Entradas populares

Wednesday, July 31, 2013

CORDONÍZ WITH RECIPE FOR QUAIL COOKED IN MEAD


 
Quail
Photo from: Cal Holman
L. Corturnix coturnix, Eng. quail. This bird is considered to be a variety of partridge, well known in the Ancient World and Europe and could be domesticated. Avenzoar found its nature to be between that of hens' and partridges', although it is more inclined toward the former but gentler and tending toward heat. It is small, brown and swift. It seems almost spastic when it beats its wings. Its meat is tender with excellent flavor. Avenzoar thought its chyme of great quality. See faisán, gallina and quimo.. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica.1995:199; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:189; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:53; Jutglar. 1999:214-215; OXF Eng Dict. 1989:XII:Poise:966; and Villena/Calero. 2002:22b]

QUAIL COOKED IN MEAD RECIPE ADAPTED FROM FOOORG CODORNICES EN LA FORMA MEDIEVAL AGUALMIEL[11

For 4 persons

Ingredients
A Delicately Sweet Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams

4 quail livers (or 1-2 chicken livers)
1 c wine with ginger scrapings, cinnamon Ingredients, cumin, and cloves to taste
¼ c olive oil
4 quail
4 dried apricots
salt and pepper to taste
2 tbsp de mead[2]
4/5 c chicken broth
1 tbsp butter (optional)

Preparation

Boil livers in wine and spices 30 minutes. The bubbles should be small. After 20 minutes of boiling add apricot and raisins. When done remove livers and set aside.

From Medieval Times Delicately eaten by
holding it between the thumb and index finger
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Heat olive oil in a frying pan and add quail. Add salt and pepper to taste. Brown one side of quail and turn.  Cook 30 minutes or until meat is no longer pink. Turn frequently to brown all sides. When done, remove from heat and keep warm until ready to serve.
Add mead to wine with spices and dried fruits. Bring to a boil. Add chicken broth. Gently boil to reduce the liquid. Add butter if desired. Grind the liver and add it. If available add the heart and lungs ground.   

Place the quail on a serving dish. Cover them with the sauce and dried fruits. Purée celery and fry mushrooms to accompany quail if desired.[3]

[1]http://www.fooorg.com/es/receta/francesa/pescado/codornices-en-laforma-medieval-aguamielbr 
[2]If mead is not available substitute it with ¼ c port wine and 2 tbsp honey to the sauce.
[3]For Apicius’ puréed celery see blog titledapio, published October 27, 2011 and for his mushroom recipe see blog titled cocinero, published April 10, 2013.





Monday, July 29, 2013

CORDERO ASADO WITH ROASTED STUFFED LAMB RECIPE

Meat from a Leg of Lamb Prepared for Stuffing
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ar. al-shiwā al-faranji, Eng. roast of lamb, Frankish roast, but note in England it is roast mutton from the Fr. mouton. Julio Camba explains that the English did not have good meat until the Norman invasion in 1066. Since good cuts bare names derived from the French word. During the Middle Ages, Europeans roasted lamb whole and the Spanish basted it with sesame oil and rosewater. The Anon Andalus provides two recipes for roasting whole stuffed lamb. As lamb was tougher than today, it was recommended to marinade it first as a general rule. Baby lamb was roasted while mutton was boiled. See borrego and lechazo.  [Anón/Huici.1966:26:27:28 etc; Black. Food. 1985:10; Conversations with Manuel Vías Guitián. May 2013;  and Gázquez. Cocina, 2002:152]

Adding This Sumptuous Stuffing to the Meat
Photo by: Lord-Williams
ROAST LAMB BREAST ADAPTED FROM ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS, #32 COSTADO ASADO, p 31
For 4 persons

Ingredients

1 leg of lamb[1]

For the stuffing[2]
1 tbsp sheep fat[3]
1 onion chopped
1 tsp coriander
1 c shredded cheese[4]
½ c almonds
Folding the Meat Over the Stuffing One Side at a Time
Photo by: Lord-Williams
½ c walnuts
1 tsp murri[5]
1 tsp cinnamon
½ tsp white pepper
1 shaving of ginger
olive oil
wheat starch[6]


Preparation

Remove meat from a small leg in one piece. Slice it to thin it out and then stuff it.

Mix the fat, onion with cilantro, coriander and cheese. Mix this with cinnamon, pepper and ginger. Mash all together in a mortar. Then knead it. Add ground nuts. Knead until all is well mixed.

The Roast Tied and Ready to Pop into the Oven
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PREHEAT OVEN TO 425º F/220º C

Fill the meat with stuffing. Fold it over and tie it shut. Grease the outside with olive oil and dust with wheat starch. Heat it in a tannur or oven proof pan and cover it. Cook for one hour and remove the lid to let the roast brown for 1/2 hour.[7]



[1] Although the recipe calls for the breast or side of lamb, a leg was used due to a small oven and family.
[2] This stuffing is so good that it can be made without meat and baked for a half hour. It is so delicious that it beats side dishes like potatoes and tomatoes.
A Dish for Kings, Caliphs and Emperors
It is so Delicious!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
[3] If not available use butter.
[4] Perry states: “cheese ...[word illegible because of a worm hole, Huici Miranda writes; probably an adjective describing the cheese such as "fresh"]” but cheese is not mentioned in the available Huici text. A mixture of cheeses was add by the Medieval Spanish Chef as they happened to be on hand. They included Parmesan, Gruyere and Manchego. This really enhanced the flavor of the stuffing!
[5] See blog titled almorí published August 25, 2011.
[6] White wheat flour was used.
[7] The olive oil and flour covering step is not necessary for today’s cuts. When the roast is done, remove it from the roasting pan and make a gravy in it by heating it on a burner and adding 1 c water and 3 tbsp breadcrumbs gradually, stirring constantly until sauce thickens.   

Friday, July 26, 2013

CORDERO WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE MIRKÂS (LAMB SAUSAGE) - WITH A DELICIOUS MISTAKE



Photo from: Moleiro.com 
lamb or mutton, a sheep over one year. Both Spain and England were economically dependent on lamb for wool which during the Middle Ages was sent to Flanders to be woven into cloth and then sold back to both countries.

There were more sheep in Spain and England then cows or goats. Spanish noblemen, peasants and English noblemen relied heavily on the meat. In England during the 15th C even the poor began to improve their diet and they ate meat including lamb. Domestic slaves in Granada, during Muslim occupation, were given lamb fat to eat. Anón Al-Andalus provides a dozen recipes at least for lamb. (There are some recipes that do not specify the type of meat.)

Muslims and Christians roasted it whole stuffing the stomach with various ingredients. The English preferred mutton to beef. An inventory of a larder in a manor, during the reign of Edward II of England, showed that it had 600 muttons. George Neville, Archbishop of York, served 1,000 mutton at his inaugural banquet in 1467.

Cicely, his sister and mother of Edward IV, Richard III and grandmother of Henry VIII, supplied her staff with mutton everyday of the week except Fridays and Saturdays. It was boiled on Mondays and Wednesdays and roasted on the other days. In Spain lamb and pork were the most consumed meats. Although kid was the preferred meat of Spanish Muslims, lamb or mutton was second. Christians and Jews also loved lamb. See borrego, caldereta,carne de vaca, cecina, churra, Compludo, lechazo and Mesta, merino. [Anón/Huici.1966:2:16:26:28:27:29 etc; Black. Food. 1985:10; Castro Alimentación. 1996:155: ftn 136:272:280-281; Drummond. 1964:50:54:60-61; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:26; and Gitlitz. 1999:187:189]

RECIPE FOR MIRKÂS[1] ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS, #1 RECETA DEL MIRKÂS, pp 15-16

A Mistake - Lamb Meatballs!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

1 lb ground lamb
1 tbsp olive oil
1 tsp murri[2]
½ tsp pepper ground
½ tsp coriander seed mashed
1 tsp lavender chopped
½ tsp cinnamon ground
¼ c olive oil for frying

Optional
½ c olive oil
¼ c vinegar
or
1 bunch cilantro
1 bunch mint
1 onion
1 slice cheese
¼ c olive oil
2 tbsp vinegar

A Delicious Mistake for those Tired of Tomato Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

This is as nutritious as meatballs[1] and easily digested because the meat is pounded. It can be kept overnight.

Select meat the leg or shoulder of a lamb and pound it mashed like meatballs. Knead it in a large with oil and murri, pepper, coriander seed, lavender, and cinnamon.

Wash a large or small gut and stuff it using instrument made for stuffing.[3]
Then fry the sausage links in oil until browned.

Make a sauce with vinegar and oil and serve hot or make a sauce with cilantro and mint juice with a small onion pounded and a slice of cheese. Then cook this in oil and vinegar until the onion takes on a reddish tinge. Either sauce is good.



[1] Huici explains that this a variante of mirqâs for which recipes are provided in this manuscript. Today it is a dish in Algeria and Tunes called mergâz or mirgâsa. Perry calls this “Merquez.”
[2] See recipe in blog titled almorí published August 25, 2011.
[3] Due to an oversight, an sheep intestine was not purchased when making the weekly trip to the market. Meatballs were made instead.

Wednesday, July 24, 2013

CORCÓN WITH 13TH CENTURY FOR AN EMPANADA



Harder/Chelon labrosus/Thick Grey Mullet
Photo from: Else Kramer
lisa, L. Chelon labrosus, Ar. kahila, MEng millet, Eng. thick lip gray mullet. It is dark gray-blue on back and lighter underneath. It can be 60 cm long or longer. It is appreciated locally normally, in areas where it is found like Andalusia. Eggs are used as caviar. It lives throughout the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. In Perry’s translation of  Anón Al-Andalus he provides a recipe for ‘Tortoise and Mullet Pie’ but Huici translates the same as eel or hake empanada. Nola provides four recipes. The first is breaded and baked. Another is a casserole with herbs and served with rice. The third is grilled over coals and the fourth is boiled. The Harleian Ms. 4016 has a recipe for mullet boiled with a little verjuice or fried. [Anón/Huici.1966:264:154; Austin. 1964:104; ES: “Lisa.” Nov 3, 03; ES: “Mullet.” Nov 29, 03; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 00; and Nola. 1989:lxiii-2-lxxiii-5]

Empanada Gallegan Style
Photo by: Lord-Williams
EEL[1] OR HAKE EMPANADA[2] ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS #264 EMPANADA DE ANGUILAS O DE MERLUZA, p 154

Ingredients

1 lb eel[3]
1 tbsp murri[4]
1 tsp pepper
½ tsp cinnamon
1 tbsp oil
1 small chopped onion
1 tbsp chopped cilantro
1 ½ tsp saffron
3 eggs
empanada dough

It should be covered with foil until end of baking time
BUT delicious!
Photo by: Lord-Wiliams
Preparation

Simmer the fish lightly in salt water. When done, remove from water and flake it with a fork.[5]

PREHEAT OVEN TO 400ºF/200ºC FOR 15 MINUTES.


Beat the murri, ½ tsp pepper, cinnamon, ½ tbsp oil, onion with juice, cilantro, 1 tsp saffron and 2 eggs. Dip the fish into this. Turn to cover all sides. Arrange the fish mixture on the pastry. Cover it with the remaining dough and smear it with 1 beaten egg with ½ tsp saffron and ½ tsp pepper. Prick it with fork.

Bake in oven 25 minutes. Check for doneness. Cook 10 minutes more if needed, with or without foil. Serve immediately or cold as a snack. It can be microwaved.



[1] Perry in his footnote #96 states that “the recipe calls for silfâh, a non-existent word;” Huici, he continues, “plausibly reconstructs it as silhâf, tortoise, except that we 'd rather expect to hear something about the shell.” Although Perry translates this as tortoise, Huici translates it as anguila (eel) as seen above.
 [2] Perry translates this as mullet while Huici’s translation is merluza (hake). At the time of creating this blog, mullet was not in season, nor was fresh mackerel, which can be used as a substitute.  Canned mackerel was used. Further, Perry translates empanada as “pie.” It can be a pie-like dish or a turnover depending on how and where it is made.
[3] Perry uses both tortoise and mullet, while Huici uses eel only, leading one to believe either eel or hake are to be used, not both.  Actually, empanadas can be stuffed with any kind of fish, meat or sweets.
[4] See blog titled almorí published August 25, 2011 for recipe.
[5] If using canned fish, it does not need to be boiled but should be flaked.

Monday, July 22, 2013

CORAL TO DESTROY SORCERY

Vase with Coral Inlay
Photo by: Lord-Williams
coral, fossilized skeletons of marine life. It was as an amulet because it was thought to strengthen and protect the emotional foundation of the individual, to protect one against the stare of the Evil Eye and protect one from sterility. When worn on the body, it was believed that it captured and destroyed sorcery before it reached the bearer. Christians carried corral rosary beads. Coral was set in a ring worn on the ring or baby finger of the right hand to intercept dangerous rays of light that could lead to poisoning when eating and other misfortunes that could occur during the meal. It has been ever present in the Mediterranean. See manos, comer con. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:44; Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:157; Cipriani. 1991:35:290-292; ES: “Gemstone” Apr 3, 03; and Villena/Calero. 2002:16:11a]

Friday, July 19, 2013

COPROFAGÍA WITH 15TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR MARINATED LIVER

Goat's Liver
Photo by: Lord-Williams
to eat garbage, food of little value, entails, excretions, etc. People have had to eat revolting things for survival. During the Middle Ages, different menus were prepared according to the class of the individuals. Peasants, for example, were given coarse bread with a slab of lard. There was class system for slaves. A highly regarded slave in Cordoba was rewarded with liver while a middle class servant was not fed so well. Meat was saved for the aristocrats especially the lords to make them strong for warfare.  Spaniards had a crusade of their own fighting Muslims to “reconquer” their lands on the peninsula and also fought against each other for land and titles. [Castro. Alimentación. 1996:208]

VINEGAR WHICH IS MARINATED LIVER ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xx-5 VINAGRE QUE ES HIGADO ADOBADO
For 4 persons

Frying Diced Bacon
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
Ingredients

1 lb goat liver
½ c milk
5 oz bacon diced
¼  olive oil
2 onions diced
salt to taste
2 slices of bread
¼ c vinegar
1 c sweet white wine

Garnish:
Freshly ground cinnamon

Preparation

What is Garbage for Some is Heavenly for Others
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Soak liver in milk ½ hour or more. When finished, wash well in water and cut into pieces the size of a walnut.  Salt to taste.

Sautee bacon in a frying pan with olive oil and remove when cooked. In the same frying pan add the onions.  When half cooked, add the liver. Once all is sautéed, drain off excess grease and add bread that has soaked in vinegar, mashed in a mortar and tempered with wine.  Cook until the sauce thickens. If the sauce becomes too thick add a little water.


Add the remaining ingredients. Cook until heated through. Sprinkle cinnamon over the dish and serve.

Wednesday, July 17, 2013

COPERO WITH SOUR GRAPE SYRUP TO INCREASE THE APPETITE

Ziryab in the 9th C Andalusia
Recommended Crystal over Metal
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
wine steward. This was one of the most trusted positions of the staff of the king or the noble. In the case of kings, he could be a noble. After performing the assay (salva), he was obliged to serve the king and prepared to serve any liquid ordered. He was responsible for hygiene and had to be discrete. When serving, he was not permitted to laugh or speak and was expected to be clean and to serve with grace.

Nola instructs that when pouring a drink, the glass sould be held above the nose in case the steward should sneeze. That way the mucus could not fall into the glass. [Alonso Luengo 1994:35; Granado. 1971:12; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:60-61 and Nola/Pérez. 1994:71]

SOUR GRAPE SYRUP ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #509 JARABE DE AGRAZ, p 278

Ingredients

Left: Grape Syrup with Water;
Right: Grape Syrup Concentrate
Photo by: Lord-Williams
5 1/2 lb grapes
1 lb sugar

Preparation

Make 1 liter of sour grape juice by removing grapes from the vine, cutting them in half and mashing them with a pestle. Put them in a pot and boil for 10 minutes, mashing them from time to time. Strain through a cheese cloth and return to the saucepan.

Add 1 lb sugar or the same amount as the grape juice and bring to a boil. Boil 3-5 minutes until it becomes a syrup.

Drink 2 tbsp of the syrup with 4 tbsp or ¼ c water. It is drunk: to cure jaundice and to cut bilious vomiting ; it increases the appetite and quenches thirst; it dissolves phlegm by cutting it, and stops a bitter taste in the mouth.


Monday, July 15, 2013

COPA WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR LEMON SYRUP TO QUENCH THE THIRST


Water Goblet
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Cat. gresal, OCast grïal, Eng. grail, cup or goblet shaped glass, with a stem and a base, like that from which Jesus supposedly drank during the Last Supper. It was used ordinarily for drinking any type of liquid in the Middle Ages. The quality of those of nobility depended on the status of the owner. They could be crystal, gold or silver, but normally they were wooden or pewter.

Andalusia had a glass factory in the 9th century, thanks to Ziryab, the musician in the court in Cordoba who recommended crystal goblets over metal ones in an era when wine was permitted in the Muslim court.  There were transparent goblets and tinted ones.

Nola instructs that to fill a water goblet, the steward must be hold in the right hand, higher than the nose. That way, if the steward sneezes, the mucus will not fall into the goblet. Then the steward pours water into the goblet from the pitcher with the left hand. See gresal. [Greus. 1987:60:140-141:255 etc; Lord. Cocina. 2006; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:33 ftn 56:42; Nola/Pérez. 1994:56:65; and Ruíz/Saínz. 1986:203:1175b]

LEMON  SYRUP, ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #512. JARABE DE LIMÓN, p 279

Lemon Syrup
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

8 lemons (2 c /16 oz.)
1 lb sugar

Preparation

Make 16 oz fresh lemon juice. Add the same amount of sugar. Boil 3-5 minutes until becomes syrup. Its advantages are that it extracts heat from bile; it quenches thirst and binds the bowels.



Friday, July 12, 2013

CONVITE WITH KID JANETE


Delights of a Banquet
Photo by: PP Montero
OCast combite, Eng feast, treat, banquet. Miquel Lucas Iranzo, Constable of Castile, during the 1460’s was noted for lavish feasts in his home in Jaen. Banquets consisted of five to eight courses during which some 30 separate dishes could be served. 

The order of the dishes established by Ziryab following his entrance into the Hispano-Muslim court in Cordoba in 822. It was based on easily digested foods or bland to those more difficult or strongly flavored dishes and finished with items to “Seal the stomach” to prevent “the vapors from rising” and to put hot and cold and wet and dry into balance. Too, the humors had to be balanced between dry and wet and hot and cold. 

The first course, according to Anón Al-Andalus could consist of cooked vegetables or a tafaya, a stew with meatballs. The dish was liquid or semi-liquid like a pottage, which was served in soup bowls and eaten with a wooden spoon. Items in the first course were to act as laxatives. They should be light, not filling. Apples, pears, lettuce and eggs could be served. The second course could be boiled meats or fish. Iranzo was famous for offering roast peacocks and other fowl. Another course consisted of roasted meats or fish which were the most difficult to digest. These dishes were strongly flavored with murri and the next dish with vinegar followed by a dish made with honey and finally another honey based dish. The food offered in the final course is to “seal the stomach,” to keep “the vapors from rising” Foods could be cheese, apples or radishes. See Ziryab. [Gitlitz. 1999:104-106; Lord. Cocina. 2006; Martínez Llopis. Historia. 1981:162:163; and Mata. 1940: 46-47:52:54:etc;]

Browning Kid in Frying Pan
Photo by: Lord-Williams

POTTAGE OF MARINATED KID WHICH IS CALLED KID JANETE ADAPTED FROM NOLA xvii-3 POTAJE DE CABRITO ADOBADO QUE SE DICE JANETE DE CABRITO
For 4 persons

Ingredients

1 kid liver
½ c milk
1 lb kid
1 sm. onion
¼ c lard
2 garlic cloves minced
1 slice of bread with the crust removed
¼ c white vinegar
8 egg yolks
¾ c toasted almonds
1/2 tsp white pepper
½ tsp cumin
½ tsp basil
½ tsp thyme
1 tsp tarragon
1 tbsp parsley
¼ c brown sugar 

Kid Janete Fit for a King
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Preparation


Soak the liver in milk ½ hour. When done, wash in water and pat dry.


Take a forequarter of kid and a skinned and quartered onion and boil gently in a pot for 20 minutes. Remove it from the broth and cut the meat into pieces the size of a walnut.  Chop the onion and save the broth.
Heat a frying pan and add the lard. When melted brown the kid fry the onion until translucent. Remove the meat and onion from the frying pan and add the liver. Fry until cooked, about 5 minutes[1]

Grind the liver with the bread that has been soaked in vinegar and egg yolks. Blend this with the broth and strain it through a woolen cloth. Put this in a heavy saucepan. Add the kid and spices.[2]. Heat very slowly. When it starts to thicken briskly whisk until ready. Add chopped parley and sugar. Taste to insure a good balance between the sweet taste of sugar and sour taste with vinegar.



[1] The recipe states that the liver should be roasted but it is easier to fry it.
[2] As Nola does not specify which spices to use, this is left up to the chef’s election.




Wednesday, July 10, 2013

CONVENIBLE WITH AN ANOTHER ALMOND DISH FOR PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM HIGH FEVERS

Comforting High Fever
Photo by: Lord-Williams

convenient, comfort. [Nola/Pérez.1994:97:120:192]

ANOTHER ALMOND DISH FOR THE PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM A HIGH FEVER AND BURNING SENSATIONS ADAPTED FROM PÉREZ’ TRANSLATION OF NOLA #97 OTRA ALMENDRADA PARA DOLIENTES QUE TIENEN GRAN CALENTURA Y GRANDES ARDORES p. 120 

Ingredients[1]

1 lb gourd
1 c almonds
2 c broth
½ oz brown sugar
1 drizzle of rosewater



Gourd Soppes for the Infirmary
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Cook a gourd in water and salt until soft and almost cooked. Press it between two boards or silver plates, to squeeze out the water. Discard the water in which they were cooked. 


Put the gourd through a ricer and return it to the pot, and add almond milk little by little. Stir constantly until thick (soppes) and soft. 


Add sugar and a little rosewater to comfort the heart.



[1] As explained in the title this is a very bland soppes with no spices as they might upset the patient’s digestion. If making it as a purée for well folk, the recipe invites creativity on the part of the chef. One could use ½ of the almond milk to make it thicker. Recommended spices could include: ½ tsp each of cinnamon, nutmeg and ground cloves. Molasses could be used instead of brown sugar.

Friday, July 5, 2013

CONSERVA WITH 13TH CENTURY WITH INDIAN DATE SYRUP RECIPE


Date Syrup (right), Date syrup Dissolved in Water (left)
Photo by: Lord-Williams

preserve as in date syrup. [Anón/Huici. 1966:517:281]


INDIAN DATE SYRUP ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALU #517 JARABE DE DÁTILES DE LA INDIA, p 281

Ingredients

1 candy thermometer
1 lb dates from India
5 qts water
1 lb sugar

Making Date Syrup with Water and Sugar
Photo by: Lord-Willliams
Preparation

Take a pound of dates and remove seeds. Cut them into fourths and steep them in five quarts of water, discard the dregs immediately and add 1 lb of sugar. Cook this to 230ºF/110ºC to make a syrup.

Drink two ounces of it in three ounces of cold water. It is beneficial in jaundice, and cures it; it cuts bilious vomit and thirst, increases the appetite, and removes the bitter taste of food from the mouth.

Also, the concentrated syrup is excellent on ice cream and other desserts.