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Thursday, May 31, 2012

CABEZA DE CERDO WITH RECIPE FOR ROASTED PIG HEAD WITH CHESTNUTS

Photo by: Lord-Williams
cachucha, cacheira, cachaza, cachirola (head of pork), pork meatloaf. 1. A Spanish version: the head of the pig is hollowed out without removing the skin. A mixture of tongue, ears, meat and fat from the pig’s head is seasoned with spices, salt, onions, garlic and parsley and is stuffed into the head. This is covered with a cloth and it is boiled in a sauce made of red wine, aromatic herbs, salt, pepper and onions. It is served on a platter covered with a cloth. Traditionally this is made during Carnival season before Lent and served with chestnuts. 2. The English version calls for: three parts chopped lean pork and one part chopped fat, seasoned with salt and pepper and mixed with parsley, thyme, nutmeg, marjoram. The mixture is put into a mold, sprinkled with savory powder and covered with strong gravy. It is baked and left to cool. It is removed from the mold and served with vinegar and mustard. See queso de cerdo. [Cassell’s. n/d:72; and Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000-2001:2003]


HEAD OF PORK WITH CHESTNUTS RECIPE FROM SLAUGHTER TEAM FROM MONROY, EXTREMADURA, SPAIN HANDED DOWN FROM TIME INMEMORABLE (ANOTHER SPANISH VERSION
for 6 persons


Ingredients

For the pig’s head:
1 pig head with tongue, ears, meat and fat 8-9 lbs
1 small apple

A mixture:
1 c virgin olive oil
1 c white wine
¾ c brandy

Chopped:
2-3 garlic cloves
12 sprigs parsley
freshly ground white pepper to taste
1 pinch rosemary
salt to taste 

Shelled chestnuts
Photo by: maggiehc
For the chestnuts:
1 onion chopped
2 lbs whole shelled chestnuts
1 c port wine
3 sprigs thyme
3 c chicken broth
salt and pepper to taste

Preparation

For the pig’s head:

PREHEAT OVEN TO 325ºF /160ºC

Remove the eyes from the head. Salt it inside and out. Put the apple in its’ mouth
Put the head face down in the pan into the oven and roast it for 1 hr.

Prepare the mixture of liquids. Chop the remaining ingredients and add them to the mixture.
Remove from oven and turn the head over face up.

DSCN2205
Photo by: awinner 
Pour the mixture all over the head. Return the head to the oven and leave it for 1 ½ hrs.

How to carve:
Cut the head into large pieces lengthwise and then into smaller, serving pieces:
First cut the ears, then the nose from the forehead to the corners of the mouth. Remove the skin from the eyes to the chin. Open the skull and remove the brains. Serve with chestnuts.

For the chestnuts:
Heat a heavy pan. Add oil, butter and onions. When the onions start to become transparent add the remaining ingredients. Cover and gently boil until chestnuts are tender and have absorbed most of the liquid. Serve whole or puréed.

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

CABAÑUELAS WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR QUINCE PASTE

sukkot hut on a balcony

Photo by: jeffrey gold 
Sukkot Festival, Festival of Booths, Feast of the Tabernacles or Jewish Harvest Festival. This festival concludes the agricultural year prescribed in Leviticus 23 of the Bible. It is celebrated usually during the month of October for eight days. It begins four days after Yom Kippur (the time of forgiveness and pardon) on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Tishri, which does not fall on the same day each year. Temporary booths, huts or sukkot are built with cane, palm leaves, willow branches, hay and/or clusters of leaves. The interior is lined with white cloth and topped with a flat roof. This is done to give thanks for God’s care during the 40 years of wandering in the desert following the Jewish Exodus from Egypt to the promise land of Israel. The booths are decorated with four fruits: palm, myrtle, willow and citron. Observant Jews actually can live in them for the week. In 15th C Spain, when children visited booths, they were given fruit or candy. Today, sukkots are built next to synagogues, in the front or backyards of homes and even on fire escapes. It is a happy folk festival filled with song and laughter. Traditional foods served consist of stuffed vegetables such as eggplants, cabbages and peppers, reflecting a love relationship of medieval vegetarian cuisine and emphasizing the purification of the body, which is actually a reflection of the diet consumed during the flight through the desert. These menus are in contrast today's over stressing ‘sinful gluttony’ for meats during the Middle Ages, which was true of only a very small percentage of people. [Enyc Judaica. 1971:15:SM:495-502; Gitlitz. 1999:256:285; and Misc. Conversations. J. Israel Katz. February 9, 2004]

GITLITZ’ VERSION OF QUINCE PASTE (p257) IN HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF AL-ANDALUS #522. PASTA DE MEMBRILLO[1], p 284

Ingredients

10-12 quinces
Sugar (see Variations)

Quinces-IMG_6381
Perfect on dry biscuits with cheese and wine.
Photo from:  Life Images by Jill 
Preparation

1. Wash the quinces and remove the stems and leaves. Put the fruit in a large pot and add barely enough water to cover (see Variations).[2] Bring to a boil, then cover and simmer until the fruits have become completely mushy and are falling apart, about an hour. Turn the heat off and set the pot aside to cool.
2. Carefully run the liquid and fruits through a fruit strainer into a large pan. Be sure to strain out the seeds and skins.
3. Measure the resulting pulp and then put it into a heavy, clean pan. Add sugar equal to one half of the amount of pulp (see Variations). Stir well. Place over low heat and simmer gently. Stirring often, until the pulp thickens to a consistency between apple butter and jelly, about 30 minutes.
4. Remove from the heat and pour into hot sterilized jars. Let cool. Seal tightly. Jars of quince paste may be stored in the freezer for several months.

VARIATIONS
Add ¼ c cider vinegar to the water in step 1.
Instead of using white sugar, use a combination of white and dark brown sugars or a combination of ¾ white and ¼ honey.
Add more sugar for a sweeter paste.
Add 2 tsp rosewater at step 3.
Add one or both of the following spices to step 3:
1 tsp cinnamon
¼ tsp cloves[3]


[1] It is not known if Jews or Jewish converts used this recipe but taking into account their love for fruit and sweets this is a logical and economical choice as quince is a fruit of autumn. Further, it is a very common product in all Spanish homes.
[2] The original MSS gives two options first: to remove the seeds from 1 lb quinces and boil in 3 lbs honey or second: to boil quinces in water and then add sugar.
[3] The MSS lists advantages of consuming this paste: it relieves adnominal pains; it eliminates bitter taste in the mouth; and wets the appetite. It also obstructs bad vapors rising from the stomach to the brain.

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

CABAÑA WITH 14TH C RECIPE FOR GOURDS WITH MILK, CHEESE AND LAMB

Flock of sheep and goats
Photo by: uempe
1. hut, cottage, cabin. 2. flock of ewes or breeding sheep. In 1375 Alfonso XI of Castile created the Cabaña General y Real (General and Royal Sheep Flock) forcing all nomadic livestock to come under the control of the Mesta (the Castillan sheep guild). As an immediate consequence, this resulted in an enormous expansion of nomadic herds as more grazing land was made available. Sheep grazed in southern Castile and Extremadura during the winter. In spring and summer, the flocks were taken to Burgos where they were sheered and the wool was carried on mules to Santander where it was shipped to Flanders to make cloth. The sheep spent the rest of the summer grazing in Burgos and Leon. In the fall they were herded back to southern Castile and Extremadura. This practice still exists today.

Because of the Black Death in Castile between 1348-1350, there was a considerable decrease in the population making it unnecessary to produce as much grain, which was essential in feeding the masses. This favored the augmentation of sheep flocks.

Christians raised sheep almost exclusively for the production of wool and milk, which was made into cheese. Meat was not obtained until the end of the productive cycle.  In Jewish and Muslim societies, on the other hand, the consumption of lamb was of great religious significance as well as the fact that lamb traditionally represented what pig did for the Christians. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:151]

GOURDS WITH MILK, CHEESE AND LAMB ADAPTED BY LLADONOSA, pp 119-120 FROM SENT SOVÍ #LXXXXIII QUI PARLA EN ALTRA MANERA CON SE DEUEN COURA CARABACES AB LET H AB FORMATGE, p 125

For 6 persons

Ingredients

3 ½ oz lard
5 slices of bacon
4 ½ lb leg of lamb deboned and tied with a string
4 ½ lb pealed gourds without seeds and cut into equal pieces
3 medium onions slices
2 c diced cheese
1 ½  qts almond milk or goat’s milk
3 whole eggs

carving the lamb of god
Photo by: pinprick
Preparation

Put lard, bacon, leg and seasoning into a pan. Fry over low heat. When it starts to brown on both sides add gourds and onions; cover and let cook slowly, turning the meat every 8-10 minutes with a wooden spatula and taking care that the gourd does not stick to the bottom of the pan. The lamb and the bacon should be cooked in an hour. Separate the gourd and puree it. Drain off grease around the meat. When the gourd is pureed add milk and cheese and let it cook about 15 or 20 minutes. Add salt to taste. At the last minute add beaten eggs and mix well.           

Serve the purée in an earthenware dish or bowl. Cut the meat into pieces that are not too thick and put them on top of the puree with the bacon.

(Also this can be covered with a layer of thinly sliced cheese putting it in the oven for 4 minutes for the cheese to melt.) 

The leg of lamb is deboned in order to cut it better. This dish can be made with other parts of the animal such as the kidneys, etc.


Monday, May 28, 2012

CABALLO,CARNE DE & RECIPE FOR HORSEMEAT ROAST WITH CHEESE SAUCE

Felipe IV in the Plaza Oriente, Madrid

Pietro Tacca, Scupltor in collaboration with Juan Martínez Montañés
Photo by: Normus_ 
OCast cavallo, cauallo, Eng horsemeat. Villena relates that Turks and Tartans highly regarded horsemeat and were reputed to roast it whole with the tail, thighs and pelt for strength and wisdom from the 8-11 C. The part behind the legs half way down the backbone, including the tail, was sliced diagonally and served with the skin to the most important guests. The others ate the rest of the meat.

During the early Middle Ages, the horses were part of pagan sacrifices and they were consumed in non-Christian areas such as England, Poland, Germany etc. Pope Gregory III prohibited hippophagy in 732 for being pagan. Villena states that the meat makes men brave.  Salted horsemeat was eaten in desperate situations in Europe as it was thought that warriors had to eat meat. This was most prevalent in the Spanish baron’s battles during the 15th C.  Even Juan II, father of Isabel I and Enrique IV, was forced to eat horsemeat in 1420 during a siege headed by Enrique de Aragon, his first wife’s brother.

It is mentioned in the Archpriest of Hita being eaten almost a century earlier with lard and cabbage. As the horse was the equivalent of a Ferrari automobile today, only aristocrats owned them for war purposes. Surprisingly, the meat is more tender than beef because in medieval Europe, horses were the size of work horses today as they had to support the weight of an armored rider. Arabian horses were light, slim and swift as Muslims did not use armor.  See untos. [Castro. Alimentación. 1994:123:202; Ruíz/Brey. 1965: 1275a :198; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23b:31a]

HORSEMEAT STEAK WITH CHEESE SAUCE
(Perhaps because of the Pope’s prohibition to eat horsemeat but certainly due it its scarcity, no medieval document seems to have a recipe for horsemeat. Today it can be found in the Orient, especially Japan.)

Horsemeat steak
Photo by: FotoosVanRobin
Ingredients[1]

2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
salt and pepper to taste

For blue cheese horseradish sauce:
3 tbsp Cabrales cheese, crumbled
2 tbsp buttermilk
3 tbsp sour cream
2 tsp white vinegar
5 tsp chopped chives
¼ tsp sugar
5 tsp horseradish
1 garlic closed mashed
freshly ground peppercorns to taste

Preparation

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F/180ºC

Heat oil in a frying pan over medium high heat. Sear the roast on all sides.
Season with salt and pepper to taste. Place it in a roasting pan and roast to desired doneness. Remove from oven, cover with foil and let stand 15 minutes.

Mash the cheese in a bowl with a fork. Add the buttermilk and continue mashing until it looks like cottage cheese.  Put this in a blender with the other ingredients and blend the mixture.

Slice the meat and put it on a platter and serve it with the sauce.

[1] Today, mustard can be rubbed on the meat and mayonnaise added to the sauce but neither of these products existed during the Middle Ages. 

Friday, May 25, 2012

CABALLA WITH BAKED MACKEREL RECIPE

Spanish Mackeral
Photo by:  capt.markwgore
(stallion), L. Scomber scombrus, Eng. Atlantic mackerel. This is an edible fish with a greenish-blue striped back, and silvery belly, 12-18 inches long. It spawns in three areas. The first is around Portugal and Spain in the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean; the second off Western England and eastern Ireland and the third in the Norwegian Sea where it is called Northeastern Atlantic mackerel. In Galicia, it is the third largest catch after the sardine and the anchovy. It is preserved salted or semi-preserved in salt, smoked, dried or cooked in vinegar-acidified brine and packed with spices. It was common among in Al-Andulus recipes. In England, it was banquet food during Lent. At the same time, it was English medieval fast food sold ready to eat in the Cheap. Nola provides an elegant recipe for chub mackerel stuffed with spices, herbs and nuts and ground nuts and raisins sprinkled around the casserole, see estornino. Mackerel was an ingredient for alec (blog published August 3, 2011) and murri (see almori, blog published August 26, 2011). [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clássica. 1995:182; and Nola. 1989:lxiiii-4]


BAKED MACKEREL
For 4 persons

Ingredients

Baked mackerel with beetroot salad
Photo by: Sameen
1-2 mackerel per person depending on size 
¼ c virgin olive oil
2 onions thinly sliced
2 turnips sliced 1/8” thick
4 carrots sliced
1 c white wine
1 c fish broth
allioli [1]
¼ c breadcrumbs
Salt to taste
Freshly ground pepper to taste

Garnish:
slices of lemon
capers

Preparation

Clean the mackerel, remove the guts and heads and wash the fish.

Gently fry the onions in olive oil. When translucent add the wine. Add turnips, carrots and fish broth. Season with salt and pepper. Gently boil uncovered to reduce sauce and until the vegetables are tender.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 325º F/170ºC

Place each mackerel in foil. Spread allioli on them and sprinkle them with breadcrumbs. Shut the foil and but them in a roasting pan. Roast in the oven for 20 minutes. Serve with vegetables and garnish with slices of lemon and capers.



[1] See blog published August 4, 2011.

Thursday, May 24, 2012

CABAHEAS WITH KOSHER SAUSAGE RECIPE

ButcherDay112608_13
Photo by  podchef
cabezas, 1. heads of livestock. 2. local name for Jewish sausage from Almazán, Soria made for the Sabbath with heads of livestock, such as goats or steers and entrails or innards. This was seasoned and intestines were stuffed with the mixture. They were hung until cured or smoked and then fried or roasted for consumption. This is similar to botillo (haggis) from Leon and Zamora.  Jewish converts were tried during the Spanish Inquisition for making and eating this sausage during the midday meal on the Sabbath between 1501-1505. [ES: Cantera. 2003:34-35; Gitlitz. 1999:213-216]

GITLITZ' RECIPE FOR CABAHEA SAUSAGE FROM ALMAZÁN, pp 215-216 
Sausage Making
Photo by  GluehweinEffects

Ingredients

1 lb stewing beef without bones[1]
1 onion quartered
2 cloves garlic
1 bay leaf
1 sm beef kidneys (about ¼ lb)
1 qt water
1 tbsp white vinegar

Spice Mixture
6 large garlic cloves chopped
1 tsp salt
2 tbsp ground coriander seeds
1 ½ tsp pepper
2 tbsp chopped fresh ginger

5 tbsp wine vinegar
¼ - ½ c chopped fresh lovage
2 tbsp melted shortening
2 pieces intestine about 48” long total

For cooking:
2 tbsp olive oil
2 tbsp water
1-2 tbsp vinegar (optional)

Preparation

1. Simmer the stew beef with quartered onion, garlic, and bay leaf in just enough water to cover until the beef is tender (about 2 ½ hrs).

2. Wash the kidney. In a small pot, put the water, vinegar and kidney. Bring to a boil over medium heat and gently simmer the kidney 20 minutes, uncovered. Remove it from the heat and plunge it in cold water. Let it sit until it is cool enough to handle. Then drain the water and chop the kidney, removing the membrane and fat.

3. Grind the kidney and stewing beef together, using a meat grinder. Place the meat in a medium nonreactive bowl.

4. Combine the spice mixture ingredients and grind them finely using a food processor. You may add the vinegar if it will help grind the spices finely.

5. To the meat, add the spice mixture, lovage, melted shortening and vinegar if you did not use it in step 4 above. Mix well, Set aside.[2] 

Sausage
Photo by: ha3rvey
Making the sausages:
6. Prepare the intestines for stuffing.

7. Stuff the sausages about ¾” in diameter and 3” long. Do not cut the individual sausages apart.

8. Hang them in the refrigerator until time for frying from overnight to 3 days.

Cook the sausages:
9. Place olive oil, water and vinegar, if you are using it, in a large frying pan and heat over medium heat. Add the sausages and simmer, covered for 5 minutes, turning occasionally. Take off the cover and continue to fry for another 3-4 minutes, or until the sausages are browned on all sides. Serve hot.   


[1] If there is beef fat on the meat, cut it off and set aside to render later and use in place of shortening.
[2] If you wish, you may refrigerate the meat and spice mixture for a day after step 5.

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

BUXEDO WITH 14TH C PURÉED EGGPLANT CASSEROLE


spoons

Photo by: longword
boxwood spoons. They were common in Andalusia by the 13th C. for eating porridge and sopes. From the 13-15 C, boxwood spoons were incorporated as dining utensils in the rest of Spain. Ibn Razin instructs that boxwood spoons should be used to eat his Wheat Flour Pottage while most medieval manscripts instruct cooks to use wooden spoons for stirring. See boj. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:37:ftn 82:78:158:ftn 80; Ibn Razin/Granja 1960:95:24; Misc. Conversations. Alberto Oliart. Nov 20, 01; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

PURÉED EGGPLANT CASSEROLE – TRANSLATED FROM LLADONSA’S ADAPTION (pp 79-80) OF SENT SOVÍ’S  #CLI QUE PARLA CON SE DEUEN COURA ALBERGÍNIES EN CASOLA (how eggplants should be cooked in a casserole)
For 4 persons

Ingredients

Eggplant casserole
Photo by: yazz20 
 6 medium size eggplants
salt to taste
¼ c olive oil
2 tbsp Parmesan cheese grated
2 tbsp toasted breadcrumbs
5 eggs
1 pinch of mixed spices (make a mixture of:  1 2/3 tbsp ginger, 1 tsp cinnamon, ½ tsp white pepper, ½ tsp ground cloves, 1 pinch of mace, 1 pinch of nutmeg, 1 tsp mashed saffron)
1 c honey

Preparation

Cut the stems off the eggplants, peel them, wash them and cut them into quarters. Boil them in water with a little salt. When boiled, drain and lay them on paper towels while cooling. When cold chop them.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF/175ºC

Heat olive oil in a frying pan over medium heat. When hot add the eggplant. Turn them to brown all sides. Add half the cheese and half the breadcrumbs, two of the eggs beaten and a pinch of mixed spices. Cook for 4 minutes stirring constantly with a wooden spoon.

Grease an oven proof-dish with oil. Add the eggplant mixture.
           
Beat the remaining eggs, add salt to taste and the rest of the breadcrumbs. Mix well. Pour this over the eggplant mixture. Heat in the oven about 10 minutes until coagulated and toasted.
           
In the medieval times, honey was poured on top.

This casserole can be made with different vegetables like carrots, spinach, chard etc.


Tuesday, May 22, 2012

BUSAQUE DE CONEJOS WITH 15TH C THICK SAUCE FOR RABBIT RECIPE

(busaque fr bushe, thick), a thick sauce for rabbit. [Nola. 1989:liii-2]

THICK SAUCE FOR RABBIT ADAPTED FROM 
NOLA’S liii-2 BUSAQUE DE CONEJOS
For 6 persons

Rabbit with juniper berries
Photo by: FotoosVanRobin
Ingredients

2 rabbits, about 4 lbs
½ tsp salt
¼ tsp freshly chopped pepper
2 sprigs thyme
1 sprig fresh rosemary
2 bay leaves
spices
2 c chopped onions
¼ c virgin olive oil
2 slices toasted bread
1 c toasted almonds
1 c dry red wine
3 c meat broth
1 tbsp crushed juniper berries

Preparation


PREHEAT OVEN TO 425ºF/220º C

Skin the rabbit. Open it and place it in a roasting pan with the onions quartered.  Cook 5 minutes.
  
Chop the rabbit into pieces and return them to the pan with bones. Add the oil and gently sauté the meat with the onions until the latter are translucent and the meat is browned. Chop the almonds and toast and add them to the pan, stirring them to soak up the juices. Remove the rabbit, onions, bay leaves and other herbs. Add the wine and broth, stirring constantly to deglaze the roasting pan.

Pour this mixture into a food processor and grind well. Strain this back into the roasting pan. Gently boil until the sauce thickens, stirring constantly. Add rabbit, onions and herbs. Cook 6-8 minutes until the meat is firm and serve.

Monday, May 21, 2012

BURRILLAS DE MADERA

Solid-wood door-desk/table $40 for table-top 80 x 36" , $20 for saw-horse legs

Photo by: DWJ2010 

burros (not mules in this case), wooden sawhorsesThese supported the boards used as dining tables in the halls of palaces and castles. Rooms used solely for the purpose of dining did not exit in the Middle Ages.  When the meal ended, the saw horses and boards were removed for dancing as seen in the Chronicle of Miguel Lucas Iranzo, at his wedding and other during other banquets he held as Constable of Castile in Jaen. [Gázquez Cocina. 2002:31; and Matta. 1940:46:64:70 etc]

Friday, May 18, 2012

BUÑUELOS DE GERINGA, WITH 13TH C FRITTER RECIPE

Schwetzinger Barockgarten - Pan und Syrinx
Photo by: Jorbasa
(syrinx or reed, named for the Arcadian nymph who fleeing from Pan requested to be metamorphosed into a reed from which Pan then made his flute), buñuelos de viento, of “wind,”  Eng fritters with no filling.” In Spain they are made more than anywhere else during winter months. Even today they are specially made on All Saint's Day, November 1st. In medieval times, they were frequently served during light meals. C. Martinez Montiño states the dough is the same as that used for almojábanas. See blog published August 24, 2011. Although these fritters were not supposed to be filled, sometimes they are filled with cheese like the almojábanas. [Anón/Huici. 1966:6:18; Castro. Alimentación. 1996:248; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clássica. 1995:271; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:267]

SIMPLE ISFÎRIYÂ ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION 

OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #6, LA "ISFÎRIY” SENCILLA, p 18


Ingredients

Buñuelos de Los Santos
(All Saint's Day Fritters)
Photo by: Aldeana
2 c milk
1 c water
¼ c butter
1 tbsp zest of lemon sliced
1 pinch of salt
2 tsp of mixed spices (pepper, coriander, cumin and cinnamon), well ground
¼ tsp saffron
2 c flour
1 pk yeast
5 eggs beaten
olive oil for frying

Garnish:
Powdered sugar

Preparation

Dissolve the saffron in a little of the milk. Put that, and the rest of the milk in a saucepan with water, butter, zest of lemon, salt and the remaining spices. Heat and remove just before about to boil add all the flour and yeast. Lower the heat to simmer and stir.

When well mixed, increase the heat until the mixture separates from the sides of the saucepan. Remove from heat and let the dough cool. Add eggs little by little, stirring constantly. When well mixed, shape the dough into balls the size of walnuts or shape like reeds and fry them in a frying pan with enough olive oil to cover them.

When golden brown put them on a plate with paper towels underneath to absorb excess oil.  Sprinkle with powdered and serve.

Thursday, May 17, 2012

BUÑUELOS DE GARBANZOS WITH 13TH RECIPE FOR CHICKPEA FRITTERS

Shelled Chickpeas
Photo by: cinnachick
Ar. falafel, Eng. mashed chickpea fritters. David Friendman maintains that the Anón Al-Andalus recipe “Counterfeit Isfîriyâ[1] of Garbanzos” is the closed to what falafel is today. [Anón/Huici.1966:7:18; Anon/Perry. Sep 5 00; ES: Friedman. “Hummus.” Mar 12. 98; ES: “Siria.” Apr 22, 02]

COUNTERFEIT ISFÎRIY OF GARBANZOS ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL ANDALUS #7. LA “ISFIRIYĀ” FALSIFICADA DE GARBANZOS, p 18
For 4 persons

Ingredients

Such as
ss_falafel_3_ed
Photo from: saffronstreaks
2 c dried chickpeas
1 tsp yeast
1 tsp salt
2 tbsp sourdough
1 large egg beaten
1 garlic clove mashed
2 tsp aromatic seasoning[2]
virgin olive oil for deep frying

Preparation

Pound the chickpeas and shell them. Put them in a food processor and grind them into flour. Strain to eliminate any large particles.

Beat the egg and add the spices. Mix the flour with the yeast and salt. Add the sourdough, egg and spices. Add just enough water to make a thick dough. Knead and make it into the shape of a ball. Cover with a rag and let sit in a cool place for 2 hours.

Make thin cakes and fry them. Serve with a sauce. Yogurt sauces such as cucumber and mint soy yogurt or tamarind chutney and yogurt are popular.

[1] Huici notes that Dozy explains that this is a dish of meat, eggs and onion. Perry indicates that this is a vegetarian version.
[2] Friedman explains that this can be a mixture of any of the following: pepper, coriander, saffron, cumin, cinnamon, lavender, ginger, cloves, garlic and murri.

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

BUÑUELOS WITH 14TH C RECIPE FOR BUNYOLS (CHEESE FRITTERS)

Bimuelos, frying
(for Hannukah)
Photo by: goldberg
OCat bunyols, Nav boynuelos, Ar. isfanŷ, Hebr. bimuelos, binuelos (matzo balls), Eng. bunyols, puff fritters today but leaf fritters in the Middle Ages (see hojaldre) consisting of salty or sweet food wrapped in leaf-pastry and fried in olive oil or cream puffs. It is one of the desserts heartily adopted from the Arabs in medieval Iberia although thought to be of Roman origin. They were incorporated into Christian cuisine after they reconquered Spanish land from the Hispano-Arabs. Fritters became part of the fried foods or fried sweets in Castile where fat or lard could be used instead of olive oil. With cheesecake, they were most popular in Al-Andalus. Buñuelos always were made with basic ingredients that increased tastes for light, “fine” sweets that appealed to the taste, smell and sight. Today traditional Hanukah puffy fritters are made in Sephardic communities around the Mediterranean. Generally, they are called bimuelos. As Hanukah was a minor holiday for medieval Jews in Iberia, leaf fritters were associated with other holidays such as Passover and Yom Kippur and family celebrations. Like omelets, they could be filled with anything. One surviving recipe calls for meat, another eggplant, still another chickpeas and finally one requiring flat bread with almonds, walnuts or apples. Due to the vast variety of fritters, the Arabs began to apply different names to distinguish them as will be seen in later blogs. [Aguilera. 2002:83; Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLX:174-175; Benavides–Barajas Alhambra. 1999:151; Castro. Alimentación. 1996:248; ES: Castro.” The Role” Aug 3, 03; ES: Salónica. 04; Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:151; and Serrano. 2008:337]

BUNYOLS ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVI #CLX QUI PARLA CON SE FFAN BUNYOLS DE FFORMATGE E D’OUS, pp 174-175
For 50 balls

Ingredients

Bunyols de quaresma
(for Lent)
Photo by: PaRaP 
7 ½  c flour, sifted twice
1 tbsp yeast
1 ½  tbsp salt
1 ½  tbsp sugar
1 lb grated parmesan cheese
5 eggs
1 pt warm milk
1 c extra virgin olive oil
extra virgin olive oil for frying
sugar for sprinkling

Preparation

Mix flour, yeast and salt. Beat 1 tbsp sugar with eggs and oil. Add milk and cheese and mix well. Add this mixture to the flour. Knead well. More milk may be added if needed but the dough should be thick. Make a couple of large balls with this, cover with a rag and let sit in a cool spot for two hours while the dough rises. Knead the dough again and make balls ½” in diameter.

Heat enough oil in a frying pan to cover the bunyols. When golden brown drain them on paper towels. Sprinkle them with sugar and serve warm or at room temperature.

Tuesday, May 15, 2012

BULYĀT


Nachani (Marathi: नाचणी)
(African Millet)
by dinesh_valke
Arabian porridge made with millet bread. It is not known if this dish originated in the Maghreb or in Andalusia but in Cordoba, it was a basic form of nutrition until the fall of the last caliph there in 1031. The Hispano-Arab culinary dish continued to be made in other parts of Al-Andalus. Bulyāt was a favorite dish of  Ibn al-Azraq of Malaga's (1428-1491), Chief Judge in Granada. Although millet porridge is known to have been a primary foodstuff in Africa it does not appear that a recipe for bulyāt has survived. Millet is gluten free and non-fatting. Perhaps that is why birds love it! [Castro. Alimentación.1996:177 and ES: Castro. “The Role” Aug 3, 03]


Monday, May 14, 2012

BULLABESA WITH 14TH C FORMULA FOR BOUILLABAISSE

Bouillabaisse, Provence style
Photo by: erinpk
Fr.  bouil a baisse (when it boils, lower the heat), Eng. bouillabaisse, a soup or stew containing three kinds of fish and shellfish, usually combined with olive oil and saffron. (Today, tomatoes, potatoes and chili are added.) In Spain it can be made with almost any kind of fish, carrots and/or onions. Although the word did not appear until 1850-55 in Franco-Provençal, the second part of the Senti Soví recipe titled “Sautéing Lobster or Cuttlefish or Calamari” provides the formula for making this soup or stew. It has two distinct parts: the first is cooking the lobster, cuttlefish and calamari. [Anón/Grewe. 1982: CLXXXXVI:202-203; ES: Dictionary.com. Feb 3, 2012; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:237]


SAUTÉING WHITE LOBSTER OR CUTTLEFISH OR CALAMARI ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #CLXXXXVI QUI PARLA CON SA DEU FFER SOENGUA AB BLANC DE LAGOSTA O EN CÍPIES O CALEMÁS, pp 202-203
For 6 persons

Cuttlefish
Photo by: Charlene-SJ
Ingredients

1 lb whole lobster
10 oz calamari
10 oz cuttlefish
2 onions
1 c oil
1 c  raw, peeled almonds
1 slice toasted bread
½ c vinegar
2 tbsp mixed herbs: sprigs of boiled parsley, sweet marjoram and sage
1 tsp mixed spices: grated ginger, ground black pepper, saffron, all ground
salt

Garnish:
dill

Serve with:
pieces toasted bread
alioli[1]

Suanie's Fried Calamari

Photo by: suanie 
Preparation

Place the lobster in boiling water and cook about 15 minutes. When cooked, remove it and extract the tail. Open the part underneath with scissors or a knife and remove the meat and set aside. Put all the creamy parts in a saucepan like the stomach etc. and the water or juices.

Slice the cuttlefish and cut the sqid into rings. Blanch them in boiling water for ½ minute.

Put oil in a saucepan and when hot add the calamari and cuttlefish to gently fry them. Add finely sliced onions.

Chop the meat from the claws of the lobster with the almonds and herbs. Add the spices and bread soaked in vinegar. Mix all with a little water and add this to the saucepan with the onions and fish. If the sauce is too thick or dry add a little water. Salt to taste. Serve in bowls with the juices and creamy parts that were saved.  

Serve garnished with dill and with pieces of toasted bread and alioil.

[1] For recipe see blog titled allioli published on August 4, 2011.

Friday, May 11, 2012

BÚHO

Owl cake
(with a head anyone would eat!)
Photo from: neviepiecakes

owl. Avenzoar related that if the head is consumed it would sharpen the vision. [Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:125]