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Friday, June 29, 2012

CALDOS VARIOS WITH 14th C HEN OR GOAT ALMOND MILK BROTH RECIPE


Chicken Broth @ Pho Ha Noi
Photo from: rfung8
various broths. No recipe is given for making basic broths. They are treated as ingredients for pottages and other dishes. Cook were expected to know how to make them. Various types of broth include: caldo de caldum, see caldum; caldo de carne, a broth by boiling meat and bones and various vegetables for two hours or more. This includes caldo de cabra, goat broth, caldo de carnero, mutton broth  and caldo de ternera, veal. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXX:187; CLXXXV:190-192; Lladonosa. 1984:156; and Nola. 1989:xxviii-2:xxviii-4: xxx1-4 etc];  caldo destilado, concentrated, fortified broth. It is a very complicated chicken broth to which a mutton leg may be added. [Nola. 1989:xxxiii-2]; caldo de gallina, chicken broth. This is made in the same way as other broths described above, using a hen or chicken for meat and bones. Sent Sovi and Nola add almonds to the broth in various recipes. Some vegetables such as carrots, onions, celery, leeks, etc. can be added. This broth was recommended by medieval physicians, especially for the sick. According to Avenzoar meat from hens is beneficial for those suffering from fatigue and for convalescents. He states that hens eat all types of poisonous insects but once the poisonous insects have been digested in their bodies its poisonous essence is transformed into something good and improves the quality in the meat. For this reason, the broth is considered beneficial for all and for those suffering from leprosy. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXX:187: CLXXXV:190-191: CLXXXVI:191 etc; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:220; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:51:53; Lladonosa. 1984:156; and Nola. 1989: xx-1]: caldo de pescado, fish broth. This was a basic ingredient for fish day pottages and other dishes. [Anón/Grewe. 1982:CXXXXVIII:166]

HEN OR KID ALMOND MILK BROTH ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ  #CLXXXV QUI PARLA CONSE FFA BROU DE GUANINES AB LET DE AMELLES, pp 190-191  
For 8-12 persons

Two Broths
Photo from: 
ravelite
Ingredients

1 lb peeled almonds
6 sprigs of parsley (optional)
2 raw hens
4 chicken livers
¼ c virgin olive oil 
1 tbsp mixed spices (mix: 4.2 oz ginger, 3.14 oz cinnamon, 1 oz white pepper, 0.5 oz cloves, 0.5 oz nutmeg, 0.5 oz mace)
½  tsp saffron

Preparation

Scald almonds in boiling water and peel them. Soak them in water overnight. The next day, grind almonds with parsley. Place them in an earthernware caldron with the hens. Bring the water to a boil and lower heat to gently boil until the chickens are cooked. Remove the hens and parsley and strain the almonds through a cheesecloth. Return the almond milk to the pot. Quarter the hens. 

Almond Milk Broth
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Fry livers in olive oil and let cool long enough to mince them. Add them with the chicken, spices and saffron to the broth. Warm it and serve in bowls.

If green broth is desired add more parsley. This recipe can be made with goat instead of chicken.
If parsley is not desired, omit it.


Thursday, June 28, 2012

CALDERETA WITH RECIPE FOR A LEONESE LAMB "CALDERETA"

goat CALDERETA
Photo from:
 caprafoods
from the calderón, lamb, veal or goat boiled over a wood fire in a caldron, a typical dish of nomadic shepherds. When an animal hurt a foot or leg and could not keep up with a nomatic herd, it was sacrificed and while the herd was drinking water and/or grazing, shepherds prepared this. All families in León and the Mancha have a recipe for this passed down from generation to generation. In the home, carrots and mushrooms can be added. Today paprika, pimiento and potatoes may be included. See Mesta. [Ares. 1994:130; Conversations with MR Guitián 2002; Trapiello. 1994:136-137]

LEONESE LAMB CALDERETA 
For 4 persons

Ingredients

Leonese Lamb Caldereta
Photo by: Lord-Williams
3 lbs lamb (ribs, neck, foreleg or back leg)
salt to taste
¼ c virgin olive oil
1 onion
1 garlic head
1 tbsp parsley leaves coarsely chopped
2 bay leaves
1 c white wine
freshly ground black pepper
1 tbsp thyme
1 slice of toasted bread
¼ vinegar

Preparation

Cut meat into pieces and salt them. Heat a cauldron and add olive oil. When the oil is hot add the meat and seal all sides.

Peel the onion and 2/3 of one garlic head. Chop the onion and slice the cloves. Add these with parsley and thyme coarsely chopped.

Leonese Lamb Caldereta with Sparkling Wine
Photo by: Lord-Williams
 
Cover with water and cook over low heat for 2 hrs. Do not cover with a lid.

Mash the remaining 1/3 garlic head, the laurel and the toast soaked in vinegar in a mortar. Add pepper and wine. After the lamb has cooked for one hour, pour this mixture over it. Move the cauldron back and other and sideways to mix this in with the water. Cook 1 hr more or until tender.

Serve in soup bowls with red wine.




Wednesday, June 27, 2012

CALDERA, -O WITH 15TH C RECIPE FOR FRENCH MUSTARD

CALDEROS DE LEON
Photo from;
 LULIBELULA
calderón, OCast ganza, Eng. caldron, cauldron. A calderón is bigger than a caldera or caldero. They varied in size from 5-30 qts. Sánchez Albornoz describes them as an item Domingo, the blacksmith, might exchange for a load of turnips or wheat from the bishop's servant. Gázquez refers to them as a pots for cooking food. He claims that as Sent Soví and Nola direct the cook to serve certain dishes in individual bowls, this indicates that food was served either in individual bowls if not directed to do so then the cauldron was set on the table for eaters to serve themselves from it. The Archpriest of Hita first talks of pure copper cauldrons and later lists them among pots and pans found in kitchens. They could be made of tin, iron or steel as well. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:33:41:42:123; Nola/Perez. 1984:145; Ruíz/Brey. 1965:176:1087c:185:1175a; and Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:47:ftn 64:125:ftn 70:135 etc]

ANOTHER VERY GOOD FRENCH MUSTARD THAT KEEPS ALL YEAR ADAPTED FROM PEREZ’ TRANSLATION OF NOLA BUT NOT INCLUDED IN REPRODUCTION OF THE 1525 EDITION: OTRA MOSTAZA FRANCESA MUY BUENA Y DURA TODO EL AÑO, p 145

Brad Pitt inspecting yellow mustard seeds in wine vinegar
Photo by: Lord-Willams
Ingredients

1 ½ c wine vinegar more or less[1]
¾ c yellow or brown mustard seed
1 clothes pin
1 ½ tsp ground and mixed spices (3/4 tsp cinnamon, ½ tsp cloves, ¼ tsp ginger)
salt to taste


Preparation


Put mustard seed in a cup. Pour about 1 c vinegar over the mustard seed until it is one inch above the seed. Let soak overnight for the seeds to absorb the vinegar and to become soft enough to be able to crush them by hand.


The next morning place a clothes pin over one’s nose. Grind the seeds in a blender adding about ½ c vinegar little by little until the desired thickness of obtained. Add spices and salt to taste. Place this in a sterilized glass jar. Shut tightly and let marinate for at least 8 days. It will last indefinitely.
The smell is so strong the first day is enough to wake the dead. It mellows day by day.

French Mustard made with Yellow Seeds and Wine Vinegar
Photo by: Lord-Williams
The original recipe translated by Lord-Williams:

Take a cauldron that will hold 2 canters[2] of red grapes. Cook it until the liquid is reduced to one half. Remove scum with a wooden stick and stir from time to time with a stick; and strain this must through a clean cloth and put it in a canter; then add one soup bowl full of ground mustard seed, stir it little by little with the stick and each day stir it 4 or 5 times a day and if desired add 3 parts cinnamon, 2 parts cloves and 1 part ginger; this French mustard is very good and keeps all year and is mulberry colored.


[1] Must, grape juice or red or white wine may be used instead.
[2] See cantaro, a large wine jug measuring 2.5-4 gals depending on the region in the Middle Ages.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

CALANDRIA WITH A 13TH C RECIPE FOR SMALL BIRDS



Calhandra-real
Photo from:
 Jose Viana
L. Melanocorypha calandra, Eng. bunting, calendra lark. The calendra lives in flocks except during mating season. This species of the lark family is characteristic of the Mediterranean. It lives throughout Spain where the habitat is favorable except around the northern border and Galicia. They are particularly abundant around Cuellar, Segovia where Beltran de la Cueva, the Duke of Alburquerque resided in the 15th C  for this reason. He was an avid bird hunter. Juan Manuel lists it among common birds in El caballero. It was served with small birds at banquets.  [ES: “Calandria” May 15, 1995; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:189]


A DISH OF SMALL BIRDS ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION 
OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #52 RECETA DEL PLATO DE PÁJAROS, p. 41
For 4 persons

12 calendar larks, weighing between 41-53 grs ea, and/or other small birds
salt to taste
1 c virgin olive oil
1 tsp freshly ground pepper
fried "bird" anyone?
Photo from:
 andy_gibbins
½ tsp cumin
¼ c vinegar
1 tbsp murri[1]
¼  cilantro leaves
4 eggs
¼ tsp saffron
1 tsp cinnamon

Preparation

Remove feathers, chop off the claws, remove the inners and clean the larks. Sprinkle them with salt. Heat oil in a fry pan and add the birds. Fry until golden brown. Set the frying pan with the oil aside for future use.

Put the birds in a pot with pepper, cumin, vinegar, murri and cilantro. Barely cover them with water. Bring to a boil and simmer until cooked. Remove them from the pot and pat dry.

Beat the eggs. Mash the saffron and dissolve it in a little egg. Add that and the cinnamon to the rest of the eggs. Reheat frying pan with oil. Dip the birds in the egg mixture, turning them until completely covered. Fry them until toasty brown. 




[1] See blog “almorí,” published August 25, 2011 for recipe.

Monday, June 25, 2012

CALAMAR WITH 14TH C STUFFED AND BAKED SQUID

Calamari at the Mercado Central Santiago, Chile
Photo by: Lord-Williams
(And, Baleares, Cat, Val, & Mur), chipirón (And & Ast), lura (Gal), magano or jibión  (Cantb), txipirón (Basq), L. Loligo vulgaris, Eng. calamari, squid. It is a cephalopod with ten arms, two of which are slender and much longer than the others. It has the power of ejecting a black ink-like fluid from a bag or sac, located in the inners, that darkens the water and conceals it when in danger. Small squid are used as bait and for food. The famous Spanish dish “calamari in its ink,” which is actually of Roman origin. It is prepared with in a sauce made from the black liquid from the ink sac. During the Middle Ages, this was a well-known Christian dish. Squid can be fried also with onion, garlic and parsley or fried and mixed with pine kernels, onions and raisins and then reheated in the oven in an ink sauce. Nola fries them with raisins, almonds and pine kernels. He serves them in a nut and raisin sauce. Further, squid may be stuffed with breadcrumbs, grated cheese, parsley, chopped onion, parsley, salt, pepper and nutmeg with wine. Once filled the squid is fried and served with a pine kernel sauce. Sent Soví calls for slowly fried calamari and lobster served in a thick herb and spice sauce with onion but without cheese. Fried breaded squid is cut horizontally in the shape of rings. It is a favorite in Spain and South American countries today. Squid are found in the Mediterranean and are easy to find in ports. As squid have no fins or tails they are forbidden for Muslims and Jews. See sepia. [Anón/Grewe. 1982: CLXXXXVI:202-203:CCI:204-205:CCXVII:214 etc; Apicius/Flower. 1958:II:I:2:61: ftn 1:IX:III:1:2:209; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:237; Multilingual. 1969:268-269; and Nola.1989:lxvi-2]

STUFFED AND BAKED CALAMARI #CCXVII QUI PARLA CON SA DEU COURA CALAMÀS AL FFORN p 214
for 8 persons

Ingredients[1]

1 ½ lbs squid or octopus
1 c almonds peeled and toasted
1 tbsp parsley
1 tbsp mint
2 tsp marjoram
1 tsp dried thyme
6 tbsp virgin olive oil
1 medium onion chopped and fried
½ c raisins soaked in water for a few hours
2 garlic cloves scalded
boiled monkfish or other strong tasting fish
salt and freshly ground pepper to taste

Stuffed Squid
Photo from:
 betterbrownies

toothpicks
½ tsp ground nutmeg
½ tsp ground cloves
1 tsp ground cinnamon
¼ tsp saffron mashed and diluted in almond milk
½ c vinegar or verjuice
½ c breadcrumbs

Preparation

Ask the fishmonger for large squid. Remove the ink sac whole and set aside. Wash it and boil it in water until tender, about 45 minutes. Reserve 4 c broth and put the almonds in it to soak.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F / 175ºC

When cooked cut off the legs. Cut the legs in pieces with parsley, mint, marjoram and thyme. Sauté the onions in 4 tbsp olive oil. Add scaled and mashed garlic and raisins. When the onion is translucent add the legs and herbs. Add another fish to this stuffing if needed. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Close the openings with toothpicks.

Baked Squid
Photo from:
 bembengarifin
Put the broth and almonds in a food processer and grind them. Strain this through a cheese cloth into a saucepan. Heat it and combine it with the spices and vinegar or verjuice.  Add the rest of the olive oil and breadcrumbs little by little to thicken this sauce. Pour it over the stuffed octopus or squid. Cook this in the oven for about 30 minutes.  

Slice stuffed squid and put it in soup bowls. Pour the almond milk over it and serve.



[1] Measurements are flexible do to the varying sizes of squid.

Friday, June 22, 2012

CALABAZA DE SAN ROQUE WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR FISHY GROUDS

Bottle Gourds
Photo from: 
Stinky Steve

calabaza vinatera, calabaza de peregrino, L. Cucurbitaceae, Eng calabash gourd or bottle gourd. The Spanish name is derived from L. calpar (wine vessel). It is a pear or bottle shaped gourd with spongy pulp growing in warm or temperate countries. It is believed to be a native of Indo-China, where the people are said to have sprung from the gourd, thus explaining the dense population. Excavators have revealed that Egyptians used dried and hollowed out gourds as vessels, containers and mandolins. Jews have eaten the squash in a variety of dishes since ancient times. In Biblical times, one of the most important crop in Erez Israel was this gourd. Traditionally, Jews eat squash dishes during their New Year’s celebrations. The shell was later used to store liquid and food. The arrival of the gourd in Al-Andalus coincided with that of the Almoravides and Almohades. From the 12-15 C. it was ever present in Andalusian cuisine. For peasants, it was a common food. The skins were dried and used as rattles. In northern Spain, they were known as the ‘pilgrims’ gourds’ because they used them to hold wine. This does not indicate permissiveness in Spain. Pilgrims of the Way of St. James, from the commencement of this pilgrimage, were advised not to drink the water from various rivers. Spanish water was not necessarily contaminated but changing water types has proved to have a negative effect on the digestive system due to varying mineral contents in different rivers. The name San Roque comes from the 14th C. French hermit whose dog cured him by licking the sores on his legs caused by the plague. To show his gratefulness for this, he came to Spain, with his dog, on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compestella and of course carried this gourd like all pilgrims. Later, he became a the patron saint of good health. [Conversations with MRGuitian. Feb 02; Ency Judiaca. 1971:7:Fr:832; Usher. 1973:349]

san roque
Photo from: 
warrantedarrest
RECIPE FOR FISHY GOURDS ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANON AL-ANDALUS #349. RECETA DEL PLATO DE CALABAZAS PARECIDAS A PECES, p 192
Four 4 persons

Ingredients

2 lbs gourd
3 eggs
1 c flour
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp coriander seed
1 c virgin olive oil

Garnish:
vinegar
murri[1] or fresh corriander juice

Preparation


Korean food - 붕어빵 (Boong uh bbang)
(“Carp Bread,” the Korean version contains red beans)

fPhoto rom Seoul Korea
With this recipe a patient and anyone else who wants fish can be tricked into eating gourds. Peel the gourd, remove the skin and the seeds.  Cut it into lengthwise pieces the width of about two fingers; scald them and shape the pieces in the form fish heads and tails.  Let sit for the water to drain off it; then put the eggs into a large dish and beat them; add white flour, cinnamon and coriander seed and knead until all is evenly mixed. Put the oil in a frying pan and heat. When boiling, brown the fish-shapes; remove from the pan and coat them with egg mixture turning several times leaving no trace of the gourd visible. Return them to the frying pan and gently fry until golden brown on both sides. Place them on a platter and sprinkle with vinegar and a little murri or juice of fresh coriander or other.


[1] See blog almori published August 25, 2011.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

CALABAZA WITH 14TH C PURÉED GOURDS AND LAMB

Gourds
Photo: from
 H.R. Hatfield

calabaza, L. Lagenaria sicereia, Eng. gourd. It is available in summer and fall. Today, it can mean a pumpkin too, but not in the Middle Ages, as it came from America. 

1. gourd recipes introduced by the Arabs were complicated as they require eggs and baking. The flowers were fried or stuffed with the pulp, which are nutritious. Soup purees were made with the flowers, butter, perfume water, salt, pepper and fried croutons with aromatic herbs sprinkled on top. 

Unique in Andalusia was pulp from squash streamed in molds shaped like animals. After removing it from the molds, it was coated with flour, egg and fennel and fried in olive oil. Prior to serving, spices were sprinkled on top and cilantro juice, vinegar or another liquid was poured over it. A typical dessert surviving from this era is a squash containing mustard seed and lemon peel beside the usual ingredients for squash dishes. 

The juice was drunk to kill worms. Avenzoar advised that the gourd is cold and humid, lacking in substance and slowly digested. If consumed without excessive cooking, it can produce fainting and stomach pains. For this, some call it “poison’. If over cooked, Avenzoar continues, it may be adequate for those with a hot nature, which will improve their health, at the same time it provides moderate nutrition, i.e. not excessive or slight. 

2. any gourd dried, hollowed out and used as a container for wine, water or other liquids. Pilgrims, in England and Spain, attached them to their walking sticks. See puré de calabaza. [ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 00:Glos.; Ibn Razīn/Marín. 2007:35:263-267; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:84; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:33:118]


PURÉED GOURDS IN MILK AND CHEESE WITH LAMB ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #LXXXXIII Qui parla en altra manera con se deuen coura carabaces ab let h ab formatge p 125
For 6 persons

Lolita Leg ofLamb
Photo from:
 Edsel L
Ingredients

2 lb leg of lamb deboned and tied with a string
2 lb gourds
3 medium onions
5 slices of bacon
½ c lard or suet from the kidneys or other parts
1 ½ qts almond milk or goat’s milk[1]
2 c diced cheese
3 whole eggs

Garnish:
slivers of cinnamon
fennel and mache

Preparation

Debone the leg of lamb in order to facilitate carving. Tie it. Peel gourds, remove the heart and seeds. Cut into pieces and wash well. Peel onions and cut into slices.

Put lard, bacon, meat and seasoning in a pan. Fry over low heat. When browned on both sides add gourd and onions; cover and let cook slowly, turning the meat every 8-10 minutes with a wooden spatula and taking care that the gourd does not stick to the bottom of the pan. The lamb and the bacon should be cooked in an hour. Separate the gourd and purée it. When the gourd is puréed add milk and cheese and let it cook about 15-20 minutes stirring constantly. Add salt to taste. At the last minute blend in beaten eggs and mix well.
           
Serve the purée in an earthenware dish or bowl. Sprinkle it with cinnamon. Drain off grease around the meat and carve it into pieces that are not too thick and put them on top of the purée with the bacon. (A variation is to cover this with a layer of thinly sliced cheese putting it in the oven for about 5 minutes for the cheese to melt.) 
           
This dish can be made with other parts of the animal such as the kidneys, etc.



[1] For almond milk recipe see almejas blog published on August 10, 2011.

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

CAGARRIA WITH UNIQUE 14TH C MUSHROOM SAUCE RECIPE

Yellow Morels
Photo from:
 the aurelian
morilla, crispilla, colmenilla (small honey comb), OCast crespilla, L Morchella, Eng morel. These are wild edible mushrooms with caps looking like beehives. Some are rounded and others pointed. They are more abundant when the spring is rainy. It is recommended that they be well cooked. If eaten raw they can be slightly toxic. There are three major types: yellow (M. escultenta), black (M.conica) and half free (M. semilibera).  The yellow morels range from honey brown to yellow. When leaves cover them or when young they can be grayish or whitish. They have a hollow white stem. They can grow to be almost foot high around streams and in apple orchards. The texture is meaty and the flavor is delicate. They are thought to be the best of all edible mushrooms and are most exquisite in April. Black morels shoot out of the ground in pine forests during March being the first of the morels to appear in spring. These can be white while covered with leaves. While growing to be a foot or more in height, the caps become dark brown. The pits are lighter and the ridges darker. The stems are whitish. Some people have an allergic reaction to them resulting in stomach upset. It is not recommended to drink alcohol when trying them for the first time. The half free morel is a species with only half the cap attached to the stem. Except for this, they look like black morels. It is the second of the morels to appear after the black and before the yellow ones. Although they are as tasty as the other morels, their consistency is more fragile. Over the ages these have been dried and crushed into powder form and used throughout the year to season soups and sauces. [ES: Falcó. Jul 9, 04; ES: Kuo. Dec 2, 02; Villena/Brown. 1984:166; Villena/Calero. 2001:63 ftn 144:39b; Villena/Navarro. 1879:263] 


Morchella semilibera 'Half-free...
Photo from:
 MO FunGuy
UNIQUE MUSHROOM SAUCE ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #CXXXXV. QUI PARLA CON SE  FFA SALSA A BOLETS.  p 163[1]

Ingredients

1 lb morel mushrooms
1 onion sliced
2 tbsp chopped parsley leaves
1 tsp coriander
3/4 c red wine
¼ c verjuice
1-1 ½ tsp mixed spices (make a mixture of 4.2 oz ginger scrapings, 3.17 oz cinnamon, 1 oz white pepper, 0.5 oz cloves, 0.5 oz nutmeg, 0.5 oz mace, 0.26 oz saffron)
¼ c extra virgin olive oil

11th Course: "Char"
(with morel sauce seen on the left side of the plate)
Photo from:
 ulterior epicure
Preparation


Parboil the mushrooms. Drain well, dice them and lightly sauté in oil. Put the onion, parsley and coriander in a food processor and grind them. Add mixed spices, wine, verjuice and mushrooms. Add salt to taste. Let sit for a few hours. Bring to a boil and serve.





[1] According to Carolyn A. Nadeau, although early Italian MSS, including Apicius, provide recipes for mushrooms, Sent Soví contains the first recipes for them in other European MSS. Sent Soví also is the first Iberian MS to include parsley and pork in its recipes. See: “Contributions of Medieval Food Manuals to Spain‘s Culinary Heritage. Cincinnati Romance Review 33 (Winter 2012): 59-77.

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

CAFETO WITH GOATIE STORIES INCLUDING COFFEE'S BAPTISM

Goats
Photo from:
 Ara G
café, L. Coffea arabica, Ar. boun, Fr. caféier, Eng. Arabian coffee. First, it must be noted that coffee does not come from beans. Coffee is contained in the pits of the fruit of the coffee tree or bush that look like beans.

Who has seen a “goaty” goat? According to legend, during the 7th C, an Ethiopian goat herder in the highlands near the Red Sea noticed that when grazing, his goats were eating fruit from a tree, which made them “goaty” and they stayed that wake all night. The herder tried some himself, they were bland, somewhat sweet but within minutes he too became “goaty,” staying awake all night. 


Coptic Priest
Photo from:
 Dwight Grimm
The goat herder took the fruit to the local abbot who tried them. Then he gave some to his monks. A strange thing happened, the monks prayed all night without dozing off. The abbot called this fruit a ‘gift from God.’

With time the fruit was taken to Yemen where it was cultivated and combined with leaves and berries. There the “sun tea” incident occurred. The fruit fermented, becoming the forerunner of “Irish coffee.”

The Arabs called it gahwah, meaning “to put one off” sleep. For its energizing effect, gahwah was considered to be medicine not an alcoholic beverage. Around 620 A.D., Muhammad visited Medina. Finding all drunk, he prohibited alcoholic consumption but this did not include gahwah, then called qishr.

ibrik
Photo from:
 Ben McLeod
In the 10th C, brewing came about with the invention of metal pots and Rhazes of Bagdad(see Razes)indicated the prophylactic virtues from coffee infusions. By the early 1400s, the seeds with leaves and berries, after being sun dried, were roasted or boiled just before consumption. Roasting turns the pale skin colored beans brown. Of course, the Arabs brought coffee to their Spanish cousins in Al-Andalus during their domination. Some claim that thanks to them, Spain had everything before the rest of Europe. Others maintain that it was not until the end of the 15th C. when Muslim pilgrims, returning from Arabia brought coffee to other Middle Eastern countries and the Maghreb. Still others swear that coffee was not defused in the west until 1555 when the ibrik (today known as the Turkish coffee pot) became known in Istanbul. 

Rom, Santa Maria Maggiore,...
Photo from:
 HEN-Magonza
Sometime between 1592-1605, Pope Clement VIII came to love the smell of coffee. After he tried it, he decided that the beverage could not be left to the devil and baptized it. Others, nevertheless, contend that it was not until the Ottoman defeat in 1683 that the Viennese discovered coffee amongst the booty. Some Englishmen, on the other hand, believe their version is more accurate:

First, it was coffee not apples that was forbidden in the Garden of Eden. As a result of events there, a race called “Homo coffea” sprang up in the Kenyan Rife Valley. In the village of Harrar, over a thousand years ago, inhabitants discovered coffee fruit, which they consumed in their cave-dwellings during many years. As Harrar was a trade center, eventually it was decided to export some of their fruit but no one knew where. Northern Europe was in no state to receive it as the average person was consuming three liters of beer daily, including women and children. One third of England’s inhabitants were too busy growing barley for this purpose, while one in every seven buildings was a tavern. Even so, if not high on beer, they were hallucinating from the effects of LSD contained in ergot, contracted from contaminated barley bread, which they ate.

Coffee beans

Photo from: aczid


Finally, it was agreed to send the fruit to Al Makalla, a port in Yemen, along with ostrich feathers, slaves, rhino horns and tortoise shells. This was done because “Homo coffeas” had decided that the Arabs would conserve coffee as they did with the works of Aristotle and algebra and because they were the only ones sober enough to carry out such missions.

Not only did the Arabs conserve the fruit but also they kept it as a well-guarded secret from Europeans until the 16th C. when Europeans began to import coffee as “an Arabian luxury.” Coffee shops began appearing in the Middle East in the 17th C and the first European one was opened in Venice in 1645. Coffee makers did not appear until the 19th C. See cardamomo. [ES: “Great.” Oct 18, 02; Simonetti. 1991:43; and Usher. 1974:165]






Monday, June 18, 2012

CADI (Hisp Ar) WITH THE JUDGE'S MORSELS RECIPE FROM JAÉN

H401/0212
(Averroes (1126-1198), Islamic Spanish physician, philosopher,
and judge in Spain and Morocco. See blog dated Dec 30, 11.)
Photo from: sirajmonir
Ar. qâdi, Eng. qadi, cadi, kadi, judge, arbitrating judge knowledgeable in the Qurān and the sunnah or a civil judge usually in a town or village. He must have had a reputation of liking sweets for the dish named for him, “los bocaditos del cadi” (The Judge’s Morsels). See Battuta and bocados.[1] [Anón/Huici. 1966:268:156; Ency Brit. 1988:9:Otter:830:1a; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02:ftn 97; Ibn Razin/Granja.1960:21; and OXF Eng Dict. 1989: II:BBC]



THE JUDGE'S MORSELS RECIPE FROM JAÉN[2]

Ingredients

Chopped almonds in a measuring cup
Photo from:
 epicurenextdoor
2 c sugar
1 c orange blossom water
1 tbsp almond oil
2 c peeled ground and toasted almonds
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp ground nutmeg
½ tsp ground cloves
dough for turnovers
extra virgin olive oil for deep frying

Garnish:
powdered sugar
ground cinnamon

Preparation

Turnovers, Eaten with Powdered...
Photo from:
 baroquebobcat
Heat the sugar, orange blossom water and almond oil in a saucepan, stirring constantly until the sugar dissolves. Add the almonds and spices. Continue stirring until the mass thickens. Turn this out on a clean surface and let cool.

Arrange pieces of pastry for the turnovers on a lightly floured surface and put a heaping spoonful of the almond stuffing on each. Fold the dough over and seal shut with the prongs of a fork. Prick the turnovers with a fork to let the air out.


Deep fry in olive oil until golden brown. Sprinkle powdered sugar and cinnamon over each turnover before serving.



[1] See blogs with these titles published February 23, 2012 and March 22, 2012 respectively.
[2] Today in Jaen, this recipe, compliments of the Morales family, is as popular as almojábanos (cheese filled donuts, recipe published in blog dated August 24, 2011). It is quite plausible that the recipe above is the same as that used in Miguel Lucas Iranzo, Constable of Castile’s household in Jaen during the 15th C. For variations of this recipe from Fadalat and the 13th C Anon Al-Andalus see the Battuta and bocados blogs.

Friday, June 15, 2012

CAÇON (OCast) WITH TRADITIONAL ANDALUSIAN RECIPE FOR TOPE SHARK IN MARINADE



It's a tough life being a tope
Photo from
 Mags_cat
cazón, tollo, nioito (obs.), L. Galeorhinus galeus, Eng. tope shark. Edible fish resembling the dogfish normally served without sauce. It is a popular as its white, lean, firm dry and salty meat. When preparing to cook the meat is sliced or cut into pieces. It is good in marinated and grilled or fried. Villena states that if fried the head and parts of the body closest to it are the tastiest. If boiled, the thickest meat is the best but it is bland. It has an elongated body, large conic face, gray on top and white underneath. The average weight of a tope shark is a little over 100 lbs. The largest can be two meters long. It is found in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean especially in the Bay of Cadiz, Granada, Almeria and Malaga especially during migratory periods in the summer. It lives in very deep water and eats various fish, some shellfish and mollusks. It is abundant in SW England. See cazón. [Castro. Alimentación.1996:322; ES: Bester. Apr 1, 04; and Villena/Calero. 2002:39a]


TOPE SHARK OR BIENMESABLE (YUMMIES) IN A TRADITIONAL ANDALUSIAN MARINADE
Fresh Tope Shark
at the Market in Jerez de la Frontera, Spain
Photo by: MRSamper


Ingredients

1 lb tope shark
4 garlic cloves
2 bay leaves
salt to taste
1 tbsp mixed spices (1 tsp dry mustard, 1 tsp black pepper, ¼ tsp ground cloves, ¼ tsp ginger, ¼ tsp ground nutmeg, ¼ tsp cinnamon)
1 heaping tbsp oregano
1 tsp ground cumin
1 c white wine
1 c water
flour for frying
virgin olive oil for deep frying

Accompanied by:

allioli* (optional)


Preparation

Week10_165
from
 Jowene is Gourmet
Clean the tope shark, debone it, remove the skin and wash it removing the blood. Cut it into small pieces and place them in a bowl. Remove the outer skin of garlic cloves but do not peel off the inner skin. Mash them in a mortar. Add the bay leaves torn in pieces.  Add salt to taste, ½ the mixed spices, oregano, cumin, wine and water. Mix all well and taste. It should not be insipid. Cover and refrigerate for a minimum of 6 hours or overnight.

Strain the fish and other solids and dry them on paper towels. Let sit 10-20 minutes.


Mix the flour with the other half of the spice mixture and salt to taste. Heat the olive oil in a frying pan to deep fry the fish. When the oil is very hot, fry the fish and garlic until golden brown. Remove and place on paper towels to absorb excess olive oil. Serve with warm with lemon wedges and a vegetable or salad.

*For the recipe see blog with this title published August 4, 2011.





Thursday, June 14, 2012

CACIOCAVALLO WITH 15TH C THICK CHEESE AND MEATBALL SOPES

Caciocavallo Silano DOP
Photo from:
 La Compagnia del Cavatappi
(fr. It cacio, cheese, It cavallo, horse, caciota (probably an abbreviated form of the word), cheese from sheep or cow’s milk. It is flask-shaped or pear-shaped cheese which is hung in twos like saddle bags. It was mentioned by Hippocrates in about 500 BC. It is prevalant in what was Magna Graecia, the area of southern Italy occupied by the Greeks. It is a bland cheese with poor texture used to flavor dishes. It is too salty to eat alone with nothing else. See brufalino. [ES: Adreozzi. May 27, 2012; ES: Elliot. May 18, 12; ES: M.R. Samper. May 17 and 19, 2012; and Nola.1989:xlv-1]


THICK CHEESE AND MEATBALL SOPES A VARIATION OF NOLA'S xlv-1 QUESO ASADERO
For 4 persons

Ingredients


½ lb ground beef
polpette caciocavallo_02
Photo from:
 Clemmy xxx
2 oz shredded Parmesan cheese
1 egg
salt and pepper to taste
½ c white flour
½  c virgin olive oil
3 oz giblits
1 qt chicken broth
4 oz caciocavallo cheese diced
1 c croutons


Preparation


Put ground beef into a mixing bowl with 1 tbsp Parmesan cheese, egg, salt and pepper to taste. Mix these ingredients together and roll them into meatballs. Dip them in flour and fry them in a ¼ c olive oil. Cut giblets into small pieces and sauté in ¼ c olive oil. Heat up the broth in a saucepan and when it comes to a boil, add the meatballs and the giblets and simmer. Pour into soup bowls and garnish with  caciocavallo cheese and croutons. Sprinkle Parmesan on top.