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Monday, April 30, 2012

BROCA LUENGA WITH ROAST GOOSE RECIPE

Marshmellow fork:
20070322_0831 fork
Photo by: williewonker
broca tridente, trident, three pronged fork for cooking similar to a marshmallow fork with a long handle for toasting bread and other foods. As the Church was against eating with a fork, stating that the Bible prohibited it, the pictorial message was conveyed that the trident was the devil’s fork. As people lived in fear of the Church, they only used the trident for toasting or roasting perhaps that is why dinner forks now have four prongs instead of three. See broca. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:40:42:43 etc; Villena/Calero. 2002:25a; and Villena/Navarro.1879:29-30]
Roast Goose at the local markets
Photo by: David McKelvey


Roast Goose Recipe
For 6 persons

Ingredients

1 goose 6-10 lbs
salt and pepper, to taste
stuffing - fruits like apples and prunes recommended

Preparation

Remove the feathers, remove the entrails and singe the skin. Wash inside out out. Using three prong roasting fork, poke several holes in the skin about 1/4 inch deep. Make several holes in the breast and thighs.

Boil enough water to immerse the goose a large pot. Boil the goose for two minutes or less. Remove from the water and dry the skin. Refrigerate 48 hours.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F /160º C
Cooking time: between 2 - 2 ½ hrs

Salt and pepper the goose inside and out. Stuff the goose and sow the cavities shut. Tie the legs together and secure the wings.

Place it on a spit with a pan underneath to catch the juices. After 20 minutes prick the skin again with the trident and baste it with its juices. Continuing basting every 20 minutes.

If a spit is not available, place the goose, breast side down, on a roasting rack in a roasting pan. Cook for 20 minutes. Prick the exposed skin with a trident, baste with its juices and cook for another 20 minutes.

Turn the goose breast side up, prick the exposed skin and baste the goose with the pan juices. Roast one hour more, basting every 20 minutes.

If the goose is very brown at this point, let it cook for another 30 minutes.

If the goose is looking a rather white, turn the oven up to 400º F/200º C and cook for 30 more minutes or until done.


Friday, April 27, 2012

BROCA WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR HARISA

Forks

Photo from: Silver Willow Farm

1. carving or serving fork. Although inexistent today, it was the forerunner of the fork. During the Middle Ages it was thought that the Bible prohibited the use of the fork made of a foreign or mineral substance, when carrying organic substances to the mouth. As it was not prohibited in the Koran, Muslims could use it. Not until 1494 did the fork appear as an instrument to carry all organic solids to the mouth in Spain. One is listed in the inventory of the Duke of Béjar as a fork with coral inlay. Spaniards, however, continued to eat with their hands until the 18th C. The broca had two to three prongs and pointed handles. Almost always, the serving fork was made of gold or silver. Although Villena insisted upon its use, it was more common too serve food with the hands. Two prong forks were used for serving whole or cut up fruits like pears. A three-pronged fork was used for serving raspberries, nuts, comfits and electuaries. This was used also for moving light food from one place to another and for cutting food into bite size morsels. Then it is not described as a fork but an auxiliary instrument. Eaters could use fruit forks as fruit is not an organic substance. 2. a skewer that is turned. 3. drill bit today. See perrero. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:45-46; Gázquez. Cocina.2002:234; Lladonosa. Cocina. 1984:58; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:29-30]


RECIPE FOR HARISA MADE WITH BREADCRUMBS FROM WHITE BREAD INSTEAD OF WHOLE WHEAT ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN Al-ANDALUS #396. RECETA DE LA HARĪSA  CON MIGAS DE PAN BLANCO EN VEZ DE TRIGO, p 217

Ingredients

3-4 slices of day old white bread to make 1 c breadcrumbs
harisa @ aidilfitri 1429
Photo by: uisa278
1 lb ground lamb from legs or shoulder blades
1 tsp ground cumin
1 garlic clove minces
freshly ground pepper to taste
dried or fresh oregano to taste
salt to taste

Garnish:
2 tbsp melted sheep fat
ground cinnamon

Preparation

Grate bread to make breadcrumbs. Spread them out in the sun to dry out. Set aide until needed.

Put the meat in a pot. Add cumin, garlic, pepper and oregano. Cover with water. Cook until the meat falls apart when jabbed with a fork. Add salt to taste.

Add breadcrumbs. Let sit until it becomes mushy. Stir until it is mixed and becomes one mass. Put this into a serving bowl. Melt lamb fat and pour it over the mass. Sprinkle with cinnamon and serve.

Thursday, April 26, 2012

BREZO WITH 13TH C DEBONED & STUFFED CHICKEN RECIPE

Winter Heath (Erica herbacea) Schnee-Heide
Photo by Werner Witte 
L Erica umbellate, Eng heath. They have small needle like leaves and small bell-shaped flowers. Its nectar flowers are normally purple, red, pink or white blooming between late winter and spring. The flowers are so much like those of heather that it is difficult to tell the difference see brecina blog published on April 23, 2012. Fresh flower tops are used as an astringent, antiseptic and a diuretic. Infusions of flowers and branches boiled in water were served as an after dinner drink and drunk to relieve urinary and kidney infections and diarrhea. The branches serve to make brooms, brushes and baskets. They have been used for fuel and mattresses. Other heath species growing in Spain include L Erica lusitanica, Eng. Spanish white heath, blooming in Spain from mid-February through April in some areas and spring and summer in others; and L. Erica cinerea, Eng. twisted heath, cross-leaved heath. It also has pink and violet nectar flowers that can bloom from April to October but in Spain from June though July. [Anón/Huici. 1966:84:59-60:194:124:151:248 etc; Cambridge. 2000:II:1784-1785; 5:Freon:786; Dialecto. 1947:340; Espasa. 1988:9:BONG:813; Font. Plantas. 1999:377:530; and Silva. 1994:174; and Usher. 1974:232-233]

DEBONDED AND STUFFED CHICKEN ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN ANDALUS #84 RECETA DE GALLINA RELLENA SIN HUESOS, pp 59-60

Ingredients

1 chicken about 2 lbs (with liver and giblets)
stuffed chicken-0454
Photo by: AIIAZNSK8ER

½ c peeled almonds
½ c walnuts
1 bunch of cilantro
½ c breadcrumbs
salt to taste
1 tbsp murri[1]
1/3 tsp pepper
1/3 tsp cinnamon
1/3 tsp cassia
1 tbsp chopped lavender
1 tbsp chopped heath leaves
7 hard boiled eggs
8 raw eggs
vinegar
olive oil
a few sprigs mint
½ c cider
3 tsp of a mixture of grated ginger, ground pepper, ground cinnamon and cassia mix
¼ c toasted almonds

Preparation

Have the butcher debone chicken and remove the skin in one piece.
Steep the breadcrumbs in cilantro water. Strain and let cool.

Beat the meat in a mortar and pound it with peeled almonds, walnuts and the breadcrumbs. 

Boil the liver and giblets in water and salt until cooked. Mince them on a wooden board and add this to the pounded meat.  Fry it in a little olive oil. Add cilantro juice and murri. Add peppercorns, cinnamon, cassia, lavender, heath, the white of hard boiled egg chopped finely. Beat raw eggs and add them to the mixture. Cook over moderate heat and stir with a spoon. Then stuff the skin with it. After sewing it up  all sides, but leaving a hole for more stuffing to be inserted. Place hard egg yolks under the wings, thighs, and legs until it takes the form of a chicken before being deboned. Then sew up that hole. Put this in a pot and sprinkle all sides with vinegar to prevent it from drying out.  Then cover it with water and gently boil. This procedure is tricky as the skin should not punctured.

When the stuffing has coagulated, take it out of the water and put it in a pot or a roasting pan and sprinkle it with murri and oil.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F/175º C

Wash the mortar in which the meat was pounded, bruise the mint and rub over the skin of the chicken. Roast it in the oven until toasted but not burned.

Pour the cider in a platter. Remove the chicken from the oven and split it in half from top to bottom and carve the halves. Place the stuffing in the middle of the platter and surround it sliced meat. Garnish it with a mixture of grated ginger, ground pepper, cinnamon and cassia. Sprinkle toasted almonds on top.

[1] See almorí blog published on August 25, 2011 for recipe.

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

BREVA WITH BREBA MARMALADE RECIPE

DSC01506.JPG

Photo by: Strata Chalup



1. breba, the first fruit from a fig tree appearing in June and July. It is thought to be better and is sweeter than the ordinary fig. Figs are the fruits from the fig tree that appear in the second crop. Brebas are the size of large pears while figs are about a fourth of their size. 2. early acorn. [Castro. Alimentación. 1996:297; and ES: Agroalimentación. Nov 22, 04]





BREBA MARMALADE

Ingredients

1 lb brebas
½ lb sugar
juice from 2 lemons

Redeye jam + country ham
Photo from: Pastry Break
Preparation

Peel the brebas and chop them. Put them in a saucepan with the sugar and lemon juice.
Simmer for a few hours.  Then increase the heat a little and cook ½ hour or until the fruit and sugar have become marmalade. If smoother marmalade is desired put this in a food processor to purée it.

Normally, marmalades are made with an equal amounts of sugar and fruit but as the breba is very sweet, if the marmalade is going to be consumed right away it is better to use half the amount of sugar.

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

BRESQUET WITH 14TH C RECIPE FOR EEL IN ALMOND MILK

Food cooking in pottery on a brazier
Photo by: litlnemo 

brazier. This was a type of brazier that stood on legs at waist height. Coal was burned in it and it had a rack in the shape of the brazier that was set on top to rest pots and pans in order to receive direct heat. It was used to make delicate dishes such as creams and sauces. Further, the rack could have a grate to prevent food from falling into the fire. It is seldom seen today. See brasero. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:LVII:ftn7:102; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:206; and Lladonosa.  Cocina. 1984:57:156]

ROASTED EEL IN ALMOND SAUCE ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ CLXXXXVIII QUI PARLA CON A ANGUILA EN AST QUINA SALSA S’I DEU FFER AB AMELLES. p 203 AND LLADONOSA’S RECIPE TO IMPROVE THE SAUCE[1]
For 6 persons

Ingredients

1 conger eel cut into pieces 3 1/3 lbs
conger eel soup
Photo by: roboppy
1 garlic head
6 c fish broth
1 ¼ c raw almonds peeled and finely chopped
¼ tsp saffron
½ c toasted breadcrumbs
salt to taste

Preparation

Roast eel on a spit if possible, otherwise, bake or grill it. When cooked, slice it on a cutting board.

Mash some garlic cloves in a mortar. Mix this with fish broth. Bring to a boil. Mix it with finely ground almonds. Add saffron dissolved in broth. Slowly add breadcrumbs taking care not to let the sauce become too thick by adding too many.  Let boil 15 minutes and add salt to taste. Serve the sauce in individual soup bowls with chunks of eel.        

[1] La Cocina Medieval. 1984:108

Monday, April 23, 2012

BRECINA WITH 13TH C HEATHER HONEY MERINGUE RECIPE

Heather - 2Photo by: randihausken 
Leon urz (pl. urces), P. & Gall urze, L. Calluna vulgaris, Eng. heather, common heather, Scotch heather. The leaves are small and scale like, not needle like as their cousin heath see brezo blog published April 27, 2012. They have tiny hairs giving the foliage a grayish cast. Its nectar flowers bloom in Spain during the summer in high lands and in September in the low lands. The flowers are so much like heath flowers that is very difficult to see the difference. Heathers are more colorful than heaths but less hardy. Infusions of flowers and branches boiled in water were served as an after dinner drink and drunk to relieve urinary and kidney infections and diarrhea. The branches serve to make brooms, brushes and baskets. They have been used for fuel and mattresses. Red grouse eat it daily as a main dish. Other birds eat the seeds. Humans use the berries for food and beverages. Scotch ale is made from lilac and pink heather flowers. Sprigs are used in cooking as aromatic herbs. Heather honey has been popular since time inmemorable for its intense amber color and strong, pugnant taste, which goes wel with chicken, ham, seafood and cold dishes.  [Cambridge. 2000:II:1784-1785; 5:Freon:786; Dialecto. 1947:340; Espasa. 1988:9:BONG:813; Font. Plantas. 1999:377:530; and Silva. 1994:174]

HEATHER HONEY MERINGUE ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION
OF ANÓN ANDALUS #164 TRABADO DE MIEL p 107

honey meringue
Photo by: shok 
Ingredients

2 lbs heather honey comb
25 egg whites if honey comb used, 30 if not
1 lb peeled almonds

Preparation

Put honey in a pot over moderate heat until it dissolves, then strain it and put it back on the stove. Then beat the whites until stiff and fold them into the honey. Continue folding the mixture with a wooden spatula until it whitens and thickens. Then add the almonds and serve, God willing. (Without the almonds, this recipe has been used as a facial mask, in which case, 1 egg white and 1 heaping tbsp of honey are used.)

Friday, April 20, 2012

BRECA WITH PANDORA IN BLANCMANGE RECIPE FROM THE 15TH C

Breca
Photo from: ElectroMotiveDivision
pajel, lamote, OCast pagel, pegel, pageses, OCat pagel, pagell, L. Pagellus erythrinus, Eng. pandora. Pandora is found in the Atlantic but is more abundant in the Mediterranean. In Castile, it is regarded more highly than red sea bream. It is fried or baked. Sent Soví provides recipes for sauces to be served with the fish. Nola highly recommends that it be prepared, if fresh, in blancmange. It is carved in the same manner as the trout, slicing it lengthwise and removing the bones. See trucha. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CC:204:CCXIII:212; Cordera. 1998:188; Nola. 1989:lxv-4:lviii-3; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a:38b]


PANDORA IN BLANCMANGE ADAPTED FROM
NOLA’S lxviii-3 MANJAR BLANCO DE PESCADO
for 8 persons



Ingredients

blancmange
Photo by: Daphne Ann
2 lb sliced lengthwise pandora and deboned
2 c rosewater
4 lbs peeled almonds
1 lb flour
4 tbsp sugar
1 tsp cinnamon
salt to taste

Preparation

Poach the slices of pandora. When half cooked, remove them and soak them in cold water. Strain the broth from poaching the fish and save 2 cups.

Put the fish on a plate and shed it to look like threads of saffron. Pour the rosewater over the fish.

Blanch the almonds and grind them in a mortar. Moisten the pestle frequently in rosewater to prevent the almonds from becoming oily. Steep the almonds in the broth saved from poaching the fish for one hour. Strain this through a cloth, pressing down on the pulp to obtain as much milk as possible.

Select a saucepan, which is not tin or copper. Add the shredded fish with the rosewater and put it over low heat. Add 2 tbsp sugar, cinnamon and half the almond milk. Add the flour little by little to prevent clumping. Beat the mixture continually with a whisk. As it thickens add the rest of the almond milk little by little.

Serve in individual bowls and sprinkle the rest of the sugar over each.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

BRAZONCICO WITH 14TH C BOILED HEN RECIPE

The "arm" part of the wing with the aileron or fingers
Photo by: Lord-Williams
arm or little arm; the humerus or upper arm and the radius and the ulna or forearm. Pérez explains that The Royal Academy of the Spanish Language does not recognize that birds are four-legged and therefore does not designate the word “arm” to the front appendages nor does it recognize that in ancient times the popular usage of the word “arm” and diminutives instead of “wing.” Pérez explains that Nola, nevertheless, while explaining how to carve birds, clearly and precisely designates the word “brazoncico” (little arm) to mean the bones of the wing between the aileron (see the blog aleron published on July 17, 2011) and the body of the bird. This appears to be the first time the suffix “ico,” the dim form, for brazo (arm) is used. The use of this suffix was an Aragonese trait in the 15th C, which is found at the end of other words in text. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:62:190-191]

ANOTHER DISH - BOILED HEN ADAPTED FROM FADALAT #176 OTRO PLATO

Ingredients


Browning chicken
Photo by: tedski
1 hen about 4 lbs
¼ c olive oil
salt to taste
1 tbsp murri[1]
2 tsp pepper
1 tsp coriander seed
1 tsp oregano
2 onions
a few sprigs of cilantro
½ c breadcrumbs
3 eggs
¼ tsp saffron

Preparation

Choose a robust hen, slit its neck, clean it and cut into small pieces. Cut the legs, breast and plucked wings in half. Heat olive oil in a frying pan. Add salt, murri, ½ of the pepper, coriander seed and oregano. Fry until browned. Then add onions and fry until translucent. Add chopped cilantro. Add just enough water to cover the meat. Let it boil for an hour. Beat the eggs. Dissolve the saffron in them. Add the breadcrumbs and the other half of the pepper. Mix well and add this to the pot as decoration. Simmer for the grease to rise and serve.

[1] See Almorí with Byzantine Murri Recipe blog published August 25, 2011 for recipe.

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

BRASERO WITH 14TH C BIRD OR PARTRIDGE TURNOVER RECIPE

Brasero
Photo by: brujulea
Ar. qanan (small brazier) Eng. brazier, US fire-pit. In Al-Andalus, the small brazier was made of sun-dried clay with various holes to improve the flame. Vegetal coal was used. This gave a special flavor to food cooked over it. Elsewhere and in general, it was a metal container holding coal or charcoal. These have been used in homes for time immemorial in Spain to heat an area or a room. Until Philip II married Isabel Valois, the Alcazar in Segovia did not have fireplaces but was heated with braziers. Today they have been replaced with modern heating but some have been left as decoration. See bresquet. [Aguilera. 2002:15; Anón/Grewe. 1982:CXXXVIII:158; Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:53; and Lladonosa. Cocina. 1984:135]

BIRD OR PARTRIDGE PIES FROM SENT SOVÍ CXXXVIII
Stuffed onions
Photo by: kiapletinckx 
QUI PARLA CON SE FFAN PANADES DE HOCELS HO DE PARDIUS p 158

Original recipe directs that a large onion be hollowed out and birds stuffed in them with salt pork, cinnamon, cloves and sugar. Then the onion is wrapped in burlap and cooked in the brazier under the coals in the hot ashes. As this technique is difficult and not very appetizing Lladonosa modified the recipe as follows:

BIRD OR PARTRIDGE TURNOVERS - EMPANADA DE  PÁJAROS O PERDICES
For 6 persons

Ingredients

For dough:
2 lbs  flour
4 eggs
¼ c lard
1 ½ c water
5 tsp salt

For the filling: 
12 birds (thrushes for example)           
2 onions
12 slices of streaky bacon
1/2 tsp ground cloves
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp sugar
1 c white wine
¼ c olive oil
salt to taste

Empanadas
Photo by: venusina07 Preparation
Preparation

For the dough:

Mix flour, eggs, lard, water and salt. Knead well. Make a ball and cover it with a cloth. Let it sit 4 hours. It should become compact, not hard. In case of the latter add water little by little until the right consistency is reached.
           
Roll the dough out so that it is ½ cm thick.

The turnovers can be individual ones made with round cookie cutters which are 10-12 cm in diameter.

Cut the dough around the circumference of the cookie cutter.

For the filling:

Remove the birds’ feathers and clean the insides. Scorch the outsides, cut off the legs an head. Open the length of the body. Season with salt and mixed spices

Put oil in a casserole and heat it. Moderately brown the birds and the bacon in the olive oil. Remove when done and add onions thinly sliced. When the onions are sautéed, drain off the oil and add white wine and then the birds.
           
Stir constantly while the wine evaporates. Add 1 c water. After 10-15 minutes remove from heat.

PREHEAT MODERATE OVEN(350°-375°F/177°-191°C)

Put the slices of bacon on half the pieces of dough. Place the birds opened on top of the bacon and then the onion and the juice from the frying pan. Distribute all evenly on the pieces of dough.  Cover these with another piece of dough the same size. Join the two pieces of dough by brushing the circumference with egg yolk. Also brush the outside of the dough with egg yolk. Put the turnovers in a moderate oven for 20-25 minutes. Serve immediate

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

BOTILLO A TRADITIONAL BOTILLO RECIPE

Botillos
botiello, martino (Maragato Region), Leon (in Bierzo, Sahagún, Cistierna, Omaña, León, and Luna) botagueña, Ast butelo, Gal botelo, L. botellus, botullus (small sausage), Ar. ghameh, Eng. haggis, an animal’s cecum or blind gut stuffed with scraps of meat and bones, snouts, hooves and cured. It is called the “king of all dishes” when prepared in the Bierzo Region of León and areas of Asturias and Galicia. It is first documented in the monasteries in the area during the 9th and 10th C.

It is an ancestral invention that takes advantage of barely stripped bones and tidbits between the ribs. Chorizos and/or pieces of game marinated in homemade sauce may be used also. The bag is then sewn up, hung from the rafters and smoked for a month or more. When well dried, it is boiled in water and salt in the largest pot of the house. Cabbage is added half way through the cooking process.

Androllas (see blog dated October 5, 2011) are very similar to botillos. Androllas are made by stuffing the large intestine of the pig, while botillo is similar to the shape of a stomach but shorter, plump and thick. The andolla consists of minced raw pieces of pork (ribs, bacon fat, tail, tongue etc). They are not as tasty as botillos for the lack of bones but they are easier to make. They do have a larger portion of skin. Both are commonly eaten with chickpeas, turnips in the Middle Ages (today potatoes) and cabbage or turnip greens, all boiled in the same water as the androlla or the botiello. Once boiled it is best to wrap the androlla or the botiello in a cloth or sack to prevent them from exploding. Some think that these are descendants of the Romans while others think they were made by primitive men ½-1 million years ago.

According to Herodotus, between 8-4 C BC, Scythians were eating botillo. They filled the animal’s stomach with meat mixed with water. The bones were used to make a fire so the animal boiled itself. Many have surmised that ½-1 million years ago primitive man invented the first recipe. Apicius provides a recipe for it. Later, it appeared in Al-Andalus as a hearty Arabian main dish called ghameh, stuffed sheep stomach while the English and the Scots have been eating haggis for so long that the derivation of the word has been lost.

In the mountains of Leon, all botillos have the same basic ingredients but variations are found. Those from El Bierzo are considered the best, perhaps because in the Bercian monasteries botillos are made with more meat than bone. They are round like the abbot’s stomach and not bony or weak like those in a poor house. Customarily, they are consumed on Christmas Eve, New Years, Kings Day and Shrove Tuesday. See comida. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:38:39; Anón/Huici.1966:28:26; Apicius/Flower. 1958:II:III:1:67-69; Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:96; Ares. Gastronomía. 54-55; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 00:18; Dialecto. 1947:161; ES: Fortun. Mar 8, 02; Gancedo. 1994:171; García Rey.1934:51 Tapiello. 1994:138-139 and Villar. 1994:182]


A TRADITIONAL BOTILLO RECIPE
For 4 persons

Botillo berciano

Ingredients

2 botillos from Bierzo[1]
300 gr chickpeas
1 bone
4 turnips[2]
1 blood sausage
300 grs chuck roast
3 chorizo sausages
olive oil
3 garlic cloves

Preparation

Gently boil the botillo 1 ½ - 2 hrs. Cook chickpeas in a pan with the bone, the chuck roast and blood sausage.

In another pan boil the cabbage, turnips and chorizos. Fry the garlic cloves in olive oil.

When all is ready put everything on one platter. Place the garlic cloves on top of everything except the botillo. Cut the botillos in half and sprinkle them with a little broth from the pot in which they were cooked.

[1] Unfortunately, botillos are sold ready made as a result there do not seem be recipes available for making them.
[2] Today, potatoes are used instead of turnips but potatoes were not available in medieval Europe.

Monday, April 16, 2012

BOTILLERÍA

Botilleria - Salitrera Humberstone
15th C storage place for bottles and/or bottled wine. During the 15th and 16th C it was the place where bottles were stored including bottled wine. Nola points out that it was the duty of the overseer of an aristocratic home to keep the botillería well stocked. Pérez explains that during the 19th C, botillerías in Madrid were shops that served coffee, chocolate, sodas and some meals. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:72:190]

Friday, April 13, 2012

BOTIJA, -O

Leon barrila, Eng jug. 1. an unglazed earthenware circular medium size jug, with a short neck and a handle on the top with two openings. One is a spout for drinking and the other on the opposite side is for filling the jug water or wine. 2. an unglazed earthenware amphor shaped pitcher with a wide spout and two handles. It is used to store fresh drinking water. Both types of jugs are kept in cool places in the home. Due to refrigeration they are not as common today as in times before electricity.  [Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:103; Dialecto. 1947:155; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:41]


Botijo, queso y chorizo
by Gusulabu 
BOTIJO TAMARITE
by dtodaf

Thursday, April 12, 2012

BOTIELLO

Dylan with the bota bag. Barcelona (Spain)


1. wine skin. 2. bota (bags). Bota bags filled with wine were commonly carried while traveling throughout medieval Spain. The tradition was common still in the 19th C when Washington Irving traveled by horseback to Granada where he wrote Tales of the Alhambra (1832). Irving carried cheese and bread in his saddle bags while Henry IV of Castile in the 15th C carried chorizo,  other cold cuts and bread. As Henry IV was abstemious, he carried water in his bota bag. 3. sweetmeats. 4. see botillo. [Ares. “Las Comidas.” 1994:91:96:97:130]

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

BOTELLA WITH 13TH C FISH PIE RECIPE

Old wine bottles Tuscany
Photo by: Sondre.engelsen 

OCast botilla, Eng. bottle. Between the 13-15 C. it meant a glass or crystal vessel, with a long neck and wide round bottom, which prevented the wine from becoming bitter. The first Spanish glass factory was founded during the first quarter of the 9th C in Cordoba. (Botilla later came to mean a women’s ankle boot or half boot from which, on occasion, a daring admirer might drink wine to honor the lady.) [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:34-35:ftn 68]

Spanish wine is drunk to enhance the taste of food. It is never drunk without food. The following fish pie calls for a bottle of wine next to it. This pie can be eaten as Hors d'ourves or a main course for dinner.


SALT OR FRESH WATER FISH PIE ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN ANDALUS, #144. EMPANADA DE PESCADO DE MAR O DE RÍO, p 97-98
For 4 persons


Ingredients

For the dough:
2 ½ c flour
1 c or 8 oz very cold butter
1 tsp salt
1 tsp sugar
½ c ice water

Pie Fish
(a creative variation)
Photo by: yustoprst 
For the filling:
2 lbs firm white fish
1 c cilantro juice
6 peppercorns ground
1 tsp Byzantine murri
1 tsp olive oil
4 eggs beaten

Preparation

Dough:
Mix flour, salt and sugar in a food processor. Chop butter and add. Mix until the butter looks like big crumbs. Add ice water, a drizzle at a time until the dough holds together.

Remove dough from the food processor and place it in a ball on a clean surface. Press the down with the palm of the hand 3 or 4 times to help flatten the butter. This will make the crust flaky. Knead the dough well, but leave little bits of butter as they are the secret to flaky dough.  Shape it into two balls. Sprinkle with flour and cover with a cloth. Let it sit in a cool place or refrigerate for at least 1 hour but no more than 2 days.

When ready to use, remove the dough from the refrigerator. Let sit 5-10 minutes to warm up to room temperature. Roll a ball out with a rolling pin on a lightly floured smooth surface. Make a 12” circle, 1/8” thick.  If too sticky sprinkle a little flour over it. Put the dough in a 9” pie tin that has been greased and sprinkled with flour. Press it down on the bottom and sides. Trim the edges.

Roll out the second ball of dough into a 12” circle, 1/8” thick.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF/180ºC

Filling:
Clean the fish inside and out and remove the bones, the head, tail, fins and scrape off the scales. Remove the skin and cut until pieces. Place these in the pie tin.

Beat the eggs in a bowl. Mix the juices and pepper. Discard the pits from the plums and chop them. Add them to mixture with murri, oil and eggs. Mix well and pour this over the dish. Cover the dish with dough. Seal the edges with a fork. Prick holes in the top for the steam to escape. Bake 40 minutes or until the crust is browned and the filling is bubbling.

[1] The manuscript states that the dough should be the same as that for almojábana (cheese pie), which is flatbread made with oil not butter. 
[2] This is debatable for it is listed as a spice. Perry shows the original text is: myrobalan [? hîlaj for ihlîlaj? ]. He does not think plums appropriate for this recipe. In ftn 60 he deduces one might read "hâl" for "hîlaj," which would be "cardamom."
[3] See: almorí with Byzantine murri blog published August 25, 2011 for recipe.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

BORRICA, -O, WITH 14TH C RECIPE FOR CHICKPEAS IN ALMOND MILK

donkey carrying supplies

Photo by: lifeonwhite

she-ass. In rural areas, it is used to transport the midday meal to field laborers, among other transportation tasks. [Ares. “Comida.” 1994:104; Fernández Muñiz. 1994:187; and Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:117]

CHICKPEAS WITH HERBS ADAPTED BY SANTICH[1] FROM CXV QUI PARLA CON SE APARELLEN CIURONS TENDRES AB LET DE MELLES[2] 140-141

Ingredients

2/3 c chickpeas
1 onion sliced
2 tbsp almonds
salt to taste
freshly ground pepper to taste[3]
¼ tsp ground ginger
1 tbsp verjuice
chopped herbs: parsley, basil, mint and marjoram

Preparation

006

Soak chickpeas overnight in cold water.[4] Drain and cook in fresh water with a sliced onion for about 30 minutes, or until just cooked. Make almond milk using ground almonds blended with ½ c hot water, strain. Drain chickpeas and onion and return to saucepan with almond milk. Cover and simmer gently for about 5 minutes until chickpeas are soft and liquid has been absorbed. (The onion combines with the almond milk to make a thick sauce). Season with salt, freshly ground pepper and ginger, blend in verjuice and chopped herbs. (They can be served over rice as in the photo.)

[1] The Original Mediterranean Cuisine, p 118
[2] It is questionable if peasants would have had almond milk but they certainly did eat chickpeas with lard. Note that medieval manuscripts did not provide recipes for the poor.
[3] Spices would not have been included in dishes for peasants.
[4] The Sent Soví recipe does not mention soaking the chickpeas but it is understood that this is essential.

Monday, April 9, 2012

BORREGO & 13TH C RECIPE FOR A PRUNE DISH WITH HOGGET

Borregos en Alaro Mallorca


Photo by: 2genios

borrego, -a, 1. hogget, a yearling lamb. 2. simpleton, dope. [Ibn Razīn/Granja.1960:108:25; Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:151]

A PRUNE (IJJÂS)[1] DISH WITH HOGGET[2] ADAPTED FROM HUIC’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN ANDALUS #69 PLATO DE CIRUELAS p 50
For 6 persons

Ingredients

prunes candied and steeped in vinegar:
2 ½ c prunes
1 c sugar
1 c honey
1-1 ½ c water
1 c vinegar

0018: Candied Prunes

for meatballs:
1 sm onion chopped
2 tbsp olive oil
½ lb ground lamb 
¼ tsp saffron
½ tsp cinnamon
¼ tsp nutmeg
1/8 tsp freshly grated ginger

For mint juice:
1 bunch of mint
pinch of salt
½ c boiling water
½ c vinegar
2 tbsp sugar


For lamb:
3 large hogget shanks (about 2 ½ lbs)
salt to taste
1tsp black pepper, freshly ground
2 tbsp coriander seed, freshly ground
2 tsp cumin
¼ tsp saffron
2 tbsp vinegar
2 tbsp oil

Garnish:
6 egg yolks

Lamb Shanks with Prunes and Couscous

(garnished with toasted almonds instead of egg yolks)
Photo by: hooverdust 
Preparation
For the prunes:
Remove the pits from the prunes.
Put sugar, honey and water into a heavy saucepan and bring to a boil. When the mixture reaches 235º F drop the prunes into the liquid. Cook 25-30 minutes until transparent. Drain and set aside.
Heat vinegar. Add prunes. Remove from heat, cover and set aside until needed.

For the meatballs:
Chop onion and sauté it in olive oil. When translucent, remove from frying pan and drain off excess oil. Add the onion to the ground meat. Mash saffron and dilute it in a little water. Add the saffron and other spices to the ground meat and knead well. Form walnut size meatballs. Sauté them. When done set aside and keep warm until ready to use.

For mint juice:
Put the leaves, without the stems in a food processor. Pour over boiling water and grind the mixture. Add the sugar and blend. Stir in the vinegar. Add more water, vinegar or sugar if needed.

For braised lamb:
Heat olive oil in a pot. Brown the meat on the hogget shanks. Add salt, pepper, coriander, cumin, saffron and vinegar and tightly cover with a lid. When almost cooked add prunes. Continue cooking for about 5-10 minutes, then remove pot from heat covered with the lid. Let cool until the ingredients bind and become clarified. Then pour into a serving dish and add the meatballs. Garnish with whole egg yolks. Serve hot mint juice on the side. Couscous is an appropriate accompaniment to this dish.


[1] Huici explains that this word means pears in Morocco but both he and Perry use prunes in their translations for this recipe.
[2] See añojo for Ibn Razín’s recipe for “White Tafaya with Hogget” published on October 24, 2011.