmán family, monopolized the tunnies for hundreds of years. For different species and different preparations of tuna fish see: atún aleta azul, atún blanco, melva, mojama, palamida, rabil and toquilla. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXVIIII:195:CCVI:208-209:CCVII209 etc Castro. Alimentación. 1996:322; Corbera. 1996:234; Nola. 1989:lxii-4:lxii-5:lii-6 etc; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a:39a]

TUNNY OR TUNA TURNOVERS
ADAPTED FROM NOLA  lxii-4 TOÑINA EN PAN
For 4 persons

Photo from: betumiblog.blogspot.com
Ingredients

1 lb fresh tuna fish cut into 2” rounds
1 tsp salt
1 tsp pepper
½ tsp grated ginger
1 tsp saffron
2 pk (8 oz) turnover pastries (16 pastries)
¼ c virgin olive oil

Preparation

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F / 175º C

Cut tuna into 2” thick rounds. Sprinkle with spices. Brush pastries with oil. Add the tuna. Fold the pastries over the tuna fish and press edges together with the handle of a teaspoon. Prick the pastries with a fork a few times to let the air out. (One time a mother forgot and had a messy oven to clean because they exploded!) brush the top sides with oil. Bake on greased baking sheets 30 minutes or until done. If they are not to be served immediately drain off liquid inside turnovers to prevent them from becoming soggy. 






Tuesday, December 20, 2011

ATRAVESARLAS WITH 15TH C LAMREY PIE A DISH FOR KINGS

introduce them, to lard, force, stuff them. [Nola. 1985:lvii-2]

LAMPREY PIE ADAPTED FROM NOLA #lvii-1 DE LAMPREA EN PAN
For 4 persons

Ingredients

ARKive image ARK002986 - Brook lamprey
Photo from: beatleman...
2 live lampreys
2 tbsp virgin olive oil
1 tsp freshly ground pepper
1 tsp freshly ground galingale
1 tsp freshly ground nutmeg
cloves
pie crust

for the sauce:
2 slices of bread
¼  c vinegar
½ c red wine

Preparation

Scald the live lampreys in hot water. Scrap the slime off with a knife. When opening the lampreys catch the blood and save. Take a knife and insert (literally introduce) it in the mouths. Pierce them. Do not cut them, only prick them. Remove the guts, bile and the central nerve through the head. Strain the blood out from the holes in the body. Save all of it. Mix the pepper, galingale and half the nutmeg with the blood and rub  the lamprey with it. Put the rest of the nutmeg in the mouth and a place a clove inside of each hole that it has. Cut the fish in half.

PREHEAT OVN TO 400º F / 200º C

Make the pie crust into the shape of a circle and place the lamprey in it. Pour a little olive oil over each fish Top them with a layer of pie crust and pinch it together. Prick holes in the top to release the steam.

Lamprey Pie -  A DISH TO SET BEFORE THE KING
Photo by: Carlos Cadilla 
macmaghnusa.blogspot.com
Bake it in oven for about 45 minutes until done.

Mix the bread, all the remaining blood, vinegar and wine. It should be slightly bitter. If too bitter add more wine. When the pie is baked place the sauce inside the pie if serving it hot but not if the pie is served cold. It is better when eaten cold.

 Nola warns that lampreys are not good to eat until January. Lampreys travel from the ocean to freshwater to sprawn from early January to the end of April. The River Miño in Galicia is famous for them. On the second to the last Sunday in April a festival is held in the village of Arbo where 20,000 people attend and there is a lamprey cooking competition. Pontecesures and As Neves, also on the Mino River, are famous for their pies too. England also has a long tradition of lamprey pies. Queen Elizabeth II was given one on the day of her coronation in 1953. Reportedly Henry I of England died from eating "a surfeit of lampreys" on December 1, 1135, over 300 years before Nola’s warning! 

Monday, December 19, 2011

ATERCIOPELADO - VELVETY WINES

Photo by: smcgee

velvety. This is used to describe certain Spanish wine grapes and wines. The Albarino is a white wine produced from Galician grapes, which are rich, complex and velvety. Carinena, a red wine from Cataluña, Aragon and La Rioja, consists of a combination of grapes such as the Carinena and the Tempranillo producing a velvety texture to the wine. The Mencia is a red grape from northeastern Spain. It produces wines with a velvety texture. Last but not least is the Merlot found in parts of Aragon and sections of the Ribera del Duero. It produces soft, warm and velvety wines.

Friday, December 16, 2011

ATENTADO WITH 15TH C CHICKEN CASSROLE FOR THE SICK



Bloodletting-6
Photo from : HHPGROUP
prudent, moderate, wise. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:80:189]

      Nola, on page 80 of the Pérez' translation  from Catalan into Castillan advises:

'When sick do not call a physician who knows a good deal about science but is has little practical experience. By killing some, those practicing the trade of bloodletting learn how to cure others. Take care to find a prudent, experienced and wise quack prone to waiting for the conclusion (of bloodletting). If he wants to experiment with you, do not consent to that nor to  having a quack or a surgeon who goes around dressed with jewels and rings; those things are not healthy and it is embarrassing paying a meager fee to one adorned in such riches.'

After being bleed, it would be wise and prudent to feed the patient any of Nola's 10 recipes for the sick such as:
CHICKEN CASSEROLE FOR THE SICK ADAPTED 
FROM NOLA #xxxv-1 CAZUELA PARA DOLIENTES

#55: chicken
Photo by: dogfaceboy
For 4 persons

Ingredients

1 young chicken
2 tbsp chopped basil
1/4 tsp dried grated lemon peel
1 tsp dried leaf oregano crushed
1 tsp. celery seed
1/8 tsp black pepper
fat from a hen’s ovaries
1 c orange juice
1 c rosewater
2 eggs

Preparation

Kill the chicken the night before and hang it outside. The next day, remove the feathers, remove the offal and wash it. Pat dry.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 375º F / 190º C

Rub the chicken with hen’s fat. Mix the herbs and rub the chicken with that. Start roasting the chicken. In the meantime mix the orange juice, rosewater and the remainder of the fat. Beat the eggs and add them to the juice. When the fowl is done in abut 45-60 minutes, add the juice. Leave it during the time it takes to recite the *Creed. Remove it and serve it to a sick person who has lost his appetite (and to others who do have one!).

*The Apostle’s Creed takes just under 1 min, while the Nicene Creed takes 1.25 min.


Thursday, December 15, 2011

ATEMPERAR - HOW TO TEMPER RADISH FOR A MEDIEVAL SALAD

OCast tenprar, Eng. temper, mollify, calm. See templar. [Villena/Calero. 2002:41b]

Radishes
from tonyolm
HOW TO TEMPER RADISH TRANSLATED FROM VILLENA pg 41b:

Scrape the radishes and remove the leaves and the tips. Thinly slice them. When very small make thicker slices. . . To temper the sharpness and coldness, sprinkle salt over one slice and top it with another. Leave them until the water is dissolved by the salt and the humidity is extracted. Then press down on them until the two slices are joined. These slices are the best and the most healthy.

Chez Panisse's Radish Salad
Photo by: Rebecca Ellen
MEDIEVAL RADISH SALAD

It is not common to find recipes for salads in medieval manuscripts. Salads were the result of whims and whatever was in the garden. Lettuce was used as well as endives, watercress, rocket, herbs etc. A simple medieval salad could be parsley, with celery and radish.  Salads were commonly dressed with oil, vinegar and salt.
 (Note: no tomatoes - they are American!)
  

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

ATAPADO - WITH DRUKEN FIGS THE FRENCH WAY, 15TH C RECIPE

atapado, topped, covered. [Nola. 1989:xxxvi-2:xli-2:xliii-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:189]

DRUNKEN FIGS THE FRENCH WAY - ADAPTED FROM 
NOLA #xxxvi-2 COMER HIGOS A LA FRANCESA
Yields 4 cups

drunken figs
Photo by: origami_wren
Ingredients

1 lb figs
1 bottle sweet white wine
2 bay leaves
1 tsp ground white pepper
1 tsp ground mace
1 tsp galingale

Preparation

Remove the stems from the figs. Wash them. Put them in a casserole and cover them with wine. Cover and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and gently boil for about 30 minutes until all the moisture from the wine is absorbed. Stir them and add spices. Keep stirring until the flavor from the spices is incorporated. It is elegant to serve them as an appetizer. 
(It was common to use figs to accompany lamb and pork.)

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

HOW TO POST COMMENTS/COMO SE PUEDE HACER COMENTARIOS

We're On A Mission From Hershey
Photo by: andyi





A MESSAGE TO YOU MOST VALUED READER/UN MENSAJE PARA USTED NUESTRO LECTOR MÁS APRECIADO
HOW TO POST COMMENTS/COMO SE PUEDE HACER COMENTARIOS:
A. REGISTER:
1.     One must be registered and have an account in one of the places listed under the white space for comments: “select profile”: Google Account, Live Journal, etc.
2.     If you do not have an account with on of these, you cannot enter. The most common method is to open an account with Google using one’s email address (using one already in existence.)
B. POST A COMMENT
1.      Once registered open the blog.
2.     Comments may be made in two ways:
a.     Enter the blog. Go to the blue bar in the upper right hand corner: “Access”
1) When requested type your email address and then give your password, the one you created when you set up your google account.
2) There is a box with a cross. Un-tick the box “Do not close session”. Click:”Enter.”
3) Go to the white space at the bottom of the blog, click on it and enter your comment.
b.     If already registered open the page as usual with out clicking on “access”
      1) Go to the comment box.
       2. Type a comment
c.     Click “Post comment.”
ATTENTION: It could make you to go to a place where you type your email and password
-       a diagram with distorted letters will appear which you must type what you see
-       after this is done successfully the comment will be sent.


LOOKING FORWARD TO YOUR MOST VALUABLE COMMENTS!


CÓMO SE PUEDE HACER COMENTARIOS:

A. REGISTARSE:
1.  tiene que estar registrada y tener una cuenta en uno de los sitios que pone debajo del cuadrado en blanco para comentar la receta: "select profile": Google Account, Live Journal, etc.
2. si no tiene ninguna cuenta de estas no podrá entrar. Yo lo que hice fue crear una cuenta Google con el correo mío de siempre (puedes usar el mail que ya tengas)
B. PONER UN COMENTARIO
1.  cuando ya estás registrado, abres el blog.
2. Para comentar, puede hacer dos cosas:
a.  Nada más entrar en el blog, ir a la barra azul de arriba, a la derecha: "Acceder":
             1) te pide introducir tu correo electrónico, y luego la contraseña que has dado al crear la cuenta google o lo que sea*
             2) hay una casilla tachada que hay que quitar y dejar en blanco. Le das y:
             3)conduce a una página blanca donde aparecen las últimas entradas del blog, pinchas y ya sales a la página "marrón".

b. si ya estás registrada, abres la página normalmente, sin darle a "Acceder".
                                   1) te vas a la casilla de los comentarios y le das a "select profile".
2)  pones tu comentario
c. le das a "Post comment".
ATENCIÓN: puede que en ese momento te "remande" a la página donde hay que poner tu e-mail y tu contraseña *
- aparecerá un diagrama con letras distorsionadas que hay que introducir
- después de eso, ya envía el comentario


¡EN ESPERA DE SUS COMENTARIOS TAN VALIOSOS! 


Monday, December 12, 2011

ATÁNDOLO WITH NOLA'S 15TH C FIGGY POTTAGE RECIPE

tying it; tasting it for saltiness, sweetness or sourness. [Nola 1989:xxx-6; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:189]

FIGGY POTTAGE RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA 
#xxx-6 POTAJE QUE SE DIZE QUE SE HIGATE QUE HAZE DE HIGOS
Ingredients
medieval-pottage-01
Photo by: faith186Ingredients

10-12 oz figs
3 tbsp lard
3 c chicken or mutton broth
½ c sugar
¼ tsp grated ginger
¼ tsp grated nutmeg
1 cinnamon stick
1 tsp saffron (optional)
Salt and pepper to taste

Garnish
4 tsp sugar
mashed cinnamon stick

Preparation:

Wash figs in cold or lukewarm water. Remove the stems. Cut them in half. Gently fry them in lard until browned on both sides. Add broth and cover. Bring it to a boil and reduce heat. Gently boil for 1 ½ hrs. While cooking add spices, and sugar. If using purple figs add saffron to give it a yellow color. When half cooked, beat it with a whisk non-stop until thick. Taste for saltiness, sweetness and sourness; remove from heat and let it rest 15-20 minutes. Pour into dessert bowls and garnish with sugar and cinnamon.


Sunday, December 11, 2011

PART II CHRISTMAS SPECIAL - A MEMORABLE MEDIEVAL SPANISH MENU

PRIOR PREPARATION LEADS TO PROPER EXECUTION

The beauty of serving a complicated meal is to prepare as much as possible before hand to prevent being worn out the day the meal is to be served.


SUGGESTIONS FOR ORGANIZING THE MEAL:

Torta de Casar
(Do not open until Christmas Day - human mice are prone to eating it all up!)
Photo from: Real Academia Española de Gastronomía
Buy well in advance:
Wine
Liquors

Buy a week in advance:
Sorbet
Olives
Cheeses 
Dates
Herbs for infusions
Review ingredients to make sure all possible is bought ahead of time

homemade bread
Photo by: queencashmere
Prepare weeks before:
Alosa, see aloja
Honey Nut Sweet, store in a tin, see alajú

Prepare weeks before and freeze:
Semolina Bread for the meal and with cheeses, see aludir
Almond milk, see almejas
Almond Horchata, see almendrada 


Prepare two days before:
Ashura Pudding, see almendrada 
Sugar Sandwich Cookies, see alfajores

Boquerones en vinagre
(Anchovies in vinegar) 
Photo by: carme-cuina MiK
Prepare the day before:
Cut junks of cheese to serve with olives in small serving bowls, cover tightly in plastic wrap and store in cool place.
Anchovies in vinegar, cover tightly in plastic wrap and refrigerate, see anchoas.
Artichokes filled with Foie Gras Au Gratin, cook the artichokes and fill them; then cover tightly in plastic wrap and refrigerate to be heated the next day, see aguasal.
Chicken Broth with Basil, place in cool place covered overnight to be reheated the next day, see albahaca.
Wash clams, see almejas.
Asida, see Asida.
The dough for doughnuts up to step 15. Separate disks with wax paper. Cover all with plastic and refrigerate, see Arberry.
Summer Coolers (adjust ingredients if living in the Northern Hemisphere in which case a warm spiced wine might be in order),  see áloe.
Dethraw all froozen items.

Clams/Mussels in Almond Sauce
Photo By: joannova
The day of prepare:
Clams, see almejas
Kid goat, see asado de cabrito
Fry the doughnuts, see Arberry

Heat:
Artichokes
Bread
Chicken Broth
Asida


SETTING THE SCENE: Christmas decorations are not known to have existed in the Middle Ages. News Years was a bigger holiday, while Christmas is and always has been strictly family in Spain. The nativity scene did not become a national custom until Charles III brought his from Naples in 1759 upon succeeding to the Spanish throne. He had been King of Naples and Sicily for 19 years prior to that. He put the nativity scene on display in the Royal Palace for all to see, which continues to be on display every Christmas. With Charles III, it became the rage for aristocrats to have elaborate nativity scenes in their homes. In Madrid today, there is an annual competition between private homes owners for the most original scenes. Churches, also, have very detailed nativity scenes. Christmas trees did not begin until the 1970's. They are a German invention. Traditionally, the Three Kings fill Spanish children's shoes during the night of January 5th, the vespers of Epiphany. Santa Claus was not known until the 1970's.

Cheers
Photo by: Vrangtante Brun

SETTING THE TABLE: The beauty of a medieval Christmas was a table filled with gourmet delights. The photo above gives a bleak idea of the table setting. A Spanish medieval hall should be more festive. It would have had warm tapestries on the walls, no fireplaces but decorative braziers filled with hot coals. White linen tablecloth were piled on tables in northern Spain, while fitted embossed leather was used in Al-Andalus. The couple in the photo is sharing a trencher, a piece of flat bread, on which food was placed. This was used in northern Europe. In Iberia, there were no trenchers or dinner plates. Platters were set on tables in front of every four eaters, more or less, to daintily pick from with the right finger and thumb or with pointed knives. Table manners, contrary to Hollywood, were very important during the Middle Ages as Chaucer indicates in Canterbury Tales. Contrary to the photo, wooden, not silver spoons, were used to eat sopes and pottages. The Roman Catholic Church prohibited organic food from being introduced into the mouth with metal. (Mouths did not touch the points of the knives, only the food.) Forks fell under this prohibition when eating meat and fish. Dessert forks were permitted for eating fruits and sweets.  An elaborate silver salt cellar, a sign of hospitality, is missing as well as candelabros with blazing candles. Further, the rustic earthenware seen above does not seem appropriate as glazed earthenware and silver did exist. In Spain, stemmed crystal wine glasses were used as Cordova had a glass factory dating from the 9th C. Napkins did not exist. A water jug (aguamanil) and basin (alfajana) were used during hand washing rituals before and after meals. Towels were provided by servants. Bread was used to wipe hands if needed between times. Gregorian chants would be appropriate background music.


MENU CHECK LIST:
   
HORS D'ŒUVRE
Black olives and cheese
Dates, with an empty dish for pits
Anchovies in Vinegar, Recipe by mrsamper, see anchoas
Artichokes filled with Foie Gras Au Gratin, see aguasal

ENTRÉE
Chicken Broth with Basil from Nola, see albahaca

RELEVÉS
Clams in Almond Milk from Nola, see almejas

ENTREMET
Limon Sorbet in champagne glasses

MAIN COURSE
Roast Kid from Anón Andalus, see asado de cabrito
Asida (a type of polenta) with Stir Fry Spinach,  see asida

DESSERT
Ashura Pudding, the oldest dessert in Mankind, see Asura
Doughnuts (Agras Mukarrara) from a Bagdad Cookery Book, see Arbrerry


CHEESE SELECTION
Cabrales from Asturias
Torta del Casar from Extremadura
Manchego from the Mancha
serve with Semolina Bread, see above

INFUSIONS, LIQUERS & OTHER DRINKS
Tea did not exist. If there was coffee it was limited to southern Spain as the Muslims did have it.

Herbal infusions could be made with any kind of herbs: mint, mallow, thyme etc
Alosa, Hydromel Perfumed with Spices, see aloja
Summer Coolers,  see áloe or warm spiced wine
Almond Horchata, from Nola, see almendrada 
Absinthe, see ájenjo
Grappa, see aguardiente
Brandy

Chocolates cannot be served being an American product, no matter what the Belgians say.

Honey Nut Sweet from Benavides Nueva Clásica, see alajú
Sugar Sandwich Cookies from Benavides, Nueva Clásica, see alfajores
Aşhura Pudding
Photo by: rumma.org

HAPPY MEMORABLE FEASTS DURING THE  HOLIDAY SEASON!!!