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Friday, June 28, 2013

CONFITERÍA WITH 13TH CENTURY IRRESISTIBLE NOUGAT RECIPE



Heating Nougat Mixture
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Leon confituría, L. confectio, conficere (compound), Eng. confectionery. The art of blending fruits with honey or sugar to preserve foods. This includes comfits, electuaries, sugarplums, sweetmeats, sweeten medications, candies, syrups, pastes, jellies, jams, ices and sweet beverages.

In the Middle Ages, sugar or honey was dissolved with gum by heating. The item to be preserved was added, such as a seed or fruit of caraway, coriander, pistachio or almond. More layers of sweet syrup were added with varied amounts yeast or glucose depending on the degree of solidification desired: hard, creamy or soft. Once the honey or sugar had crystallized sufficiently, the product could be cut into pills or lozenges and stored until needed.

Today, special machinery and metals are used and specific temperatures are prescribed. In the Middle Ages, the process was homemade, made by professional bakers, small shop keepers or apothecaries. Beginning with the Plantagenet kings a confectionery department was maintained by the monarch to provide this food to the court as needed. See azúcar blanco, confituras en polvo, mazapán, semillas o granos en polvo. [Clair. 1964:60; ES: “Confectionery.” Jul 19, 02; and Groundes-Peace. 1971:102; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:110-117].

NOUGATS MADE WITH SUGAR ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS #162 RECETA DE LIGADO DE AZÚCAR, p 106  

Ingredients

So Good - Hide It - Don't Share It!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 candy thermometer
oil to grease pan
½ c powdered sugar
1 lb sugar
2  lb or 1 qt rosewater
12 egg whites
1/2 lb pistachios
1/2 lb peeled almonds


Preparation

Prepare a baking pan 9”x9”x2” by lining it with parchment paper or aluminum foil. Smear it with oil. Sprinkle with a layer of confectionate sugar and set aside.

Dissolve sugar in two lbs rosewater in a heavy pan over moderate heat. When dissolved, strain it through a woolen cloth. Then return it to the heat and insert a candy thermometer stir occasionally until it reaches 285ºF/130ºC.  Remove the thermometer and the pan from the heat to cool slightly.

Beat the whites of a dozen eggs to peaks. Roast nuts at 210º C for 5-10 minutes.

Keep the mixer containing the egg whites on high and drizzle the rosewater and sugar mixture slowly into the egg whites.  Mix on high for 5 minutes. Return to heat until it turns white and looks like flour much. Add nuts. When thoroughly mixed pour into the baking pan and let sit 24 hours before cutting.


Wednesday, June 26, 2013

CONFITADO WITH PEAR PRESERVES


Any Type of Pair is Fine
Photo by: Lord-Williams

preserved. Various methods were used to preserve foods. They could be placed in vinegar brines, salt brines or sweet syrups. English dainties and Spanish fruits could be preserved in syrup. The syrup could contain sugar or honey and it could be spiced. Nola’s recipe for “Mutton Janete” calls for quince and pears preserved in honey. [Mead. 1931:162:164 and Nola. 1989: xvii-1]

PEAR PRESERVES IN HONEY 
FROM THE ARCHIVES OF 
THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF

Ingredients

1 c of water
Simmering the Ingredients
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 ½ c of sugar
1 lb pears, peeled, cores removed and chopped
1 c of honey
1 lemon thinly sliced, quartered and seeds removed
½ oz ginger root peeled and shredded 
1 tsp cloves


Preparation


Excellent Alone as a Dessert, with Whipped Cream,
Ice Cream or Cake or to Accompany Meats like Mutton
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Place water and sugar in a pot and let the sugar dissolve. Add pears and the remaining ingredients. 
Warm over medium heat and simmer 15 minutes. Remove from heat and let cool.

Place pears in canning jars. Fill them with the syrup leaving a space of ¼” at the top. Cover with lids and put the jars in boiling water to vacuum seal them. 


Monday, June 24, 2013

CONFITADA AL VINAGRE WITH RECIPE FOR CURING CAPERS



Capers- Capparis spinosa
Photo from
Marlis1
pickle brine. Curing capers was the job of the “sauce makers,” not the “chefs” in royal kitchens.  [Benavides–Barajas Alhambra. 1999:142; and ES: Reid. Jun 17, 00.]

RECIPE FOR CURING CAPERS[1]

Ingredients





1 c capers
1 c vinegar
1 c water
2 tbsp salt
1 tsp oregano

Baked Salmon with Lemon Caper...
Photo from: 
rkazda
Preparation

Clean caper buds, removing leaves and stems, and soak in water, rinsing daily, for three days. Drain the buds and put them in a brine consisting of the remaining ingredients above. Put this into a glass jar. The buds should be covered with the brine. Soak for three days to one week depending on the taste. When satisfied with the flavor, store in the brine in a cool place. 

Add then to eggs, salads, sauces and salmon.


[1] See blog titled alcaparra published December 7, 2010. There are no known recipes for curing capers in the medieval Spanish culinary manuscripts to date

Friday, June 21, 2013

CONFECTURA WITH 13TH CENTURY PEANUT BRITTLE RECIPE BEFORE PEANUTS

Boiling Honey
Photo by: Lord-Williams
confite, L.conficio (blending), Sp Heb marmalata, marmeláda, Ar. murabba. Eng confection. Literallyin Arabic means confection but it is marmalade. The word mermelada was not adopted from the English to the Spaniards until a later date. Then it was to distinguish medicine from “a product pleasing the sweet tooth.” confections were made by blending sugar with another ingredient.

During the Middle Ages in Iberia it consisted of sugar or honey coated sweetmeats such as almonds, pine kernels, hazelnuts or other seed or fruit mixed in or covered with sugar. In the 14th C Juan I of Aragon ordered this from a candy maker in Barcelona. He refused unless paid in advance. The queen then wrote that she would guarantee payment as soon as the order reached Aragon. [Aguilera. 2002:95; Covarrubias. 349:a:12; Gitlitz. 1999:253; and Martínez Llopis. Historia. 1981:158; Sas.1986: 183;Villena/Calero. 2002:150]



Nut Brittle Cooling Off
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PEANUT BRITTLE BEFORE PEANUTS[1] ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #61 NOUS CONFITES pp 227-228

Ingredients

1/3 c pine nuts
1/3 c walnuts
1/3 c pistachios
1/4tsp ginger 1/2 tsp ground cloves 1/4 tsp cinnamon
1/4 tsp black pepper oil to grease pan
2 cups honey

Preparation

An After Dinner Treat
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Place nuts on cookie sheet and roast 10 minutes.

REDUCE OVEN TO 300º F/150º C

When roasted pour them into a bowl and add the spices.

Place parchment paper or aluminum foil on baking pan (7.5x11x3/4”) and grease it with oil.

Put the honey in a heavy pan with a candy thermometer ¼” above the bottom of the pan. Heat the honey. When it begins to boil stir constantly until it reaches 240º F/115º C. Remove from heat and add nuts and spices. Mix well and pour the mixture on the cookie sheet.

Let cool overnight.  Break into pieces and serve.



[1] Peanuts were unknown in Europe until the discovery of the American continents. Still peanuts were feed for livestock until the beginning of the 20th century.

Wednesday, June 19, 2013

CONDUMIO WITH 13TH CENTURY POWDERS TO HELP DIGESTION




Gum Arabic Powder, Anise Seed and Chopped Fennel
Before Adding Sugar and Water
Photo by: Lord-Williams
food, grub. Gázquez explains that meat was considered a delightful food in the Ruiz’ epoch 14th century poem the Archpriest of Hita. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:118]

POWDERS TO HELP DIGESTION ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #540 POLVOS QUE DIGIEREN LA COMIDA, p 292

Ingredients[1]

12 ½ oz  mastic[2]
12 ½ oz sugar
1/3 oz anise
1/3 oz fennel

An Interesting Syrup for Anise Lovers
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Pound the mastic into powder. Add an equal amount of sugar and anise and fennel finely chopped. Add 25 oz water. Mix in a food processor until all is blended. Let sit 20 minutes. Pour the mixture into a double boiler. Heat, stirring from time to time, until the desired thickness is obtained. Administer ½ oz before sleeping to facilitate digestion.
__________________________________
[1] It is important that each ingredients be weighed because of weights of substances vary, meaning 1 cup of one item might be 1 cup and 1 ¼ of another.
[2] Gum Arabic, a common substitute was used. The difference is that mastic is resin from incisions made in the trunk of the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus) and Gum Arabic is from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees. Mastic is chewed and was the first natural as gum. It tastes like cedar and pine. Gum Arabic is tasteless and orderless. Both are used to help digestion. The Gum Arabic was obtained from a Spanish pharmacy. Mastic is available in hardware stores but it is not known if that sold there it is eatable. Mastic was the first natural chewing gum.


Monday, June 17, 2013

CONDIMENTO WITH BOILED AND ROASTED LAMB RECIPE FROM THE 13TH CENTURY



Lamb Boiled and Seasoned
Photo by: Lord-Williams
condiment, dressing, seasoning. Fadālat includes a recipe for the most famous condiment in medieval times murri. See almoría, brazocitos and cabra. [ES: Lord. Fadalat. posted Jan 26, 08; Ibn Razīn/Granja. 1960:156:26:171:26:176:27 etc; and Fernández González. 1994:193]

BOILED AND ROASTED LAMB ADAPTED FROM FADALAT [156] OTRO PLATO

Ingredient

1 leg of lamb
salt to taste
1 tbsp oil
½ tsp pepper
1 tsp freshly ground coriander seed
1 sm chopped onion
1 tbsp murri[1]
1 tsp saffron

Preparation

Browned, Fresh from the Oven
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PREHEAT OVEN TO 360ºF/190ºC

Select the best parts of lamb, clean and place them in an iron casserole, fill it with water and add salt, oil, pepper, coriander seed, a little chopped onion, and murri naqi to taste and heat. When it is boiling color it with dissolved saffron if desired and when the meat is cooked, in about 20 minutes, put it in the oven to brown. Let cool and serve.

Fish murri is recommended if preferred instead of murri naqi.



[1] See blog titled almorí de pescado published August 26, 2011

Friday, June 14, 2013

CONCHUELAS WITH ARTICHOKES AND MEAT RECIPE FROM THE 13TH CENTURY





Removing Tough Leaves from Artichokes
Photo by: Lord-Williams
small shells or the tough leaves of artichokes. [Villena/Calero. 2002: 40b]

ARTICHOKES WITH MEAT ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL ANDALUS #281 HECHURA DL PLATO DE ALCACHOFAS CON CARNE, p 162

Ingredients

½ lb meat
salt to taste
2 tbsp murri
1 tbsp vinegar
1 tbsp oil
1 tsp caraway
1 tsp coriander seed
1 lb artichokes
1 lemon
2-3 eggs
1/2 c breadcrumbs

Garnish
Pepper

Artichokes and Meat Ready for Serving
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation


Cut the meat into pieces for stewing. Fill a pot half full of water. Add the meat, salt, murri, vinegar, oil, pepper, caraway and coriander seed crushed.  Bring to a boil and reduce heat. Boil gently for 10-15 minutes until meat is teder.  Remove the meat reserving the broth.

Wash the artichokes. Cut off stems and crowns. Remove hard leaves.  When only light green leaves are showing, rub the surface with a slice of lemon.

Bring the broth to a boil, adding more water if necessary. When boiling add the artichokes. Reduce heat and gently boil for 35 minutes. When cooked quarter the artichokes.

Dice the meat into small pieces. Add the beef and the artichokes to the pot. The Anón Al-Andalus now instructs to cover the contents of the pot with two eggs and breadcrumbs.

What the Medieval Spanish Chef did:

PREHEAT OVEN TO 360ºF /190ºC

Pour the artichokes and meat with a little broth into and oven-proof dish. Sprinkle a very thin layer of breadcrumbs on top. Beat the eggs and pour over the breadcrumbs. Cook in the oven for 10 minutes or until the eggs solidified.  

Sprinkle pepper on it and serve, God willing.


Wednesday, June 12, 2013

CONCO WITH A 15TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR GOOD BRUET WITH MEAT BROTH


Straining the Broth
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1. cordiality. 2. the favor of giving a rich pilgrim on the Way to St. James as much broth as he liked. [Pacho. 1994:149; and Viñayo. 1994:56]

GOOD BRUET WITH MEAT BROTH ADAPTED FROM NOLA xxviii-2 BUEN BROETE CON CALDO DE CARNE


Ingredients

½ lb chicken breast
¼ lb mutton
¼ lb bacon
salt to taste
Boiling Spices an Crushed Almonds
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 garlic clove mashed
1 tsp thyme
½ tsp pepper
1 tsp mashed and dissolved saffron
2 egg yolks for ea dish
1 c verjuice
½ c almond (optional)
1 shaving ginger

Garnish:
parsley

Preparation

Cook chicken breast with mutton or bacon and 1 qt water. Add salt to taste.


A Delightful Chicken Soup with a New Taste
Only 500 Years Old
Photo by: Lord-Williams
When cooked strain the broth through a woolen cloth into a clean pot and let cool. Disgard the lamb and bacon but reserve the chicken.

Add garlic, thyme, pepper, ground saffron, verjuice and ground almonds if almond milk desired to the broth.  Bring to a boil. Remove from heat and let cool. 

Add two egg yolks for each dish and blend them with the broth. The verjuice is suppose to prevent the eggs from curdling. Strain this through a woolen cloth into a pot and add ginger. Taste saltiness and for sourness before heating.

Return to medium heat, stirring constantly until cooked. Add the chicken cut into small pieces Continue boiling until the chicken is warm. Prepare dishes and garnish with parsley.


Monday, June 10, 2013

CONCIERTO WITH 13TH CENTURY OVEN BAKED CHEESE PIE



Organizing the Right Percentage Of Cow's and Ewe's Cheese
Photo by: Lord-Williams
orchestrated. organized, in order. Miguel Lucas de Iranzo, Constable of Castile, gave food and alms at the majority of his festivities organized in Jaen during the third quarter of the 15th century. Not only did this have an affect on the poor but it won confidence and loyalty among “vassals”, touching the most sensitive fiber, the stomach. Too this checked discontent among the masses. Constable Iranzo also organized post-Lenten afternoon refreshments with food to which he invited the most influential people in the city, clerical and lay. Dishes offered included fowl, pastries, cheeses, stews, eggs and wine. [Mata. 1940;69:123:166; and Nola/Pérez.1994:192]

OVEN BAKED CHEESE PIE, WHICH IS CALLED TOLEDAN ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANALUS #414. RECETA DE LA  ALMOJÁBANA AL HORNO, QUE SE LLAMA ENTRE NOSOTROS LA TOLEDANA, p 228

Ingredients
As a Dinar was not available a US quarter was used
Photo by: Lord-Williams

leafy dough for 1 pie
¼ lb cow’s cheese
¾ lb ewe’s cheese
¼ c anise

Preparation

Make leafy dough. Roll it out and cut in a circle[1].

Grate the two cheeses[2] together.  When well mixed place them in the middle of the dough. Fold over the ends of the dough. Dampen the seams and press them together with the tip of  a spoon. 

Make a hole the size of a diner[3] through which the cheese may be seen. Sprinkle the pie with anise.

An Excellent Dish for Any Occasion
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PREHEAT OVEN TO 325ºF/160ºC

Then place it in the oven on a cookie sheet. Bake until done (about 35-45 minutes). After 20 minutes baking time cover the top crust with aluminum wrap to prevent burning. [4]



[1] The Medieval Spanish Chef made a rectangular piece instead.
[2] This is one of the first manuscripts calling for grated cheese. but this recipe actually mashed cheese.
[3] A US quarter was used.
[4] Cut into small pieces, it is an excellent hor'dourves. In bigger pieces it can be a first course of a meal or a light lunch or supper accompanied by a salad.  

Friday, June 7, 2013

CONCAVIDAD WITH 13TH C STUFFED HOLLOWED PASTRY



Hollowing Out the Pastry
Photo by: Lord-Williams
concavo, concave, hollow. See truébano.

STUFFED MUQAWWARA, A HOLLOWED PASTRY, ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS #166. “MAQAWWARA” RELLENA, p 108-109
Makes about 6-8 pastries  about 5 ½” in diameter

Ingredients

2 ½ lbs wheat flour[1]
15 egg yolks
½ c whole milk
2 pk or 2 tsp yeast
olive oil for frying
½  c walnuts
½ c almonds
½ c sugar
½ c rosewater
½  c butter
½ c honey

Filling a Hollow Pastry
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Garnish:
Powdered sugar


Preparation

Sift flour well, knead it with the egg yolks  and yeast. Add milk cautiously and more flour if necessary for dough to be stiff.  Make a ball and cover with a warm cloth. Let rise 90 minutes.

Divide dough into portions to roll out like raghîf s (flattened rolled out thinner than pita). Circles were cut out using the lid of a pan 5 ½” in diameter but the presentation would be better if half that size. Warm a frying pan and add oil. When hot, add a flat cake or cakes, turn  when browned underneath. When the other side is browned remove it from the frying pan and put it on a plate.

Divine for Rosewater Lovers
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Cut out a lid in each flat cake. When cool enough remove all the crumbs inside taking care no to break the crust. Crumble the crumbs by hand or in a food processor until fine.

Pound shelled walnuts, almonds and sugar well or use a food processor. Put a layer in the muqawwara, (the flat cake) of the nut and sugar mixture and then a layer of crumbs. Sprinkle with sugar and squirt with rosewater. Repeat this four times.

Boil fresh clarified butter and honey. Pour 1 tablespoon over the open muqawwara. Cover with the lid and pour a tablespoon of the honey and butter over the lid, sprinkle with sugar, and serve.



[1] The original recipe calls for 1 ½ lbs flour which is far to little. 

Wednesday, June 5, 2013

CONCA, (OLeon) WITH RECIPE FOR THE 13TH C. EMIR'S TURNOVERS


shell bowl
Photo from: Queen Conch
OCast conchas (shell bowl), 10th C bowl, large cup or small plate. It could be earthenware, bronze, copper or silver. [Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:146:147:190]

RECIPE KNOWN AS THE THARDA OF THE EMIR ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS #167. RECETA CONOCIDA POR “TARDA[1]” DEL EMIR, p 108-109

Ingredients

For the dough:
2 c flour
Filling Turnovers with Nut/Crumb Mix
Photo by: Lord-Williams
¼ tsp salt
1/2 c water
1 pk dry yeast
50 g animal fat[2] or oil

2-3 c canola or olive oil for frying

For the filling
¼ c pistachios
¼ c almonds
¼ c pine nuts
½ c sugar
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp nutmeg
1 scraping fresh ginger

1 c total rosewater
½ c honey

Preparation

A Superb Dessert!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Knead white flour well with salt water, a little oil and yeast, make four thin raghîfs (flat cakes thinner than pita), with half the dough. Fry each in a frying pan with ¼ c fresh oil, until they brown a little. Remove them from the frying pan and pound them well.

 Make tiny hollow little almojábanas (tarts or turnovers), and tops out of the dough for them.[3] Fry them in fresh oil (if making tarts), watch them and take care do not turn brown. Fry the lids as well.

Pound peeled pistachios, almonds, and pine-nuts, and sugar coarsely, add spices and knead them with rosewater and mix with the ground raghîf until completely mixed. Fill the pastries with this, and cover them. (Turnovers are stuffed before frying. They should be fried now.) Arrange them in a bowl and fill the spaces with the leftover stuffing.  Sprinke with rosewater and plenty of powdered sugar. Make a honey and rosewater syrup heating ½ c of each. Drizzle this over the dish. It will be good, God willing.



[1] Huici explains that this word was spelt tharda, tarid and taríd, which is a soppes with bread, a pastry or a meat pie.
[2] Being a Hispano-Muslim recipe lard cannot be used.
[3] The Medieval Spanish chef made turnovers by cutting the dough into 2 ½”circles, and filling them with 1 tbsp stuffing. These were folded over and the edges were sealed with the end of a teaspoon.

Monday, June 3, 2013

COMPLUDO, MONASTERIO DE - WITH A 15TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR FRIED MUTTON, ONOINS AND NUT CALLED "DOBLADURA"


Día de lluvia en Compludo 2(A Rainy Day in Compludo)
Photo from: jeremyah75
Compludo Monastery. This was a shelter for pilgrims on the Way to St. James, which no longer exists today. It was near Ponferrada, Leon, where vegetarian monks were dependent upon flocks of sheep and shepherd monks who supplied lamb and mutton to pilgrims, who stopped there. Around 614, this tradition was started by St. Fructuoso. He brought a cook specialized in all types of cookery to the monastery. The ancient rule in Compludo ordered ceremonious receptions for pilgrims and travelers: washing the feet with warm water, frictions with oil to alleviate blisters and sores, beds of down, a night table with a candle, a traveling food sack and help along the way, as per to the possibilities of the monastery. All of this was because Christ said he was a pilgrim and he had been given hospitality. It must have been the Ritz of the Way of St. James. In other shelters, pilgrims felt very lucky if they received a hearty vegetable broth. [Viñayo. 1994:55-56]

FRIED MUTTON, ONIONS AND NUTS CALLED “DOBLADURA” IN SPANISH ADAPTED FROM NOLA # xxxviii-4 DOBLADURA DE CARNERO

Ingredients

The Beauty of a Golden Color in a Medieval Dish
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 slice bread
1 c meat broth
¼ c lard
1 onion chopped
1 c hazelnuts
1 lb mutton
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp cloves
14 egg yolks
1 tsp saffron

Garnish:
cinnamon
pomegranate seeds[1]

Preparation

A Truly Unique Dish and Very Special Dish
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Toast a piece of bread and remove the crust. Soak in 2 c meat broth.

Heat a frying pan. Add ¼ c lard. When hot add onion and gently fry.

Toast, soak and peel hazelnuts, and grind them with the bread that was soaked in the broth; Strain this through a woolen cloth to make hazelnut milk.

Cut the meat into pieces as big as two fingers and gently fry them with the bacon fat. Sprinkle with ½ tsp cinnamon and ½ tsp cloves.  After frying the meat, mix it with the onion and add the hazelnut milk.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 375ºF/190ºC

Beat 14 egg yolks, ½ tsp cloves and ½ tsp cinnamon and a 1 tsp saffron to make the eggs color of Spanish broom flowers.
Pour the meat mixture into an ovenproof casserole[2]Pour the egg yolk mixture over this. Bake 20 minutes or until the yolks are solid.


Serve this on plates and sprinkle with ground cinnamon and sweet pomegranate seeds.
If hazelnut milk and egg yolks are not desired the recipe can be made without them but with vinegar to give it flavor. Another variation is to use a cinnamon stick and whole cloves but this is done with the hazelnut milk. The spices cannot be excluded. They are part of the dish.



[1] When this recipe was made pomegranates were not in season. It is a pity they are so decorative.
[2] The original recipe calls for cooking the egg yolks in the pot over the stove. This is at the discretion of the cook.