Entradas populares

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

COBERTOR WITH 15TH CENTURY GENOESE TART RECIPE


Modern Lids
Photo by: Lord-Williams
covered, topped, upper part, lid. [Nola. 1989:xiiii-5:xxxiiii-1:xliii-2 etc and Nola/Pérez. 1992:192]

GENOESE TART ADAPTED FROM NOLA xliii-2 TARTA A LA GENOVESA

Ingredients for the dough:
4 4/5 c flour
½ oz yeast
1 c lard
1 tsp salt
1 c lukewarm water

Ingredients for the filling:
1/3 c olive oil
salt to taste
1.25 oz raisins
Mixing the Williams
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1.25 oz dates without pits
5-6 apples for baking
1.25 oz raw almonds
1.25 oz toasted hazelnuts
1.75 oz pine nuts
2 eggs
2/3 c brown sugar
½ tsp cinnamon
¼ tsp nutmeg

Garnish:
2 tbsp sugar
1 tsp ground cinnamon

Preparation

Sift the flour in a circular motion over a table top leaving a hole in the middle. Place the remaining ingredients in a hole and knead by hand until the required consistency is obtained.

An Unique Apple Tart!
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF / 180º C

Roll it in a ball and put it in a pot. Cover it with a cloth and leave for 5- 6 hours to rise.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF / 180º C

Oil a pie tin[1] with vegetable oil and sprinkle with flour. Roll out the dough and line the tin with it.  Prick it with a fork and put a layer of chickpeas in the tin. Bake for 10 minutes. Remove the chickpeas.

For the filling:

Put an inch or two of water in a pan with the remaining oil, salt, raisins, dates without pits cut in quarters, the apples, peeled and quartered, without core and seeds removed. When the fruit is soft, strain the liquid and purée the solids in a food processor.

Grind the almonds and hazelnuts. Add them to the apple mixture with the pine nuts. Add brown sugar, cinnamon and nutmeg and mix well.

Pour this into the pie tin lied with the dough. Cover[2] and bake 15 minutes. Remove from oven and garnish the top with sugar and cinnamon. Cover again and put it in the oven for 15 more minutes.

When it is golden brown and the crust begins to shrink from the sides, remove from oven and serve warm.


[1] The original recipe calls for a frying pan. Probably that would be a paellera as the handle on today’s frying pan would be a problem when baking in the oven.
[2] Aluminum wrap was used, as pie tins do not normally have a cover today.

Monday, February 25, 2013

COBERTERA WITH A ROMAN CHEESE CUSTARD RECIPE



Cheese Custards with a Modern Pan Cover
Photo by: Lord-Williams

a flat iron, copper, stone, or earthenware plate used to cover a pan. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:33:ftn 57]

CHEESE CUSTARD ADAPTED BY DIÁZ p 89 FROM APICIUS/FLOWER TYROPATINAM[1] (A DISH WITH CHEESE) CH VII:XIII:7, pp 171-173

Ingredients

¼ c honey
5 eggs
½ lb cheese (it can be feta, cottage cheese or cream cheese[2])

½ l milk[3]

Custard Just Like Grandma's Recipe
 but 17 Centuries Older!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Heat the milk and dissolve the honey. Let it cool and add the cheese, pepper[4] and finally the eggs beaten. Mix all well.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 140º C

Pour this mixture into a greased mold and place it into a larger pan filled with water.  Cover and bake until done about 1 hr.

Let cool and remove the custard from the mold. Sprinkle with freshly ground black pepper and serve.



[1] Diáz explains that tyropatinam, which is a type of pudding was well-liked in Roman banquets. Apicius provide various versions of it.
[2] Fresh cheese was used as cream cheese did not exist in Roman times.
[3] Cream was used.
[4] Diáz does not give amounts of pepper. One tsp was used, ½ tsp was added to the puddling mix and ½ tsp for garnish when done.

Friday, February 22, 2013

CLAVO WITH 13TH CLOVE ELECTUARY RECIPE


Clove tree
Photo from: Spice up the Deal Project
OCast clauo de gilof, clavos de girof, girof’¡le, girofla, pimienta prolongada, clavo de especies, Gr. garifalo, L. Eugenia caryophyllata, Ar. qrenfel, Fr. giroflier, ME clowe, clouwes pl., gilofre, Eng. spice clove or clove flower of a girof. The word “girof” is used but generally recipes call for the spice clove. The name “clove” is derived from the Latin clavus or the French meaning ‘spice nail’ for the unopened button flower buds that grow on the clove tree, which is a native of Tidore, Ternate and two of the Moluccas or the Spice Islands. When the cloves reach full size, the closed buds are hand picked. Then they are sun dried for several days. During this process, they shrink to two-thirds of their size and weight and turn dark brown.

Dried Cloves
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Historically, the clove was one of the big four spices with nutmeg, cinnamon and pepper. As cloves are very pungent, sharp and aromatic, they are used to enhance sweet or savory foods, such as meats, breads, desserts, fruits, wines and liquors. The clove is a powerful food preservative for meat, especially pork.

Cloves were not used in European food dishes generally until the end of the 13th C although it is known that Catalan spice merchants were selling cloves there and exported them to England between 800-1200. Nola calls for ‘mother of cloves’ in some of his recipes, meaning he wants some nice big cloves.

Mixing Ground Cloves with Sugar
Photo by: Lord-Williams
After the clove entered the European kitchen, it came to signify healing and psychic powers. The clove is an antimyeotic and an effective  disinfectant used against colibacilli, pneumococci, staphylococci and streptococci. The oil, obtained by steam distillation of discarded parts of the tree, is used for its digestive, stomachache, antiseptic and stimulant properties. It has been used to prevent diarrhea and infections from wounds. As the leaves, cloves have a pungent, assertive, dark aromatic odor and burning taste. They are applied locally for pain relief. They, as well as the oil from the tree, work like novocain, leaving a lasting numb sensation in the mouth when bitten. They are added to medicinal toothache remedies. From the early times through the Middle Ages, they were so valuable that they were exchanged for slaves and gold[Curye. 1985:179; ES: Collins. Apr 1, 96; ES: Gavalas. Sep 23, 02.; ES: Cloves. May 22, 02; ES: “Etimología.” Jun 12, 98; ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; ES: RAE. 2001; ES: Adamantius. Jan 3, 08; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:258; Nola. 1989:xii-1:xii-2;xii-3 etc; and Nola/Iranzo 1982:168]

Clove Electuaries
Photo by: Lord-Williams
CLOVE ELECTUARY ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATON OF AL-ANDALUS 
#533. ŶUWĀRIŠ DE CLAVO, p 288  

Ingredients

½ oz cloves
1 c   sugar
1/8-1/4 c rosewater

Preparation

Grind cloves. Add them to the sugar. Dissolve the mixture in rosewater to make a paste. Make electuaries in the form of fingers and tablets using 1-2 tsp of the paste. Eat them at meals for their benefits. They excite the appetite, dissolve the phlegm (clearing it), increase the force of coitus and help one’s metabolism.

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

CLARO WITH SPICES FOR HIPPOCRAS RECIPE


Filtering Spices for Hippocras
Photo by: Lord-Williams

clear, clean, pure. [Nola/Pérez.1994:82:192]

SPICES FOR HIPPOCRAS[1] ADAPTED FROM PÉREZ' ADDITION TO NOLA ESPECIAS DE IPROCRAS[2] pp 82

Ingredients

5/12 oz cinnamon[3]
¼ oz  cloves
1/12 oz ginger
3/8 c white caster sugar
½ l white wine
½ l red wine

The Sweet Aroma and Warmth of an After Dinner Cordial
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Grind the spices and the sugar.  Put them into an earthenware pot and add the wines. Bring to a boil. Strain through a cheesecloth until the liquid is clear. Serve warm.


[1] This is an after dinner aromatic cordial.
[2] This recipe appears to be adapted from the Muslim version brought to Spain. See hipocrás.
[3] The original recipe calls for 5 parts cinnamon, 3 parts cloves and 1 part ginger.

Monday, February 18, 2013

CLAREA DE AGUA WITH CLARRY INFUSION RECIPE


Grinding Spices in a Coffee Grinder
Photo by: Lord-Williams
water clarry, clarry infusion. Spices mixed were with boiling  honey and water. It was then cooled and served with meals. Pérez added his recipe for this to Nola’s original text. [ES: Crystal. Mar 00; and Nola/Pérez.1994:82]

CLARRY INFUSION ADAPTED FROM PÉREZ’  CLAREA DE AGUA ADDITON TO NOLA, p 82

Ingredients

1 qt water
1/4  c honey
1/8 oz  ground cinnamon[1]
1/6  oz  cloves
1/12 oz ginger

Preparation

High Tea the Medieval Way
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Bring the water and honey to a boil. Remove from the heat and add the spices.  Let sit as with tea. Serve warm using a strainer when pouring the mixture into teacups.


[1] The original recipe calls for ¼ oz cinnamon but that makes a very strong drink.

Friday, February 15, 2013

CLAREA WITH 15TH C RECIPE FOR CLARRY


Straining Spices to Make Clarry
Photo by: Lord-Williams 

clarry. MEng clarree, Eng A mixture of white wine, honey and spices (see pimienta de clarea). The spices used depended on the availability in the area. Clarry was served before meals. It should not be confused with “claret” which is red table wine or dry white wine from Boudreaux or “clary,” an aromatic mint used to flavor drinks. [ES: Thea. Mar 00; and Nola 1989:xii-3]

SPICES FOR CLARRY ADAPTED FROM NOLA xii-3 ESPECIAS DE CLAREA

Ingredients

¼  oz  ground cinnamon
1/6 oz  cloves
1/12 oz ginger
1 ltr white wine
1 c honey


Preparation


Clarry - A Warm Before Dinner Drink
Photo by: Lord-Willliams
Mix the spices. Grind all well. Add wine and honey. Bring all to a boil and strain though a linen bag several times until the wine is clear. Serve warm.

Wednesday, February 13, 2013

CIRIO


Cirio
Photo from:
 Gpedro

thick and long wax-candle that can be inserted into a candelabra, see candeleros.  They were commonly used in dining halls and churches during the Middle Ages. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:52]


Monday, February 11, 2013

CIRCUNCISIÓN WITH SEPHARDI RECIPE FOR POPPY SEED AND HONEY CAKE


Francisco de Zurbaran's 
"The Circumcision" (of Christ)
Heb milah or brit milah (“the covenant of circumcision”) Eng circumcision.  A festival celebrated on the first of January in remembrance of the circumcision of Christ.

The oldest known practice is Egyptian. It was performed on boys to denote their entrance into adulthood or becoming warriors. The oldest documentary evidence is from the sixth dynasty (2345–2181 BC) tomb in which the ceremony is depicted on the walls. It is said that Egyptians were circumcised for hygiene and cleanliness.

Jewish boys customarily are circumcised eight days after birth. The tradition dates to Genesis 17:23:27 which relates that Abraham circumcised himself and all males were told to be circumcised as a sign of the covenant that God establishes with the people of Israel. In Jewish society, it is performed by a mohel who has been specially trained in the technique of circumcision and who has received rabbinic recognition.  In the Middle Ages, it was performed in the synagogue. Today it is performed in the home.  This is done during the day and a midday meal is offered to guests who come to witness the ceremony. Until the 13th C the mother held the child’s legs during the operation. Since then that has been the job of the godfather as women were not allowed to enter the part of the synagogue where the ceremony was performed. 

Preparing the Batter
for Poppy Seed Honey Cake
Photo by: Lord-Williams
The Friday after the birth of a son or the night before he is circumcised friends go to the home of the parents and celebrate a dinner for which beans and peas are made. In other ceremonies boiled chickpeas are served.  Also in these celebrations, popped seed honey cake, other cakes and sweets are offered. Jewish women are not circumcised.

The Koran does not demand circumcision but it was the common practice to circumcise Islamic boys between the ages of 2-14. The majority of boys circumcised today are seven years old.  Girls could be circumcised, which consists of excising the clitoris. Today, it is common to have it done in the hospital where the baby is born if at all.  The religion does not designate any particular individual to perform the operation. Following the operation there was a celebration and a special banquet. Menus varied according to the cultural, geographical and social situations of the celebrants.

Christians do not necessarily believe in circumcision. The Apostle Paul preached that faith in Jesus was the only requirement for salvation; that faith was more important than foreskin.

[Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:54; Ency Judaica. 2007: BLU-COF:VOL 4:”CIRCUMCISION”: 730-735;  Ency of Judaism. 2000;Vol 1:a-I:”circumcision”:89-95; Espasa. 1988:13:CL-COLD:400-404; and Weekes.1984:I:41]


POPPY SEED AND HONEY CAKE ONE OF EMMA COHEN’S
MICELLANEOUS SEPHARDI RECIPES

Slowly Baking in the Oven
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

2 c flour
1 ½  tsp baking powder
½ tsp salt to taste
4 eggs
1 c brown sugar
½ c vegetable oil
2 oranges
½ tsp cinnamon
¼ nutmeg
¼ ginger scraping
¼ c poppy seeds
1 c honey

 Preparation

Too Delicious to Wait for Ceremonies!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF/175º C

Mix flour, baking powder and salt.

Beat the eggs. Gradually add the sugar. Continue beating until light and fluffy. Add the oil and continue beating.

Slowly add the flour mixture alternating it with the juice from the oranges (about 1 c).  Add half the poppy seeds,  zest from ½ an orange (about 2 tbsp), spices and mix well.  

Grease a cake tin and sprinkle with flour. Pour the batter into it.

Bake 1 hour or until a toothpick comes out clean.

Stick the top several times with the end of a ballpoint pen. Let cool about 10 minutes and remove the cake from the tin. Bring the honey to a boil, skim it and pour it over the top and sides of the cake until all the syrup is absorbed.  Let cool and serve.



Friday, February 8, 2013

CINEGÉTICA WITH 15TH CENTURY SAUCE FOR ROASTED FOWL



1580 SPORTING CROSSBOW
Photo from:
 eugeniolarosa
L. cynegeficus (that which concerns the hunt; of the hunt), Eng the art of hunting; the chase; hunting by the king and/or aristocrats. Noble men and women learned to hunt birds on horseback using a crossbow and falconry. See cetrería and halcón.  [ES: RAE. 2001; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:189]

SAUCE FOR ROASTED FOWL ADAPTED FROM NOLA  xxx-4 SALSERON PARA VOLATERÍA ASADA[1]

Ingredients

2 bird’s livers
A sauce for Kings
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 qt lamb or chicken broth
1 ginger scraping
2 tbsp sugar
1 c orange juice
1 tbsp vinegar
1 ½ tbsp breadcrumbs

Preparation

Boil livers in broth. When cooked mash them in a mortar. Add enough ginger to give it flavor. Add sugar and mash all together.  When the lord is seated at the table, temper  the sauce with orange juice and vinegar. And thicken a little with breadcrumbs. The sauce must be served warm.


[1] See blog titled azcúzar en polvo published January 20, 2012 for very different version of the same.

Wednesday, February 6, 2013

CÍMBALO


A ring for the King
Photo by: Lord-Williams
small bell. It was used to announce the entrance of the king into the hall. Eaters then would take their seats. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:53]

Monday, February 4, 2013

CILANTRO WITH A 13TH CENTURY HISPANO-ARAB RECIPE FOR MIRKÂS A SAUSAGE


Ciltantro  and Coriander Seed
Photo by: Lord-Williams
coriandro, O Cast. culantro, OCat saliandre, celiandre, Gr koriannon (fr koris, bedbug) L. Coriandrum sativum, ME coliaundir, colyandre (the seed), Eng. cilantro (the entire plant), coriander (the edible seeds). It has become symbolic of healing, health and love. The plant has been confused with parsley for the likeness of the leaves. Cilantro is thought to be a native of the Mediterranean. According to Sanskrit records, it has been known for 7,000 years. It is believed to have been part of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Jews ate it during Passover. In the Bible, Exodus 16:31and Numbers 11:9  coriander is likened to manna.

Romans introduced it to Spain but it was forgotten with time. The Moors reintroduced it to Spain by 822 for Ziryab is reported to have drunk a cilantro beverage that was popular in court and among the harem of the emirate. 

For Hispano Muslims, it became an essential flavoring and coloring. It is thought that it was grown in the royal gardens of Seville during the 11th and 12th C. The fresh leaves and the seeds were eaten. Although it continued to be used in Spanish cuisine, it fell into disuse in England when new, more exotic spices came on the market during the Renaissance. 

Pliny claimed that the leaves have a strong odor like crushed bedbugs. The seeds can be kept for long periods. They should not be ground until ready for use to prevent the loose of flavor, which is sweet, warm and mild, somewhat like orange peel. They contain 20% sugar, oil and vitamin C. It is the only herb considered to have a cooling effect. Perhaps that is why it has appeared as an ingredient in nearly all meat dishes, soups, comfits and baked goods. Mixed with vinegar they prevented future breakdown of meat fibers. When Muslim recipes call for “dried” cilantro they actually mean coriander seeds. Care should be taken not to consume too many seeds as they can act as a narcotic, producing a type of inebriation that can last all day it. 

Stuffing a mirkâs/sausa with fresh cheese
Photo by: Lord-Williams
It was thought to be an aphrodisiac in the Middle Ages as noted in Knights. It was consumed after meals to help the digestion and dissipate gases. The seed has been used to mask bad tasting medicines like purgatives. It is a carminative (used for flatulence), a digestive (used to stimulate the intestines and stomach and to bring on menstruation) and an aromatic stimulate. 

Fresh cilantro leaves remove toxic lead from the body, which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease, herpes outbreaks, hardening of the arteries and cardiovascular disease. It has been taken to prevent colds and flu. The oil from it contains terpinene, which is applied in cases of colic, neuralgia and rheumatism. A paste form is used for ulcers and mouth ulceration. To relieve labor pains, Arab women still chew the leaves. See ventosidades. [Anón/Grewe. 1982: CXXXXV:163:ftn 3:CXXXXVIII:166:CLXVIII:181:ftn 2 etc; Bremness. 1990:69; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:69-72; Curye. 1985:179; ES: “Cilantro.” Aug 02; ES: Figueroa. “Refranes.” Jan 29, 03; ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:193]

MIRKÂS WITH FRESH CHEESE ADAPTED FROM ANÓN/HUICI, AL-ANDALUS #14  CON QUESO FRESCO, p 19

Ingredients

½ lb ground beef[1]
½ lb  fresh cheese
2 eggs slightly beaten
½ tsp white pepper
½ tsp ground cloves
½ tsp coriander
1 bunch of mint
1 bunch of cilantro
1 pig intestine
string for tying the intestine
¼ c olive oil

Slowly Frying a 
mirkâs/sausage link
Photo by: Lord-Willliams
Preparation

Grind the meat. Dice the cheese. Take care that it is not too soft or it will fall apart. Add it to the meat. Beat an egg and mix it with the meat and cheese. Season it with pepper, cloves, and dry coriander.

Put mint in a food processer with 1 cup water and grind it to make a juice. Do the same with cilantro.  Stain the juices through a sieve and add 1/8 c of each juice to the meat and cheese mixture.

Clean intestines and stuff them with the meat and cheese mixture. Tie them into sausage links and prick them. [2]

When ready to eat fry them in olive oil.  Slice and nibble with or without a sauce. [3]




[1] As this is an Hispano-Arab recipe pork is not used but is an alternative for Christians.
[2] A pig’s intestine is about 70” long, while this mixture only occupies about 50” of intestine when stuffed. Cut off the empty intestine and save for another inspiration.   
[3] Although it would be unusual to use deer as meat for the sausage, the sauce suggested to be used with deer could be used here. See the blog titled ciervo, published on January 25, 2013. 

Friday, February 1, 2013

CIGÜEÑA BLANCA O NEGRA A DANGEROUS ENDANGERED SPECIES


Storks
from
 michael clarke stuff
OCast. cigunnuela,  L. Ciconia ciconia, Eng white or black stork. During the Middle Ages it was among the large birds hunted along with bittern, mallards, quails and herons.

Although disappearing in rest of Europe today, since 1918 its population has been ever increasing in Spain, which is the largest concentration on the continent. This migratory bird winters south of the Sahara and in South Africa. It migrates in spectacular flocks to the two extremes of the Mediterranean. Those from the former area tend to use the Straits of Gibraltar route, which can take some as far north as the French-German border. The black stork may go as far as Denmark, Belgium and Luxembourg. The South African storks take the Bosphorus route. In March or April, they go to eastern Germany, the Czech Republic, Greece, northern Turkey, Russia, the Baltic States and the Caucasus.

The Gibraltar group tends to reach to Spain in February. The white stork stays through July, while the black stork remains until August or September. The Bosphorus groups will stay in the east until September or early October. There is a small group of black storks, however, that is a permanent resident in central Iberia. In Spain, it is abundant particularly in Picos de Europa (Asturias), the Guadarrama River (Madrid), the Sierra de Gredos (Ávila), between Cáceres and Trujillo, Monfraqüe and the Jerte River Valley (Cáceres), Tablas de Daimiel (Ciudad Real) the National Parks of Coto Donana (Huelva), and the Guadalhorce Estuary (Málaga).

Since the medieval times, the arrival date brought ‘stork luck.’ It is exactly nine months after mid-summer, when the husbands came home from wars to harvest their crops, which at the same time could have been considered as the human mating season. While the mother nurses the new comer in the household (brought by the stork of course), the stork and its mate build a new nest or the male, followed by the female, may occupy the one he used the previous year on a church top, roof of barn or house as appropriate trees are more and more difficult to find. Although white storks squawk at humans from time to time, they do not seem to mind human presence.

The black stork appears to flee towns and cities more, making its nests near streams, ponds in forests, wet meadows, parts of mountain ranges on rocky crags and cliff-faces.  Their nests consist of twigs, branches, clay, rags or whatever is found. If the nest is from a previous year then, a few tidbits are added to reinforce it or for decor. By Easter bird watchers from all over Europe come to photograph this bird with a red bill, legs and claws. It weights between 2.5-4.5 kilos and is 2 to 2.10 m long and 1 to 1.5 m tall. The stock lives to be about 20 years old and from the time it is four, the female lays one to six white eggs annually. It eats fish, mollusks, lizards, snakes, frogs, rats, garbage and insects. It has no “menu of the day” but varies its selection constantly.

With the bird watchers’ arrival, the female is ready for photographs while proudly sitting on her eggs. While ooh-ing and ha-ing bird watchers do not realize that the 30 to 600 k of nests are destroying the roofs of historical monuments and private edifications throughout the country. Poor villagers scorn at them and the “protected species” ideologies for when the roof of a church roof or  a home caves in they have no money to repair it. The law does not protect them from detriments caused by birds or animals when a protected species is involved. [ES: Black Stork. Nov 1, 03; ES: “La Cigüeña.” n/d; ES: Matterer. Mar 26, 04; ES: White Stork. Sep 10, 02; and Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:189]