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Monday, April 29, 2013

COL FORRAJERA WITH 15TH CENTURY KALE LEAF RECIPE


Kale
Photo by: Lord Willliams
berzas, vulg. repollo de asa de cántaro, asa de cántaro (stone handle), OCast breças, L. Brassica oleracea (Viridis and Acephala Groups), Ar. malfouf, ME cool (cabbage or kale?), Eng. UK: kale, fodder kale, cow cabbage, collards, USA: tall kale, tree kale, tree cabbage. Generally when referring to cabbage, it is the white loose-headed cabbage from southern Europe or the tight headed from the north. Cookbooks calling for asa de cántaro refer to cabbage from southern Europe. It is nicked named asa de cántero or “stone handle,” in Spanish for the durability and handle shaped leaves. It grows in humid soil where it is planted deep into the ground. Laguna warned that the vineyard and cabbage hated each other to the point that the vines would not grow if cabbage was planted near them.

During the Middle Ages, it was consumed raw, boiled and with fish or meat as today. Spaniards, from northern regions, eat it with botillo del bierzo (cabbage boiled in an animal’s stomach) or serve it with codfish in Leon. In Galicia, it is boiled in water for three hours in a tightly closed pot or presser cooker with lard from hens and pork, half of a hen, bones and fava beans. It is served in soup bowls.

Since Roman times cow cabbage has been considered the poor man’s food but some recipe books insinuate that Europeans did have some “poor” kings and aristocrats. For the poor and rich eating cabbage was considered to bring good luck in medieval times. The culinary value has been less appreciated then the medical benefits because over cooked cabbage smells awful. [Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:95:97-98:100; ES: Benavides–Barajas. “Cocina.” Sep 29, 01; Curye. 1985:181; ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; and ES: Murrah, Nov 12, 02; Fernández Muníz. 1994:188; Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:155; Villar. 1994:182; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

KALE LEAF RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA xli-3 PENCAS BE BERZAS
A favorite for a winter's day
Photo: Lord-Williams

Ingredients


4 qt broth
1 kale or cow cabbage
100 gr fatty bacon finely sliced
2 onions quartered

Preparation

Wash kale and quarter the leaves. Add them to a pot. Melt the bacon and pour it into the pot. Add the onions. Bring to a boil. Lower heat and boil gently 10 minutes. When the leaves start to fall apart turn them with a wooden spoon. Do not overcook. Remove from heat and let rest before serving.

To prevent bad odors it is said that one should not over cook. The Spanish Medieval Chef adds a tablespoon of vinegar when adding the cabbage.




Friday, April 26, 2013

COL (stem), WITH CREAMED CABBAGE AND MEAT


 
Cabbage
Photo by: Lord-Williams
L. Brassica, Fr. caboche (head), ME coboches, cobaches, colewort, sea colewort, cool (cabbage or kale) Eng. cabbage. The cole family has innumerous species, including cauliflower, Brussel sprouts, kale and broccoli. There is doubt as to whether this plant is a native of Europe or of China. The first record of it is by Confucius who mentioned its existence in China (497 B.C.). Those believing that it originated in northern Europe think that the Celts spread it east and south to the Mediterranean. Some say the Romans took it to England.

Medieval cabbage was more leafy than today. In England, normally it was boiled in broth with onions and leeks for pottages and stews. Arabs brought cabbage recipes to Spain including stuffed and stewed. It was added to pottages and almond soup and served as salads. Cole slaw in England was made with garum, oil, vinegar, sugar and onion and seasoned with cumin, caraway and coriander. Cabbage salads in Asturias are a mixture of apples, bacon and cabbage.

Forme of Curye shows cabbages were often eaten in English households. Cabbage was a favorite of Chaucer’s Summoner with other garden vegetables. In the 15th C Lord Grey served cabbage, at a banquet in a pottage with parsnips, turnips and pears. Other English recipes combined broad beans or oatmeal with cabbage. Curye on Inglysch provides a recipe pickling cabbage.

Cabbage has been eaten throughout Spain. In León and Asturias it has been basic in their cuisine from time immemorial. Andrés Laguna, 15th C. Segovian physician, stated that in Germany and part of Bavaria it was marinated to preserve it for a year. Andalusians, for the same reasons, kept their cabbage in a pickle sauce. It has been stated that people of the Middle Ages “pickled anything that does not move.”

Chopping and Cooking Cabbage
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Cato, the Elder (234-149 BC), stated: "that cabbage treats ulcers on the breast, supporating wounds, and cancers." Today, it is known to be a good substance against cancer. Egyptians started drinking the seeds to combat intestinal worms. If eaten at the end of the meal, it would stop all the damage the wine has done and inebriation. Prior to eating, Romans ate cabbage soaked in vinegar not only as food but also to counter alcohol excess. Dioscorides said that lightly cooked cabbage softened the stomach. In the 12th C, Avenzoar cautioned that it was the worst vegetable in existence for it generates epilepsy, leprosy, scabbies, black bile and hypnotic effects. He did allow that eaten boiled or raw, it cleared the voice and helped prevent snoring. To reduce tumors, he prescribed the application of cabbage in plaster form. Today, the leaves externally applied to ulcerations relieve them.

It has been found that cabbage has anti-mutagenic activity (preventing mutations) but scientists have yet to prove that there is any antitumor action when applied topically. A honey and cabbage root mixture was administered to patients with whooping cough. As the Dutch navy lived on sauerkraut, it was thought they used it to prevent scurvy. Today, it is known that it contains a large quantity of Vitamin C. A couple of spoonfuls a day mixed with sugar and honey helps fight bronchial colds. See col forrajera and cuello. [Curye. 1985:175:181; ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; Groundes-Peace. 1971:17; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:84; and Sass. 1975:22]

CREAMED CABBAGE AND MEAT STUFFING ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS  #278. RELLENO DE CARNE CON REPOLLO, pp 160-161
For 12 persons

Ingredients
Mashing Strained Cabbage in a Mortar
Photo by: Lord-Williams

½ lb meat diced
¼ lb old cheese diced
1 onion chopped with 1 tbsp cilantro
1 heads of cabbage
1 tsp murri
1 tbsp vinegar
½ tsp pepper
1 tsp caraway
dough
2 eggs

For the dough:
¾ c flour
½  pk dry yeast
1/8 tsp salt
¼ c milk
½ tbsp melted butter

Garnish:
shredded cheese
A Delicious Dish!
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Bring meat, cheese, onion and cabbage to a boil. Remove from heat. Strain off broth  and reserve.  Pound all in a wooden mortar and set aside.

For the dough:
Combine flour, yeast and salt. Make a hole in the middle and add milk and butter. Knead for 10 minutes by hand. When smooth roll it into a ball. Place in a bowl coated with olive oil and cover with a cloth. Leave for 45 minutes or until it rises to almost double in size.

Bring the broth to a boil. Tear off pieces of dough and add them to the broth. Wisk the mixture until blended. Gently simmer 20 minutes to cook out the starchy flavor.

Return the cabbage mixture to pot and boil again.  Add murri, vinegar, pepper  
and caraway. Reduce heat to stimmer. When the broth stops boiling, stir in beaten eggs. Continue stirring until the desired thickness is reached. 

Place the mixture in an ovenproof dish and grill to melt and toast the cheese and serve. 

This is a dish recommended for cabbage lovers and for those who normally dislike it as they will lick the plate clean!  

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

COHOMBRO, ALFICOZ PICKLED OR RAW SERPENT MELONS


Snake Cucumber?
Photo from: Tobyotter
OCast. alficoç, alficos, HispAr al’fiqqüs, alfqqús (fr. Rabbanical Aramaic, pikkūsā), L. Cucumis flexuosum, Eng. serpent melon, or snake cucumber. Frequently, this is confused with the cucumber as it is commonly called “cucumber” instead of by its proper name. The stems are very long with rounded leaves. It bares small pale yellow flowers. The fruit is elongated, thin and twisted. It is eaten pickled or raw. It grows in warm areas such as Valencia and Murcia. It is thought to be the ‘Hairy Cucumber’, Cucumis chate, a wild melon having cool and sweet flavor similar to the watermelon mentioned in the Bible (Isaiah i.8). Villena instructs that they should be cut crosswise in large slices. The seeds are planted in spring and lie so many members of the melon family, the fruit is available in autumn. See pepino. [Alonso, Martín I:A:243; Covarrubias 1998:334; ES: Grieve. “Melon, Serpeant.” Sep 19, 04; ES: “Pepino.” Apr 13, 04; Villena/Brown. 1984:160; Villena/Calero. 2002:42b; and Villena/Saínz. 1969:131]

Melon
Photo from: Chris Jenkins
Although Villena instructs how to cut serpent melons, he provides no recipe for eating them. Currently in Spain, they are not available, it is not known if this is is due to the growing season or the lack of public demand. Should serpent melons be found, they can be pickled using the same recipes that are for cucumber. Also, today, when available, mothers keep the melons in the refrigerator for teenage nibblers instead of potato chips. As the skin is soft, it does not have to be peeled.

Monday, April 22, 2013

COGUJADA A SMALL BIRD

Crested Lark
Photo from: Sergey Yeliseev

OCast copada, L. Galerida cristata, Eng crested lark. This small bird live on grassy plains, in semi-desert areas and cultivated lands. This bird is found all over Spain, but especially in Catalonia, Estremadura and Andalusia. In England, it is rare today put can be found in the south and in Wales. Although some are migratory, most are residents. There are some 15-20 subspecies. Generally, the crested lark weighs 0.8 oz (23g,); the body is about 5 ½” (14-15 cm) long while the wing span is about 11” (28-31 cm). Cristata (crested), European birds, are olive-brown or gray-brown and darker on top. The birds in Spain are cinnamon colored with reddish tinges. The most conspicuous features are the crest on the head, its unique call, “wee-wee-woo” with repetitive trills and its manner of rushing and running. Generally, it resides close to villages and cities. It builds its nest on the ground. In early winter, the male begins to defend its territory by singing a musical and chatty song that includes mimicking other birds in the area. He does this in flight, hovering over “his domain.” Villena listed it is as a commonly consumed bird during his time in Spain. It is not sold in markets but must be hunted. Like quail and other small birds, it could be fried or roasted. It was a popular food served during banquets with other small birds.  [ES:“Crested.” Apr 1, 04; ES: Crested Lark. Oct 12, 03; Jutglar. 1999:388-389; and Villena/Calero. 2002:22b; Villena/Saínz. 1969:134; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:263] 


Friday, April 19, 2013

COGOLLITO WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR HEARTS OF LETTUCE



A Heart of Lettuce Cut in Half
Photo by: Lord-Williams
cogollo, heart of lettuce or cabbage. [Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:146]

HEARTS OF LETTUCE  ADAPTED FROM ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #460. TERCIADO[1] DE CABEZAS DE LECHUGA, p 252
For 4-6 persons

Ingredients

1 lb lamb diced
salt to taste
1 small onion
½ tsp pepper
1 tsp coriander seed
½ tsp whole cloves
2 tsp mashed saffron
1 tbsp olive oil
3 hearts of lettuce
1 tbsp vinegar
4 eggs beaten
1 tsp spikenard

Hearts of Lettuce with Lamb
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Chop the bone with the meat on it and put it in a pot with salt, a piece of onion, pepper, coriander seed, clove, half the saffron and oil. Cover the ingredients with water and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to simmer and gently boil for 20 minutes.

Cut hearts of lettuce in half. Wash well. After the meat has cooked for 10 minutes add the lettuce and continue boiling gently.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF/170ºC

 When the lettuce is done mix the eggs with vinegar, the remaining saffron and spikenard pour them over the lamb and lettuce.  Cook this in the oven[2] until the egg has solidified.


[1] Terciado means cut into thirds. The recipe does not even call for cutting the hearts of lettuce.  The Medieval Spanish Chef recommends cutting them in half.
[2] The recipe calls for heating the dish on the embers but as fireplaces are not common, an oven was used.

Wednesday, April 17, 2013

COFINA WITH A 14TH C CREPES RECIPE TOPS ON THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S LIST


Chef-Hat_Cartoon
Photo from: ecartoongrafix
dim of cofia, cap, cloth wrapped around the cook’s head to cover up all the hairs on his head in 15th C. Spain. It was the primitive stage of the toque (white chef’s hat). See cocinero. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:41; and Diccionario. 1958:I:569]

A 14th Century Twist to Crespes
with Stiff Egg Whites
Photo by: Lord-Williams
BATTER FOR CREPES ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ CLXI QUI PARLA CON SE DEUEN FFER CRESPES DE PASTA E D'OUS, p 175-176

Ingredients

2 c flour
2 eggs with yolks and white separated
4 whole eggs
½ tsp salt
1 c milk perfumed with zest from ¼ lemon
lard to grease the frying pan or a rag dipped in olive oil for the same (the Spanish Medieval Chef uses butter which was not readily available in Spain in the Middle Ages)


Garnish

Powdered sugar

Preparation

A Devine Recipe
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Put the flour in a bowl. Add 2 eggs yolks and 4 whole eggs and salt. Beat the mixture. Add cold milk little by little taking care that no lumps form.

Beat the two leftover egg whites until stiff. When the batter is smooth, fold the egg whites into the mixture until smooth.

Warm a frying pan and add grease or oil. When warm, remove the pan from heat and pour in a thin layer of batter. Return the pan to the heat. When the batter begins to shrink, turn it over with a spatula. The result is a thin flat crêpe.

Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve immediately.

This dish is presented at the end of the meal and like cheese, it is held in esteem to such a point that The Medieval Spanish Chef rates this out ten out number 10! 




Monday, April 15, 2013

COCLEARE WITH 15th SALMON CASSEROLE RECIPE




Spoons
(handcarved boxwood)
Photo by longword
culiares (OCast), Cast cuchara, L cochler, Eng teaspoon. 1. Originally this was a Roman spoon with a needle tight grip used to remove snails and mollusks from their shells, which was later substituted with a fork. See cuchara and trulione. [Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:154:190:191]

SALMON CASSEROLE ADAPTED FROM NOLA lvii-3 CAZUELA DE SALMON BY LADY BRIGHID NI CHIARAIN


Salmon with Teaspoons of Flavors
Photo by: Lord-Williams


Ingredients

1 lb salmon fillet
1/4 tsp ground galingale[1]
1/8 tsp ground ginger
1/8 tsp peppercorns and a pinch of saffron, ground together
salt to taste
juice from 1 orange (approx. 1/2 cup)
1 tbsp pine nuts
1 tbsp blanched slivered almonds
2 tbsp raisins
1/2 tsp dried marjoram
2 tbsp fresh parsley, chopped
1 tbsp fresh mint, chopped

Preparation

PREHEAT THE OVEN TO 350º F/170º C

Place the salmon in a deep casserole dish. Sprinkle with the ground spices and the salt. Add orange juice to the casserole. Bake, uncovered, for 10 minutes. Add the chopped herbs, nuts and raisins, and baste with the orange juice. Bake 10 more minutes, or until the salmon flakes easily at its thickest part. 


[1] If galingale cannot be found, increase the amount of ginger.

Friday, April 12, 2013

COCINERO WITH 4TH C MUSHROOM RECIPE


Cleaning Mushrooms
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Norm-Fr coquus, coquinarius, cook. Until the 14 C. in Spain and England, cooks were experts as pork butchers and in roasting meats. They were not permanent members on the staff of nobility. Nobles kept different cooks at different estates until the commencement of Humanism at the end of the 14 C. Prior to that, Then the cook became the most valued member of the staff as Christians demanded more refined food, cooks became permanent and more professional. They traveled with the household when it moved from one estate to another for without a satisfied stomach no other paraphernalia of the courtly abode could please the lord. Still there were complaints about the food served on certain estates of Henry VI of England, who continued to keep different cooks at his various estates during the second quarter of the 15th century.

There were exceptions, however, such as Richard II of England’s cooks who were famous for their gourmet cuisine at the end of the 14th century. Generally, cooks and sauce-makers (see salseros) were paid with money or in kind. Fabrics and jewels were given to them in appreciation for their services.

Frying Mushrooms and Wild Parsley
Photo by: Lord Williams
The Arabs were the first to have culinary manuscripts. Those and others later had little circulation prior to the invention of the printing press in second half of the 15th C. Too most cooks were illiterate. In Spain and England, their performance came to be an intellectual exercise based on intuitiveness and experience. Further, the physical demands on cooks cannot be overlooked during this period as he also had to butcher animals almost every day due to lack of refrigeration. This in itself eliminated the possibility of women holding this position. In 15th C. Spain, he wore a large white apron and covered his head to prevent any hairs from showing. See cofiina and sobrecoh. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:41; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:58-59; Henisch. 1976:68-70:94-95; Serrano. 2008:370, and Warner. 1791:xii:xvii]

MUSHROOMS ANOTHER METHODS ADAPTED FROM APICIUS/FLOWER, VII:XV:6: BOLETOS ALITER pp174-175

Ingredients

Mushrooms with a Drizzle of Honey
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 lb mushrooms[1]
1 handful lovage[2]
2 tbsp oil
½ tsp pepper
1 tbsp garum[3]
1 drizzle of honey

Preparation

Wash and scrape mushrooms until clean. Slice them vertically. Wash the lovage and chop the leaves.

Warm a frying pan. Add olive oil. When hot, add the remaining ingredients, except the honey, and sauté until the mushrooms are done. Drizzle with honey and serve immediately.



[1] The recipe calls for stems but the entire mushroom was used.
[2] Lovage is also called mountain celery or wild parsley. Common parsley was used as lovage could not be found.
[3] See blog titled almorí published Aug 26, 11 for recipe.

Wednesday, April 10, 2013

COCINAR WITH NOLA'S IMPERIAL PUDDING


Grinding Rice into Flour for Pudding
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Ar. arraqa, Eng. to cook. In Arabic it literally means ‘to cause to sweat, ‘or to stew.’ [ES: Bush. Jul 1, 04; and Perry. “Mistakes.” 2001:21]

AN IMPERIAL PUDDING ADAPTED FROM NOLA #xiiii-4 MANJAR IMPERIAL
For 6 persons

Ingredients

1 qt milk
½ lb ground and sifted rice
½ lb sugar
½ doz egg yolks

Mixing Milk and Rice Flour with Egg Yolks
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Garnish:
1 tbsp sugar
1 tsp freshly ground cinnamon

Preparation

Heat the milk and rice in a saucepan. Stir constantly in one direction until the rice is dissolved. Add ½ lb sugar and continue cooking on the coals, away from the flames to prevent the smoke from reaching it. When it begins to thicken, remove from heat.

Beat the egg yolks well. Add 1 tbsp of the milk mixture at a time blending the mixture with the eggs, stirring constantly in one direction. Return the pan to the heat to finish thickening. When done remove it from the heat and let sit 10 minutes.

Imperial Pudding with a Hint of Color
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Garnish with sugar and cinnamon and serve immediately. Decorate with colorful pieces of fruit if available. If preparing ahead of time reheat in a double boiler. 



Monday, April 8, 2013

COCINA DE ESTADO WITH 13TH CENTURY EGGPLANT RECIPE


A Medieval Kitchen, a Doll House, 
reproduction of that in Casa de Tiros,
ancestral home of the Empress Eugenio Montijo in Granada;
designed, painted and furnished by Medieval Spanish Chef
Photo by: Lord.Williams
palace kitchen in which food was prepared for high officers of the king’s staff and servants. [Nola/Pérez.1994:192]

EGGPLANTS STUFFED WITH CHEESE ADAPTED FROM HUIC’S TRANSLATION OF AL-ANDALUS, #339 HECHURA DE RELLENO CON BERENJENAS Y QUESO, p 188


`+
Ingredients
For 4 persons

2 eggplants
¼ c grated cheese
¼ c ground almonds
Stuffed Eggplant fit for All Nobles
Photo by: Lord-Williams

1 egg slightly beaten
1 tbsp olive oil

Preparation

Boil eggplants in water until cooked, about 7-15 minutes.

PREHEAT OVEN TO BROIL

Cut eggplants in half lengthwise and scoop out the pulp. Mix this with cheese, almonds and eggs.  Stuff the eggplant skins with this.

Grease a baking dish olive oil. Add stuffed eggplants. Place in oven about 4-5 minutes until the cheese melts and the crust browns.


Friday, April 5, 2013

COCINA DE BOCA WITH A ROYAL HISPANO-MUSLIM DESSERT


Dissolving Camphor in Rosewater
Photo by: Lord-Williams
royal kitchen. It was used only for preparing the meals of the king and royalty. Ruperto Nola began working as an assistant in the Royal Kitchen in Naples and became the Head Chef for Ferdinand I of Naples, bastard son of Alfonso V of Aragon. His manuscript of recipes for royalty survives along with the 14th century manuscript Sent Soví, with  Catalan recipes and two Al-Andalus manuscripts both from the 13th Century  From the royal kitchens came the royal dishes which still exist today.  [Nola/Pérez.1994:192]

ROYAL RAFÎS ADAPTED FROM ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #420. RAFĪS REGIO, p 231-232

Ingredients

½ lb almonds
½ lb  wheat flour
4 eggs
Pounding Flat Cakes
Photo by: Lord-Williams
¼  tsp camphor
1 c rosewater
1/8-1/4 c butter for frying
¼- ½ c  almond oil or melted and clarified butter
1 c almond oil, melted butter or rose syrup

For the rose syrup:
2 c rose petals
1 c distilled water
1 c castor sugar
juice from one lemon

Preparation

Mince almonds in a food processor to make a paste. Add flour and knead. Add slightly beaten eggs.  Sprinkle with rosewater in which camphor has been dissolved and enough almond oil or butter to make cakes. (Note: as camphor is an ingredient for moth balls (as it does kill months, not people) very little should be added to enhance the aroma. For further information see blog titled alcanfor published April 12, 2010)

When well kneaded, make thin flat cakes. Heat a large clay or stainless steel frying pan. Add 1/8-1/4 c butter to grease the bottom of the pan. Fry the cakes until they bind like pancakes. Do not over cook.

Its not Red Wine but Rose Petal Syrup!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Pound them with sweet almond oil or fresh, melted and clarified butter.[1]  Make a dome shaped loaf like a sugar loaf and put it in a large dish.

When ready to serve pour almond oil, fresh melted, clarified butter or rose syrup over it.  

Rose Syrup:
Place all ingredients in a heavy pot. Simmer for 1 hour. Strain and discard the petals. Heat the syrup until the desired thickness is reached.  Pour this over the almond loaf and serve.



[1] It is easier to put them through a meat grinder and add the liquid after that.



Wednesday, April 3, 2013

COCINA, EL ARTE DE WITH AN EXTRAORDINARY13TH CENTURY DISH OF LAMB AND CHEESE


"The Extraordinary Dish" before Browning in the Oven
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OE curye, Eng the art of cooking which includes recipes. [Curye. 1985:18:183]

AN EXTRAORDINARY DISH ADAPTED FROM ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #64  RECETA EXTRAORDINARIA, p 47

Ingredients

1 lb lamb
3/8 c olive oil
salt to taste
1 small onion
1 tsp coriander
2 tsp chopped lavender
3 tsp mashed saffron
½ lb fresh cheese
½ tsp white pepper
½ tsp ground cloves
8 eggs
½ tsp cinnamon

Preparation
Lamb with a Deliciously "New" 13th Century Twist!
Photo by: Lord-Williams


Cut a leg of robust lamb into small pieces with the bone. Heat 1/4 c olive oil in a pot and add the meat, salt to taste, a small onion quartered, coriander and 1 tsp chopped lavender. Mash 1 tsp saffron, dissolve it in a little water and add it to the pot. Cook until half done.

The cheese should not be too soft or it will crumble. Slice it into pieces the palm of one’s hand. Mash 1 tsp on saffron in ½-1c water and pour it into a dish. Put the slices of cheese in the dish. Sprinkle them with ¼ tsp pepper and turn them over to color all sides. Sprinkle the other side with ¼ tsp pepper.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F/170º C

Place the cheese in the pot or oven-proof dish with the meat. Hide 4 egg yolks between the cheese and meat. Beat four eggs with 1 tsp saffron, 1 tsp lavender and cloves and pour this mixture over the meat and cheese. Drizzle the remaining oil over the top of the dish and heat the dish in the oven until the eggs solidify and the meat is completely cooked. Let cool for 1 hour before serving.