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Monday, December 31, 2012

CHORICERA WITH CRACKLING CAKE RECIPE, THE QUEEN OF ALL DESSERTS


Picnic on the Banks of the Manzanares...
Photo from; funfront
choricer, 1. n. stuffing for chorizos. 2. v. to stuff intestines with a chorizo or other sausage mixture. 3. Traditionally in Alcañiz (Teruel), the “Día del Choricer,” is a picnic in the country on Shrove Tuesday during which the participants stuff themselves with pork products as consumption of meat was prohibited during Lent. [ES: Día. Sep 20, 00; Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000-2001:2003; and Serradilla. 1993:142]

MENU FOR A CHORICERA ON THE GRASS
Hors d'oeuvres:
cold cuts: chorizo, cured loin. Serrano ham

Appetizers:
fried cracklings (chicharrones), fried ribs, and slices of fried blood sausage with slices of white sausage (longaniza) [1]

Starters:
stewed pig trotters and pig ears

Dicing Slices of Fried Cracklings for Cake
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Main course:
sucking pig
                       
AND
THE QUEEN OF ALL DESSERTS:

CRACKLING CAKES, A MR SAMPER AND MEDIEVAL SPANISH COOK CREATION BASED ON HAND-ME-DOWN RECIPES FOR TORTA DE CHICHARRONES

Ingredients

3 ½ c flour
1 tbsp or pkg yeast
2 eggs
½ c lard
1 c milk
5 oz cracklings
3/4 c sugar
½ tsp ground cinnamon
1/8 tsp salt

Garnish:
Powdered sugar

Preparation
The Sweetest Pork Ever!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Mix the flour and yeast. Make a mound with a hole in the middle. Place the eggs yolks in that, saving the whites. Add the lard and knead well. Add the milk little by little to moisten the dough. Slice cracklings into small squares and Add the cracklings, sliced small and leaving a few for garnish. Add the sugar, cinnamon and salt. Knead all together making dough that does not stick to the hands. Cover it with a cloth and let sit for 30 minutes to rise.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 340ºF/170ºC

Sprinkle flour on a rolling pin and roll out the dough three times. The third time make it about ¼” thick. Cut this into rectangles or other shape.  Place them on an oven tray. Decorate the tops of the squares with the extra cracklings on top of squares, brush with egg white and bake for about 15-20 minutes or until done. more sugar on top and serve.



[1] white sausage served with blood sausage called blanco y negro (black and white). 

Friday, December 28, 2012

CHOCA PERDIZ WITH 15TH C RECIPE BROWN SAUCE RECIPE FOR PARTRIDGES



300_0640
Photo from: fkm
sorda, becada, becada común, Ast and Gall arcea, L. Scolopax rusticola, MEng wode kok, Eng. Eurasian woodcock. It is easily confused with snipe, its relative. The woodcock lives in areas between Great Britain and Japan. In Europe, it breeds in areas between Norway and the Shetland Islands and in the extreme north of Spain. In October it migrates to SW Europe, N Africa and the Near East until February when it flies to muddy areas in the lake regions. It is a water bird with long-bill, squat-body and short legs. It inhabits humid woodlands too where there are oak and pine trees. It is most active at dusk when it goes to pastures and meadows to pound the ground with his feet in search of earthworms and larvae, its chief food supply. It eats twice its weight, i.e. about one half pound of worms per day. It grows to be about 13.5 inches long and weighs approximately a little over one fourth of a pound.  It has a tri-colored white, chestnut and dark brown coat with unusual strips that camouflage it when crouched among dead leaves. At sundown, it can be seen also in flight. Then its robust body, wide wings and long peak are most evident as well as chestnut and dark brown markings on its coat. It sings two notes in flight. It repeats the first, a low short crook, two to four times and ends with a sharp, short peep. Although a slow bird, its eyes are set almost on top of it head and has binocular vision. It can see 360°. Humans consume it as a game bird. In the Middle Ages, it was hunted in England and Spain as it was highly esteemed on the dinner table. Peasants in Guipuzcoa consumed it due to the abundance of forests in the area and there were no hunting restrictions in that part of the country during the Middle Ages. Nola’s cookbook provides a thin brown sauce for woodcock. The English normally popped it into pies or ate it roasted but for feasts it was prepared with a thick spice sauce. Medicinally, it was used to purge phlegm and for cholera. It is not explained whether this bird was cooked in a broth for this or if its excretions were used. [Austin. 1888:80; Castro. Alimentación. 1996:273; Jutglar: 1999:269; Sass. 1975:18:71:133; and Trapiello. 1994:134]

BROWN SAUCE FOR PARTRIDGES AND DOVES ADAPTED
FROM  NOLA'S xl-1 SALSA BRUNA PARA PERDICES Y PALOMAS

Straining livers et. al. through cloth
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

2 livers of partridges or doves[1]
1 slice crustless bread, toasted
½ c white vinegar
½ c wine
2 eggs
2 tbsp honey
¼ tsp pepper
½ tsp cinnamon
1 shaving from fresh ginger
¼ tsp cloves
¼ tsp nutmeg
1 tbsp flour, at most
 


A Sauce to Die For
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Roast livers. Soak bread in 2 tbsp vinegar and 2 tbsp red wine.  Boil eggs until hard. Remove the yolks and grind them with the livers and bread. Blend this in ½  c red wine, ¼ c vinegar and ½ c water. Strain all through a cheese cloth into a pot. Add honey, pepper, cinnamon, ginger, cloves and nutmeg. Bring this to a boil. If needed add just enough flour to thicken. Serve with partridges or doves.[2]



[1] If not available substitute with 1 chicken liver.
[2] chicken or other edibles. This sauce is yummy on everything!

Wednesday, December 26, 2012

CHIVO WITH 15C BROOM-FLOWER PUDDING RECIPE


Goat's milk from Goats 
Selected for Breeding
Photo by: Lord-Williams

kid, young goat selected for breeding. Avenzoar related that if its beard is cut off when young it will not grow back. A kid can be of either sex and may or may not be selected to breed. [Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:127]

BROOM-FLOWER PUDDING ADAPTED FROM NOLA xxi-2 GINESTADA

Ingredients

½ lb short grain white rice
1 qt goats’ milk
1 ½  c dates
2 egg yolks
½ c sugar
1 tsp cinnamon
1/8 tsp ground cloves
½ tsp ground mace
6 tbsp pine nuts
6 tbsp hazelnuts
Pudding ready for the oven
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1/8 tsp white pepper
1 pomegranate

Preparation
Grind rice into flour and sift it through a sieve. Steep it in 2 c goats’, ewe’s or almond milk 10-12 hours.
The following day, cook the rice flour mixture with the remainder of the goat’s milk in the pot; for about 15 minutes until it has thickened. Remove from heat and let cool for 2 hours.
Steep dates and hazelnuts in warm water.  Peel dates, remove the seeds and chop them. Peel hazelnuts and grind them in a mortar. Remove the seeds from the pomegranate.

A Pudding called Ginestada
For the color of the Broom  Flower
A delightful dessert any time of year
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PREHEAT OVEN TO 320ºF/160ºC

Whisk together egg yolks, sugar, cinnamon and other spices. Add dates, pine nuts, hazelnuts and pomegranate seeds, saving a few for garnish. Fold altogether in the rice mixture.

Grease an ovenproof dish. Pour the mixture into this and cook 30 minutes until done.

Monday, December 24, 2012

CHIRIVÍA WITH A 14TH C RECIPE FOR PARSNIP PURÉE IN ALMOND MILK


Peeling Barsnips after Boiling 10 Min
Photo by: Lord-Williams
chirivín, pastinaca, L. Pastinaca sativa, Eng. parsnip (14th C word). Although a part of the carrot family, it has been called “white carrot” erroneously as the scientific name of the white carrot is Daucus carota. As the carrot, the parsnip is a native of Eurasia and has been cultivated since ancient times. The plant has a large, pale-yellow, fleshy, tapering root that is edible. It bares yellow flowers but only after the second year. It was used as food eaten during Roman deaths and funerals. Over the centuries, it has been consumed raw, sautéed or fried as a vegetable, boiled in soups and baked in pies for its sweet flavor.

During the Middle Ages, parsnips were consumed as much as potatoes today. Villena recommended cleaning and cutting it if eaten raw, peeling it if grilled or boiling it in meat broth. Parsnips were eaten in Al-Andalus especially in the winter. To eliminate bad breath the leaves are chewed. The seeds are sown in spring and the roots are dug up from November through the winter.

Mashing Parsnips Slices
Photo by: Lord-Williams
It is not advisable to let the plant grow a second season because the roots contain a large percentage of myristicin, a volatile oil, which becomes powerfully hallucinogenic and can lead to death. Myristicin is contained in nutmeg also. It is an antidepressant, amphetaminagenic and hypnotic. The oil, extracted from the parsnip contains ascorbic and folic acid as well. The thin long roots, seeds and leaves were used as a stomachic, emmenagogue, carminative and diuretic. Medicinally, the parsnip fell into disuse but today it is back for its chemical contents including protein, starch, pectin, essential oil, furo-coumarin and bergaptene. It contains almost two more times calcium as a potato and more potassium than salt, potatoes, turnips or carrots. A nine inch parsnip contains only 130 calories, no cholesterol or saturated fat. It has 6.4 grams of fiber, 46.4 mg potassium and 59.2 calcium, plus zinc, iron, vitamin C and vitamins B1, B2 and B3. Most important factor is that it contains 93.1 mcg of folic acid. This today, with the various vitamin B complexes, is being promoted to reduce heart disease and to prevent birth defects and breast cancer. It protects against pancreatic cancer and is given to those suffering from or potential suffers of Alzheimer’s Disease as vitamin B complexes are deficient in their organism. Further, it is good for arthritis, gall and kidney stones and skin disorders such as acne. [ES: “Common Parsnip” Jul 6, 03; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:115; Stuart. 1987:235; Usher. 1974:442; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a:40a]

PARSNIP PURÉE IN ALMOND MILK ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ CXIII QUI PARLA CON SE FFA PASTENEGUA AB LET DE AMELLES, p 139
For 6 persons

Ingredients

Avid Eaters Left no Time for the Photographer - 
So Yummy!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 k parsnips
2 qt mutton and salt pork broth
1 c ground almonds
¼  tsp ground cumin
¼  tsp ground coriander seed
½ tsp ground cinnamon
salt and white pepper to taste
½ c grated cheese

Preparation

Make a mutton, pork or vegetable broth and bring it to a boil. Wash the parsnips and add them to the broth. Boil gently for 10 minutes and remove from heat. Strain the parsnips saving the broth.  When they are cooked, take them out and put them in cold water and Peel and slice them. If a heart is found remove it. 

Grind the almonds in a mortar. Put them in a bowl and pour 1 qt of broth over them. Let them sit overnight.

Heat oven to 350ºF/175ºC

Return the parsnips to the pot with what is left of the broth, bring to a boil and simmer 20 more minutes. Pour almond milk through a cheesecloth to make almond milk. When the parsnips are cooked mash them and make a purée by adding almond milk, spices and salt to taste. Put this in a casserole. Cover with grated cheese.  If making this dish ahead time freeze it now.

Heat the (thawed) casserole about 15 minutes, until the cheese has melted and the parsnip purée is warm.




Friday, December 21, 2012

CHICHAS WITH RECIPE FOR COOKED MUSSLES


mussel rock
(Mussels' byssal threads in the shell protrude 
to cling to rocks while growing in the sea)
Photo from: LS Lam
[en chichas, a bird that has just come out of its shell], 1. meat in mollusks, oysters, clams and mussels. Throughout Spain and England fish day recipes for these mollusks are innumerable in Christian cookbooks. Shellfish, however, are prohibited by both the Jewish and Islamic faiths. 2. Arag. ration of meat or food consisting of meat and fat. 3. Leon shredded and salted pork roasted on a sheet of metal. 4. Ast. chopped and marinated meat from the slaughter to nibble. 5. Est. meat in general. [Dicc Aragonese. 1992:140; Dicc Asturiana. 2000:293; ES: Cuesta. Dec 1, 03; and Serradilla. 1993:142]

Cleaning mussels
Photo from: Paradigm
COOKED MUSSLES ADAPTED FROM EL LIBRO DE LA FAMILIA[1], ALMEJAS GUISADAS, p 188

3 tbsp lard
1 on
1 garlic clove
¾ c broth, water or white wine
1 k mussels
2 tbsp chopped parsley
½ tsp white pepper
Salt to taste
1 limon sliced in wedges

Preparation

A Recipe to Die For
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Clean the mussels well. Discard any mussels that have opened.

Chop the onion. Melt 2 tbsp lard in a pot over medium heat and add the onion. Mash the garlic. When the onion becomes translucent add the garlic. Let it cook for a minute or two and add the liquid and the mussels.

As they open discard the shell that does not have meat.  Remove byssal threads. Save the water or broth.

Mix a piece of lard with parsley, lard, salt and pepper and dampen this with the broth, water or wine. Let boil for a few minutes. Pour this over the mussels when ready. Squeeze juice from the lemon over the mussels and serve as a hors oeuvre or as a starter during a meal.



[1] The book is so old that it does not list the publisher or a publishing date. The only information given is the owner: Juan Mayans y Sanz. It is known that he lived in Valencia during the 18th Century and that this is a collection of recipes handed down from many generations. The recipe is for clams but in this case mussels were used.

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

CHICHARRÓN WITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR FRIED CRACKLINGS


A Slice of Chicharrón, the cold cut
Photo be: Lord-Williams
cabeza de jabalí, 1. crackling, cold cut made with pieces of meat from different parts of the pig pressed together in a mold and then boiled or fried. They can be tiny sliced and then cut into squares and eaten as a hors d'oeuvre but frequently, in Spain, they are added to batters for buns and cakes served for dessert. This is a typical desert served during the slaughter of livestock. Cracklings, also, are mixed with breadcrumbs and sugar. 2. chicharrón,  tocineta, torrezno, cracklings from the top layer of fat under the skin resulting from roasting pork; crackled streaky bacon rinds; bacon fried to a crisp; or small bits of  fried meat, left over after melting the fat. The preferred pieces are from the belly and have a dry rind and thick layer of fat underneath it. Fried bacon rinds are eaten as a hors d'oeuvre or a snack if not incorporated into other dishes. Note that chicharrones are from pigs or boars and no other animal. See chicas and choricéra. [Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:87:100:120 etc; Misc. Conversations with MRSamper. Week of December 9, 2012; García Rey. 1934:66; and Serradilla. 1993:142]

Frying Crackled Streaky Bacon Rinds
Photo by: Lord-Williams
FRIED CRACKLINGS A DISH IN ALL SPANISH CHRISTIAN HOUSEHOLDS
For 4 persons

Ingredients

½ lb cracklings
1 tbsp olive oil

Preparation

Heat a frying pan and add olive oil. When hot, add the cracklings. Turn them to toast all sides. When done, let them drain on paper towels. Wait a few minutes before serving warm but not boiling.

Monday, December 17, 2012

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY WITH 14TH C ENGLISH RECIPE FOR BLANCMANGE


Geoffrey Chaucer
Photo from: PD Wylde
1340/1345?-1400, author of Canterbury Tales, a collection of five stories filled with comments concerning 14th C. English food especially in the Nun’s Tale and the Miller’s Tale. Until Shakespeare, this was the most important work in England. Although he appeared two centuries later, Chaucer’s counterpart in Spain was Miguel Cervantes, author of Don Quixote.

Chaucer entered the service of Edward III and became his ambassador to several European countries. He continued in this capacity under Richard II. Chaucer married Philippa Roet, lady-in-waiting Edward III’s wife, Queen Philippa and later, lady-in-waiting to Constance of Castile, daughter of Peter I of Castile and second wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster an second son of Edward III. Philippa Roet became Gaunt’s sister-in-law upon his third marriage to Catherine Roet Swyneford, her sister.

Philippa Roet and Chaucer had two sons and two daughters. The most known was Thomas, the eldest. His only child was Alice Chaucer, Duchess of Suffolk. She was an important courtesan during the times of Henry VI of Lancaster and personal friend of Margaret Anjou, his wife. John, her only child, married Elisabeth York, Edward IV’s oldest sister.

In Canterbury Tales, Chaucer uses food to reveal traits and personalities of his characters. The poor widow in “The Nun’s Tale” ate brown bread and drank no wine while the prioress only gave fine white bread to her dog. The franklin’s wealth is revealed by quantity of food on his table. The cook prepared blancmange and mortreux but at the same time sold stale pastries with flies in them. Chaucer also used food to introduce humor.

Canterbury Tales was read in homes after dinner for amusement. Chaucer cast a spell on medieval imaginations with his love for magic in theatrical illusions playing between all aspects of the medieval characteristics from the richly dressed to those living a mundane daily life. [Chaucer/Hopper. 1970:vii-xiii:25; and Chaucer/Wright. 1964:1-4:88]

RECIPE FOR CHAUCER’S “BLANKMANGER[1]” ADAPTED FROM JAMES L. MATTERER’S VERSION[2]:

"For blankmanger, that made he with the beste" - The Prologue to The Canterbury Tales

BLANKMANGER

28. Blawmanger. Tak the two del of rys, the thridde pert of almoundes; wash clene the rys in leuk water and turne and seth hem til thay breke and lat it kele, and tak the melk and do it to the rys and boyle hem togedere and do therto whit gres and braun of hennes grounde smale, and stere it wel, and salte it and dresch it in disches. and frye almaundes in fresch gres til they be browne, and set hem in the dissches, and strawe theron sugre and serue it forth.
- Utilis Coquinario

Shredding Chicken Breast
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

3-4 c chicken broth
1 c almonds
¼ chicken breast
1 c rice[3]
salt to taste[4]

Garnish:
¼ c almonds
2 tbsp virgin olive oil
1 tsp sugar


Preparation

Blancmange
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Place 1¼ c almonds in boiling water for a few minutes. Stain off the water and peel them. Grind 1 c in a mortar and set aside.

Fry the remainder of the almonds in olive oil and cut in half or in slivers. Set them aside for garnish.

Boil the chicken in chicken broth until the meat falls apart (about 20 minutes). Remove the chicken from the broth and soak the almonds in the chicken broth overnight.

The next day, shred the meat from the chicken breast.  Strain the broth with ground almonds through a cheesecloth into a pot to make almond milk. Bring the almond milk to a boil and add the rice. Add salt to taste. Reduce heat, stir in chicken, and cover. Cook, stirring occasionally, until liquid is absorbed and rice is fluffy.

Place this in a serving dish. Garnish with almonds and a sprinkle with sugar.




[1] See blogs titled azumbre, cangrejo, cetrería, color and cuasimedio for a Spanish versions of blancmange.
[2] Found at: http://www.godecookery.com/chaucer/chfeast3.htm
[3] It is interesting to note that the 14th centurySpanish version does contains rice flour as per the Sent Soví recipe published November 26, 2011in the blog titled cetrería. For the English rice was a luxury item.
[4] As this is a bland dish, often recommended for the sick, it is recommended to add herbs and/or spices to taste. The Peruvian dish of “pollo al aji,” is a modernized version of blancmange with the addition of the New World products, the pepper and the potato and the elimination of almonds. 

Friday, December 14, 2012

CHATCHUCA WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR EGGPLANT CAKES



Eggplants
Photo by: Lord-Williams
ujia de berejenas, fried eggplant cakes. The Anón Al-Andalus' recipe Isfiriyā de berenjenasis almost the same, but whipped cream is used to top the cakes instead of a vinaigrette. [Anón/Huici. Al-Andalus. 1966:345:130;  ES: Lord-Williams. Fadalat-Art msg. Mar 4, 08;  and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:126]

EGGPLANT CAKES ADAPTED FROM  LORD-WILLIAMS' TRANSLATION FADALAT-ART MSG. [361] RECETA DE TORTILLA DE BERENJENAS[1]
For 4 persons

Ingredients

2 eggplants
2 c breadcrumbs
1 egg
1 tsp olive oil
½ tsp coriander seed
½ tsp cinnamon


Frying Eggplant Cakes
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
vinaigrette;
½ c oil
1 tbsp murri[2]
1 mashed garlic

Preparation

Wash eggplants. Cut off stems. Slice in half and rub with salt. Place face down on paper towels for 10 minutes at least.

Boil water in pot. Add the eggplants and boil until the flesh is soft, about 10 minutes. Remove the eggplants, squeeze out water and mash them.

Stir in breadcrumbs, an egg beaten with oil, coriander seed and cinnamon until all is well mixed. Make cakes, balls or cylinders with the paste, dip in flour to prevent sticking. Heat olive oil in a frying pan an fry until golden brown.

Make a vinaigrette with oil, murri and mashed garlic; boil and pour it over the omelet.

Eggplant Cakes with Vinaigrette - Delicious!
Photo by: Lord-Williams

[1] Great hors d’oeuvres, a first course or served with honey instead of the vinaigrette for dessert.
[2] See blog titled almorí published Aug 25, 12 for recipe.

Wednesday, December 12, 2012

CHARCUTERÍA WITH 4TH CENTURY ROMAN SAUSAGE RECIPE


A Charcutería at EL Mercado de las Maravillas
Madrid
Photo by: Lord-Williams
delicatessen;  shop selling cold cuts and preserved meats which are dried, marinated or other.  Meat such as that used for stuffing sausages is sold there. In Al-Andalus pork was excluded although Christians specialized in pork products. Muslim stores do include other types of meat sausages and minced meats made into paddies with eggs or to marinate.

It is impossible to imagine a Roman market without a profusion of cold cuts, sausages, chorizos and blood sausages typical of northern counties, and so popular amount the population. This tradition was brought to Spain and is here to stay!  [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:239]

Stuffed Lamb Stomach Sewn up Tight
Photo by: Lord-Williams
ROMAN SAUSAGE ADAPTED FROM APICIUS/FLOWER. 1958:II:V:69-70

Ingredients

2 hard boiled eggs
3 leeks
1 k ground pork or veal
1 tsp white pepper
2 tsp cumin
salt to taste
1 tbsp chopped rue
1 tbsp virgin olive oil
½ c nuts such as pine nuts, walnuts, almonds etc
1 sheep’s stomach
1 liter white wine

Sauce

8 onions

¼-½ c olive oil
4 c broth from boiling stuffed lamb stomach
2 tbsp flour 

Preparation

Cover eggs with water and bring to a boil, lower heat and boil gently. After 2 minutes add leeks. Continue cooking for 10 minutes. Remove eggs and put them in cold water. Strain leeks reserving the broth.
  
A Slice of Roman Sausage with Onion Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
Mix the meat with the spices, salt and a little olive oil, the nuts. Grind all in a mortar into pieces that are not too small. Add the eggs cut into pieces and the leeks chopped with 1 tbsp broth.

Knead all. Fill the stomach with this and sew up the stomach. Put this into a pot with a white wine.  Add enough water to cover the stomach. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and gently boil for 2 hours.

For the sauce:
Peel and chop onions. Heat olive oil in a pan and fry onions until caramelized.

In another pan heat broth. Add flour very slowly, stirring constantly until thickened. Add onions and serve with the stuffed lamb stomach 

Serve with grilled vegetables and gourds .

Monday, December 10, 2012

CHANFAINA WITH RECIPE FOR SHEPERDS' CHANFAINA POTTAGE


Frying Onion, Liver and Lung
Photo by: Lord-Williams
(“entanglement”), a common stew, roast or bread soup with liver and entrails depending on where it is prepared. In the Maragato region of León it is most commonly found in villages at the skirt of Teleno Mountain. It is thought to have originated as a meal for village warriors, of the Pre-Roman Period. Even today one feels the strength coming from the enormous cauldron in which it is cooked. Since ancient times chanfaina is part of the celebration of the slaughter of pigs. Too, it is an obligatory dish from time immemorial for mid-morning lunch on the feast days and at weddings.

It contains the parts of the animal that must be consumed first after the slaughter, which can include lungs, guts, beef or veal trotters, ears, tripe, entrails, salt pork, bacon, lamb and blood. Pork liver, chunks of meat from under the pig’s chin mixed with fat and onion are added also in some areas and in others fried garlic onion, parsley, bay leaves and toasted bread. These are cooked slowly in an enormous cauldron with ingredients such as garlic, parsley, beet greens, lettuce, peppers or other greens like artichokes. Ares claims that it is a “entire barnyard” and vegetable garden in one pot.

The Leonese brag that theirs is known for its abundance in quantity and quality. Their chanfaina must be served with wine from the Bierzo. Homemade bread also is essential to sop up the liquid and to wipe up the last bits at the bottom of the pan. Lamb or mutton chanfaina consists of lamb or mutton trotters, some entrails, lung and heads with lettuce or another green like artichokes and Swiss chard. Traditionally, this is served just after the lamb or mutton is slaughtered and on the eve of St. Martin’s Day for supper with rice.

Maragatos are frugal except when guests come and then hospitality is the abundance of food set on the table. Normally, when the chanfaina is prepared, guests are invited. When the meal is finished all go to mass. An English equivalent might be OE chauden, chauadoun, OF chaudin, chaudun, which literally means organ meats but a pottage made with them was called the same. [Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:113-114:137; Ares. Gastronomía. 2000:91; Curye. 1985:177; ES: INDICE. Mar 21, 04; Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003; and Trapiello. 1994:137]

SHEPHERDS’ CHANFAINA[1] POTTAGE
For 4-6 persons

Ingredients

1 ½ qt meat broth
¼ round loaf of bread or 1 ½ c breadcrumbs, 2-3 days old at least
1 onion
¼ c virgin olive oil
1 bay leaf
½ sheep liver
½ sheep lung
1 garlic clove
1 tsp white pepper[2]
1 tsp oregano
salt to taste


Preparation

The Art of Chanfaina is the Blending of Ingredients
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Pour the broth into a pot[3]. Bring to a boil and boil gently for 10-15 minutes. Add the breadcrumbs. Continue to boil gently for 25-30 minutes, stirring from time to time.

Chop onion. Heat a frying pan and add the olive oil. When hot add the onion and a bay leaf. When the onion begins to be translucent add the garlic.

Chop the liver and lung into very small pieces. Add them to frying pan, turning from time to time until they change color. Do not cook anymore or the liver will become tasteless and hard like cork. Add pepper and oregano and mix well.

Add the fried food to the broth and breadcrumbs and add oregano.[4] Cover and simmer for about 30 minutes, mixing all with a wooden spoon. Add salt to taste.

Continue cooking uncovered over very low heat, letting all the ingredients blend together and the sopes thickens.



[1] This is a simple recipe of chafaina commonly made by shepherds while watching their sheep. It was adapted by the Medieval Spanish Chef. 
[2] Today, paprika is used instead.
[3] It is important to use a heavy pot to prevent the breadcrumbs from sticking to the bottom.
[4] Today chile peppers are also added.