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Friday, March 30, 2012

BOLLIDA WITH 15TH C MUTTON TROTTER POTTAGE


Vigorous boil.
Photo by Jason Ester
vigorously or briskly boiled. [Nola. 1989:xvi-3; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:190]

MUTTON TROTTER POTTAGE ADAPTED FROM
NOLA’S xvi-3 POTAJE DE MANOS DE CARNERO

Ingredients[1]

2 large  onions, chopped.
4 garlic cloves, minced.
1 thumb of ginger, grated
8 cooked sheep's trotters, well-scrubbed.
8 cooked marrow bones.
1 tbsp coriander
1 tsp cumin
¼ tsp saffron
1 tsp Byzantine murri (see almorí published August 25, 2011 for recipe)
½ tsp salt
3 whole black cardamom pods
3 whole star anise
1 c cilantro and parsley mixed

Lamb Trotters
Photo by Sunil Kashikar
Garnish
1 tbsp sugar

Preparation

Brown the onions in oil. Add the garlic and ginger. When golden brown add ground coriander, cumin, and saffron. Stir till fragrant. Stir in the remaining spices and salt, put the trotters and marrow bones in the pan cover with plenty of mutton broth, and simmer for several hours or overnight. Put in the chopped herbs to wilt with a little extra Byzantine murri for fragrance.

Strain the broth until 8 cups are obtained from the trotter pan. Grind almonds in a mortar. Blend them with the 8 cups of mutton broth and strain them through a cheese-cloth. Put almond milk in the pot with the trotters and other ingredients. Bring to a vigorous boil for 5 minutes. Remove the cardamom pods. Serve in bowls. Sprinkle sugar on top of each bowl.

[1] Nola’s recipe only calls for trotters, ginger, almond milk. It seems that it is understood that the other ingredients should be included. 

Thursday, March 29, 2012

BOJ WITH 13TH C WHEAT FLOUR POTTAGE RECIPE

ancient boxwood
Photo by larrywilkes
OCast box, L. Buxus sempervirens, Eng. boxwood, wood from some 30 species of the Buxaceae family including box trees, shrubby evergreen plants and other fine grained, hard and heavy woods. The tree is a native of the Mediterranean and grows to some 20 feet in height. The wood is light yellow or white and used for making musical instruments and spoons. Ibn Razin instructs to use a boxwood spoon to eat wheat flour pottage. Gázquez points out that Baena’s Cancionero indicates that boxwood spoons were used in his time. They were frequently used, Gázquez states, in court for eating pottages and sopes. See buxedo. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:37:ftn 82:78:ftn 158:80; Ibn Razin/Granja 1960:95:24; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:168]

WHEAT FLOUR POTTAGE ADAPTED FROM FADALAT #95 HARINA DE TRIGO p 24

Pottage; Soup
Photo by xx3734
Ingredients

6 tbsp plain flour or whole wheat flour
1 tbsp virgin olive oil
Salt to taste
1 ½ qts chicken or vegetable stock
1 c honey
a drizzle of oil or lard optional

Preparation

The author instructs that well sifted wheat be soaked awhile. Then pound it in a large stone or wooden mortar to husk it. Sift it again, shake it, put it in a large pan and add a large quantity of water, more than necessary to cover it, and leave it in the oven overnight. The following day remove it. If cooked, stir with a serving spoon to absorb the leftover water and season with ground salt.

Today, one would put flour in a pan with a heavy bottom and cook gently, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon, until golden brown.

Add broth and slowly bring to a boil. Then simmer for 15 minutes stirring occasionally to prevent lumps from forming.

Serve it in a tureen and place honey in the center in a small dish. Eat it with boxwood spoons. If desired, add oil or lard.
Spoons
(handcarved boxwood)
Photo by longword


Wednesday, March 28, 2012

BOGA WITH 15TH C BOGUE FISH CASSEROLE RECIPE

Boga para la cena
Photo by: lu6fpj 
OCat bogua, L. boops boops, Gr voops (big eyes) Eng. bogue, referring to its bug eyes. Although a member of the sea beam family it looks like a sardine. They are common in the Eastern Atlantic and found off the costas of Spain in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. They start out life as fmales to become males and more colorful later in life. Nola explains that they can be fried, boiled or roasted but claims that the best method is baking them in a casserole. See lampuga. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXVIIII:196; ES: “Boga.” Jan 30, 03; ES: Eli. Feb 23, 04; Nola. 1989:lxiiii-5; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

BOQUE CASSEROLE ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S lxiiii-5 BOGAS EN CAZUELA

Raisin Sauce 
Photo by: shaie powell

Ingredients

3 lbs bogues
½ tsp cumin
1 tsp pepper
½ tsp freshly grated ginger
¼ tsp mashed saffron
1 tsp sage
1 tsp oregano
1/3 c raisins
1/3 c almonds
1/3 c dates
¼ c canola oil
1/3 c chestnuts
1/3 c walnuts
1 crustless slice of bread
¼  c vinegar
¼ c water
1 c orange bitter juice or bitter grape juice

Garnish:
1 tbsp chopped parsley

Raisin Sauce:

Mix ground spices, chopped herbs, raisins, almonds, quartered dates with pits removed. Heat a casserole with canola oil. Add the spice mixture. When almost half cooked, grind chestnuts, walnuts and bread soaked in vinegar and water and strain these through a cheese cloth. Add this mixture to the casserole.

Bogues:

Scare the bogues. Wash them and clean them.

Nola states that they can be boiled, roasted or fried and served with vinegar and pepper instead of the raisin sauce but they are most delicious if baked in a casserole with the raisin sauce and bitter juice.

When cooked garnish with parsley. This can be served hot or cold.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

BOFES WITH 13TH C SUCKING PIG OFFAL SOUP RECIPE

BCCBio2Lab Fetal Pig Lungs
Photo by BCCBio2Lab 
1. lungs. 2. Estr. Leon, bofes, chofes, chofle,  Eng. offal, lungs, liver, tripe, strips of pancreas, entrails innards, tripe, heart, kidneys and chicken feet. As opposed to modern times, these were main ingredients of numerous dishes during the Middle Ages.  See chanfaina and chorizo chofe. [Gitlitz. 1999:15; Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000-2001:2003; and Serradilla. 1993:140]

SUCKING PIG OFFAL SOUP ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ
#XII QUI PARLA CON SE FFERCEX[1] PORCEL. p 70
For 6 persons

Ingredients

6 c pork broth
3 lbs lungs and liver
membrane from the lungs
¼ c lard
2 medium onions chopped
1 slice of toasted
1 c vinegar
¼  c wine
1 tsp mixed spices (such as pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cloves and saffron)
pig offal soup, dujiangyan, 2009
salt to taste

Garnish
6 tbsp chopped green onion

Preparation

Remove the lungs and liver from the sucking pig and wash them well. Boil them; when done, reserve the water and let the lungs and liver cool.  Cut the lungs into small pieces. Lightly fry the membrane of the lungs in lard. When melted, add the lungs and fry them taking care not to burn them. Add onions and lightly fry. Add broth and bring it to a boil.

Chop the liver and make a sauce by mixing it with toasted bread soaked in vinegar. Dilute this a little with a strong wine. Add the broth with the entrails. Add ground spices and boil a little. Remove from heat and pour into bowls. Garnish with chopped green onion.


[1] Originally, the recipe was meant to be stuffing for a sucking pig but it evolved into offal soup.

Monday, March 26, 2012

BOFERA WITH 13TH C CATALAN "HAGGIS" RECIPE

More sheep lung
Photo by: Meagan & Matt 
  
lung sausage. [Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000-2001:2003]

CXXI CATALAN "HAGGIS" ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ, #CXXI Qui parla con se ffan ffrexures de moltó o de porc ab ay. pp 143-144 

Ingredients

lamb or pork intestines
2 lungs from a lamb or pig
1 heart  “           “           “
1 liver  “           “           “
¼ c lard
1 onion chopped
1 tsp ground cinnamon
½ tsp ground nutmeg
½ tsp ground cloves
½ tsp freshly grated ginger
1 tsp freshly ground pepper
1 slice toasted bread
1/8 c vinegar
2 eggs beaten

haggis (sheep lung, liver, and intestine)
Photo by: james_clear

Preparation

Wash intestines. Scald them with boiling water. Hang out to dry.

Boil plunk, i.e. lungs, heart and liver in just enough water to cover them. When cooked a little, remove them from the pan and save the broth. Cut the lung and heart into thin strips. Heat lard in a frying pan and lightly fry both sides of each strip. When done, cut the liver into larger trip than the lung and lightly fry them. Then fry the onion until translucent. Add plunk with the broth and boil until it becomes thick. Add the spices. Soak the toasted bread in vinegar and chop it with the liver. Add this to the pan. Slowly add the eggs. Remove the pan from the heat and stir well. Let cool and stuff this into the intestines.

When ready to use heat the sausages in the oven or fry them in lard.

Friday, March 23, 2012

BODEGA WITH 15TH C RECIPE FOR CLAREA, A CORDIAL

Wine cellar at Eberbach Monastery
bodega, OCast apoteca (like apothecary as wine was considered therapy, not a luxury), Eng wine cellar. [Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:115:ftn 13:119:130 etc]

SPICES FOR CLAREA, A CORDIAL, ADAPTED FROM NOLA xii-3 PIMIENTAS DE CLAREA

Ingredients

5 oz white ginger
6 oz cinnamon
1/8 oz grains of paradise
1 oz ground cloves
1/3 tsp ginger
2-4 liters white wine
1-2 lb honey

Cloudy Wine
(which is Clarea)
Photo by: Smelly Danielly

Preparation:

Grind all the spices and mix them together. For every 2 liters of wine add 1 ½ oz of spices and 1 lb of honey. Strain it several times through thick hemp, jute sack or other thick material until the liquid is clear. Chilled is refreshing in warm weather.

Thursday, March 22, 2012

BOCADOS WITH ANOTHER 13TH C RECIPE FOR THE JUDGE'S MORSELS

Tasty Morsels Bakery Lips
Photo by: kitencouture


Eng. tidbits, morsels. Los Bocados del Cadi or Bocaditos del Cadi (The Judge’s Morsels or little morsels) was one of the most famous sweets. It is a fritter made with a mixture of sugar and almond puree with other aromas mixed with flour. This is cut into bit sized pieces and shaped like nuts. They are fried in oil and served with sugar sprinkled on top and with or without pistachios, almonds or pinenuts. They can be coated with flour before frying. Ibn Battuta[1] makes particular mention of foods connected with the medieval attitude toward hospitality including luqumât al-qâdi, (“the Cadi’s Morsels.”) in Volume III, p. 757 of the translation of his work by H.A.R. Gibb and p. 139 of the translation by Mahdi Husain. The latter gives the Arabic name, the former only the English. The recipes are included in the Anón Andalus and Fadalat. [Anón/Huici. 1965:268:156; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 02:82:ftn 97; and Ibn Razin/Granja. 1960:48:21]

THE JUDGE’S MORSELS ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN ANDALUS, #268 TITLE MISSING. . . p 156

Fritters
Photo by Tiffany Burns
Ingredients[2]

5 c semolina flour
2 c oil
2 eggs
1 tsp yeast
1 c chopped almonds, pinenuts or pistachios
oil for deep frying


Garnish:
Powdered Sugar

Preparation

Saturate the semolina flour with water to make a dough like that for donuts. Knead it add oil little by little. Beat until it is smooth. Add eggs and yeast and beat until light. Roll it into a ball and cover with a cloth and let it rise (1-2 hours) and become thick. Knead it again adding the chopped nuts. Divide the dough into small pieces. Deep fry, sprinkle with powdered sugar  and serve.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] See blog titled Battuta published February 23, 2012.
[2]  It is interesting to note that differences between this recipe and the one in Fadalat. See Battuta.





Wednesday, March 21, 2012

BLEDO DE EUROPA, BLEDA WITH 15TH C CREAMED GREENS RECIPE

Amaranthus hypochondriacus 'Golden' - 1

bleda, L. Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Ar. baqlat yemaniya (from Yemen) or dhaddah, Fr. blette, Eng. wild amaranth. This annual plant is thought to be a native of Eurasia. The plant existed in Central America and was very popular among the Mayans and Aztecs prior to Spanish occupation. In Ancient Greece, it was the flower of immortality, meaning it does not wither. In medieval Europe the uses were not widespread but in Al-Andalus, the trailing stems and leaves were boiled and eaten like spinach with a little garum, salt and pepper or salt and vinegar or verjuice. At other times, they were boiled in oil and water and dressed with salt, vinegar and spices. The grain can be ground into gluten free flour, although Spanish records do not reflect using it in times of wheat famines. The leaves and grain are richer in fiber, protein, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals and essential vitamins than soya. The green flowers, blooming in August were dried and used to stop bleeding. Fluid extracted from the plant has been recommended for the plague, dysentery and diarrhea as well as hemorrhages. The plant is confused with mountain spinach, as the two are very similar. Today in Spain, it is common to say, "Me importa un bledo," meaning something is of little or no importance to me. See armuelle and jota. [ES: Grieve. “Amaranth.” 1995; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:118; Nola. 1989:xxxii-4:xxxii-5:xlviii-1 etc; Villena/Calero. 2002:23a; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:44]

CREAMED GREENS ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xxxii-4 POTAJE MODERNO
Serves 4

Ingredients

1 lb wild amaranth (spinach can be a substitute if unavailable)

DSC_6592

Photo by: Cookthinker
½ lb chard
½ lb borage
½ c meat broth
½ tsp salt
2 slices of bacon
1 c milk, it can be goat, sheep or almond
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp ginger
½ tsp pepper

Preparation

Wash the greens in running water until free of soil and grit. Put them in a saucepan with broth and salt. Cover and steam until half cooked about 5-6 minutes and remove them from the pot. Press them between two wooden cutting boards. Then chop them into small pieces.  

Fry bacon in a frying pan. Remove slices when done and set aside.

Gently fry the greens in the bacon fat for a few minutes. Add the milk. When cooked add the spices and stir until all is well mixed. 


Crumble the bacon. Pour the mixture of greens into individual bowls and garnish with the bacon.



Tuesday, March 20, 2012

BLANDÓN

mercado medieval 08-9

Photo by: jerotinoco
1. torch. 2. large taper candle with four wicks. 3. large candleabra with holders this type of candle. Torches and/or large candles were used in banquet halls, churches, market places and streets for illumination. When Ziryab arrived in Cordova in 822 the streets were lit with torches at night but the custom was lost with the down fall of the Caliphate in the 13th C.  [ES: RAE. 2001; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:52]

Monday, March 19, 2012

BLANDO WITH MARINADE OF MINCED LEAN PORK RECIPE

Horreo en Bandujo
(when to not stuff sausages)
blando, bland. This adjective is applied to minced pork during the curing process or sausage filling which becomes soggy and bland if the slaughter takes place during foggy or rainy weather. Further, if sausages are not tied tightly, they become bland. [Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000-2001:2003; and Serradilla. 1993:140]

MARINADE OF MINCED LEAN PORK ADAPTED FROM SERRADILLA’S PICADILLO DE MAGRO ADOBADO, p99
For 4 persons

Ingredients

Fried Minced Pork

1 kg lean pork
2 garlic cloves
1 tsp black pepper
1 c wine
¼ c and 1 tbsp olive oil
salt to taste

Preparation
Mince the meat, ash the garlic and mix it with the meat. Add the salt, pepper, wine 1 tbsp olive oil and mix well. Let it marinate in the refrigerator for 24 hrs. Assuming the weather is still coudly and rainy do not stuff it for sausage but fry it in olive oil. 


Friday, March 16, 2012

BLANCA WITH 15TH C CLAMS IN WINE SAUCE RECIPE

Old spanish Coins

by Geninerini 
Cat blanc, ME blaunch, Eng 1. white, blanched (to make white), scalded. This was the most esteemed color of the Middle Ages, as white flour, white honey, white porray, béchamel and blancmange. In reference to almonds, in English, it means to remove the skins (as almonds are blanched for this purpose). 2. Spanish coin weighing 1,198 g.  It was copper with a trace of silver. This type of coin is called billon. It had various values over the times. For Nola three “whites” equaled two maravedis, which is what the spicer was paid for cinnamon or other spices. What is unknown is the quantity of cinnamon that was bought for this amount. It was worth half a maravedí when the Spanish monetary system was taken to the New World. See maravedí. [Curye. 1985:172; ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:107:glos; Nola.1989:lxvi-5:xl-3:xliii-3; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:213]

*CLAMS IN WINE SAUCE ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xliii-3 TALLINAS EN CAZUELA
For 3-4 persons

Ingredients

2 lb clams

2 large onions
2 garlic cloves
2 bay leaves
Clams in wine sauce
3 blancas spices or seasoning:

    ¼ tsp pepper

    1 tbsp chopped basil
    1 tbsp chopped tarragon
    1 tbsp fresh parsley
    1 tbsp chopped peeled fresh ginger
    ¼ tsp ground saffron
    ¼ tsp cumin seeds
¼ c oil
¼ c white wine
1 tbsp flour

Garnish:
chopped parsley

Preparation

Put the clams in cold water and let them soak. Filter the water several times for 4-6 hours to eliminate the sand.

Chop the onion and garlic. Heat oil in a frying pan. Add the onion and garlic and slowly fry until the onion is transparent. Add seasoning and wine. Slowly add flour stirring constantly.

Little by little add the clam water to the onion mixture. Add more flour if the sauce is not thick enough.

Beat the sauce with egg beater and pour it over the clams. Simmer until clams open. Discard any clams that do not open.

Garnish with chopped parsley and serve. 

*See almejas published on August 10, 2011 for clams almond milk, which Nola offers as a variation of this recipe. 

Thursday, March 15, 2012

BIZCOCHO, BISCOCHO WITH A 13TH C A HANDSOME "ISFUNJA," CAKE SPONGE RECIPE

rosquillas

Photo by: aliywhilly 
(fr. bi twice + L. coctus cooked), OCast vizcocho, It biscotti, Eng. biscuit or brioche, sponge cake. As seen in the Anón Andalus, from the 13-15 C. this was a flatbread bread without yeast, Ar. esfunj (sponge [with no sponge]), baked a second time to dry it out and to last during a long period for which it was a basic supply on ships. These are translated into Spanish as rosquillas (hard doughnuts). There is one exception, “elegant isfunja,” which does contain yeast although not called for by the author, he does allow time for the dough to rise. Due to the absence of eggs, it is surmised that the “sponge” part of the cake is the soaking up of honey and butter added at the end of the preparation. This recipe was adopted by Christians and has made especially for Corpus Christi celebrations in León for centuries. The sponge cake known today seems to have evolved from this but was not documented until Marie-Therese of Austria (1638-1683), daughter of Philip IV of Spain, took the recipe to France and gave one to her husband Louis XIV (1638-1715).  [Anón/Huici. 1966:477:260-261; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 02; and Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:143]

A HANDSOME "ISFUNJA," SPONGE CAKE RECIPE ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S
TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #477. HECHURA DE ESPONJA HERMOSA,
p 260-261


Honey

Photo by: dalyswe 

Ingredients 

1 1/3 c semolina flour
*3 tsp yeast
2/3 c clarified butter or fresh olive oil
½ c clarified butter and
½ c honey
1 c chopped almonds and walnuts or pinenuts or pistachios
1 tsp white sugar
1 tsp cinnamon

Preparation

That ain't Mary Baker Project 365(3) Day 69

Photo by: Keith Williamson
PREHEAT OVEN TO 325ºF/165ºC

Grease an angel food cake tin.

Sift the flour and yeast into a bowl.

Knead the flour in lukewarm water and yeast twice. Shape it in the form of a ball, put it in a bowl and cover it with a cloth. Leave it for one or two hours to rise. When almost risen knead it again moistening it with water little by little until it has a texture like tar. Wet it with water and then soak it with 2/3 c butter or oil. Put the dough in tin.

Bake about 45 minutes until done. Invert the tin over a bottle. Let it cool. Remove the cake from the tin and put it on a plate.

Heat 1 c clarified butter and honey. Pour half of it into the hole in the center. When the “sponge” has soaked it up, add more.  Cut it as one cuts a melon. Chop nuts and mix with sugar and cinnamon. Sprinkle this mixture over it. (In the photo powdered sugar was sprinkled on top instead.) Serve if God so wishes.

*The recipe does not call for yeast but the reader is instructed to let the dough rise.

Wednesday, March 14, 2012

BISCOCHAR WITH CASCADES, A STUFFED COOKIE TWIST

L. bis coctus (bi-cooked), Eng. to cook twice, from which the Spanish word bizcocho (biscuit) is derived. The Spanish Royal Academy states that refers to a biscuit which does not contain yeast and is baked twice to eliminate all the moisture. It can be kept a long time. See bizcocho. [ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn Ftn 110; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:168]

STUFFED COOKIE TWIST CALLED CASCADES IN VALENCIA AND BARCELONA
ADAPTED FROM NOLA xlv-3 ROSQUILLAS DE FRUTA QUE LLAMAN
CASQUETAS EN VALENCIA Y EN BARCELONA*

Roll out the biscuit dough

Photo by: VancityAllie
Ingredients 

For the dough:
1 c water
5 c. sifted flour
1 c oil
½ tsp mashed saffron
sugar

Food 010
Photo by FlashRPh 


For the filling:
1 lb ground toasted hazelnuts, almonds and pinenuts
1 c flour
salt to taste
½ tbsp cinnamon
¼ tsp grated ginger
¼ tsp ground nutmeg
¼ tsp ground mace
¼ tsp ground cloves
1 tsp ground pepper
1 c honey
½ c pinenuts

Preparation

For the dough:
Mix flour and oil. Dissolve saffron in a little water. Knead the dough adding water and saffron until the dough is firm. 

Cookie twist
Photo by afagen 
PREHEAT OVEN TO 400ºF/200ºC

Divide the dough in half. Roll the first half out Divide the dough in half. Roll the first half out. Cut it into strips. Place these on greased cookie sheets and prick with a fork. Bake 7-8 minutes. Remove from oven and sprinkle with sugar. Return to oven and bake 7-8 minutes until very light brown.

For the filling:
Grind these biscuits. Take and equal amount of nuts and grind them into powder. Mix these with the flour. Add the spices.

Put the honey in a saucepan and heat it until it boils. Skim it and continue boiling for 4-5 minutes. Remove from heat and let cool. Mix this with the nut filling and knead it well.


 To make pastries:

PREHEAT OVEN TO 400ºF/200ºC

Take the other half of the dough and roll it out to be wafer thin. Cut it into 2” stripes. Place a spoonful of filling on half the stripes.  Add a few whole pinenuts to each piece. Cover the dough with the other half of the stripes. Squeeze it together and twist it. Prick each pastry with a fork.

Place the pastries on greased cookie sheets and bake about 15 minutes until golden brown. Sprinkle with sugar and serve.

This recipe can be made with a marzipan, an almond filling or another filling fit for kings and noblemen.

*See amasar blog published on September 19, 2011 for a different version of this recipe.