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Friday, November 29, 2013

DÁRSELO WITH 15TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR SHEPARD'S PIE

Preparing A Shepard's Pie with Orange Juice
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OCast dargelo Eng give it to him. [Nola. 1981: xxxvi-1; Nola/Iranzo.1982:168; Nola/Pérez. 1982:#48]

KID PIE OR SHEPARD'S PIE ADAPTED FROM PÉREZ’ VERSION OF NOLA - #48 PASTEL DE CABRITO

Ingredients

1 dough for one pie
1 k goat meat[1]
1 tbsp “fine sauce[2]
2 tbsp chopped parsley
1 c verjuice or juice from 2 oranges
2 eggs

Preparation

PREHEAT OVEN TO 425ºF/220ºC

A Delicious Pie for Giving
Photo by: Lord-Willliams
Prepare a pie dough. Grease and flour a pie tin. Line it with the dough and bake 10-15 minutes until half-baked.

Cut the meat into bite size pieces. Mix this with “fine sauce” and parsley. Place this in the pie tin and cover with dough. Make several vent holes in the cover. Bake 20 minutes and remove from oven.
Beat the eggs and mix them with the juice. Carefully pour the egg mixture through the vent holes to moisten the meat. Return to oven. [3]

Pérez indicated that the pie will be done after reciting the Lord’s Prayer three times. When the Spanish Medieval Chef made this recipe it took over 20 minutes.

When the pie is done give it to him. It can be served with peach sauce. See blog titled durazno published January 22, 2014.



[1] When this recipe was being prepared there was no goat meat to be found in the market. Beef was used instead.
[2] Josef Lladonosa in his publication La Cocina Medieval, 1984, p. 71 relates that “Fine Sauce” consists of 2.5 gr ginger, 5 gr cinnamon, 3.5 gr white pepper, 3.5 gr cloves, 0.750 gr mace, 0.750 gr nutmeg and 5 gr saffron.
[3] It would be simpler to add these ingredients to the meat before putting into the pie shell. Adding them half way through is compicated as one needs several vent holes in the pie to accept this liquid. The outcome is not a pretty presentation. Ground almonds were used to cover the ugly irregularities incurred by this process. 

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

DAÑIG WITH A 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR STUFFED LAMB


1/6 of a dirham
Photo by: Lord-Williams
(Ar), coin or weight equal to 1/6 of a dirham, i.e. ½ gr. This is variable. Perry maintains that it was 0.65 gr. in 13th C Andalusia. [ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02:Gen Notes; and ES:ORB. Aug 21, 03]

ANOTHER BREAST OF LAMB ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S #33. OTRA CLASE DE COSTADO, pp 31

1 breast of lamb or a leg of lamb
½ c  almonds
½ c  hazelnuts

1 dañiq  or 0.65 gr of each of the following:
Chinese cinnamon
lavender
cloves
saffron
white pepper

salt to taste
1/ 2 c breadcrumbs
1 tbsp virgin olive oil

1 gut[1]


The Meat Around the Leg Carved out to be Rolled and Stuffed
Photo by Lord-Williams
Preparation

Select a breast or a leg of lamb. If using a breast piece it between the meat and the ribs. If using a leg, remove the meat from the leg in one piece and carve it to make one solid piece of meat to be stuffed and rolled.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 325ºF/180ºC

Stuffed Lamb Ready for Carving
Photo by. Lord Williams
For the stuffing:

Grind almonds and hazelnuts and mix with the ground spices. Add salt to taste, breadcrumbs and olive oil. Knead until it thickens.

Stuff the lamb and place it in a gut. Sew it up and but it in a tannur. Cover it and put it in an earthenware pot. To drip -. . .


Get the breast of a plump lamb, pierce it between the meat and the ribs, so that the hand and fingers can fit in; then get a large handful each of peeled almonds and hazelnuts, and a dirham each of Chinese cinnamon, lavender, cloves, saffron and pepper. and a little salt; pound all this and mix it with breadcrumbs and knead it with oil, and knead until it thickens and can be used as a stuffing. When it is stuffed, sew up the breast with clean gut and hang it in a tannur, and set under it an earthen pot into which what melts from the breast can drip, and when it is done take it out.




Monday, November 25, 2013

CUYNES (Cat) WITH A 14TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR A SARACEN WAY OF COOKING MEAT

Slowly Frying to Seal the Meat
Photo by: Lord-Williams
minced and slowly fried foods They could be served with liquid or light sauces in which case they were eaten in escudellas (bowls). Otherwise they were served on talladores (wooden boards) with the liquid or sauce served separately. They did require more elaborate preparation than others. The name in Catalan indicates that it was among the tastiest dishes in medieval Catalonia. See escudilla and tallador. [Anón/Grewe. 1982: CLXXXI:188[1]; Lladonosa. 1984:157]


A SARACEN WAY FOR COOKING MEAT ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVI #CLXXXI QUI PARLA CON CUYNARETS CARN A LA SARREŸNESCA
For 4 persons


Boiling the Meat and Onions
Photo by: Lord-Williams

1 lb beef[2]
2 medium onions
4 slices of bacon
2-4 tbsp olive oil for frying
1 slice of toast soaked in 1 c vinegar
a few sprigs of parsley and marjoram
2 tbsp Duke’s powder[3]
salt to taste

Serving in Bowls and on Wooden Boards
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Mince the meat coarsely. Thinly slice the onions. Do not chop.

Fry the bacon. When done remove it from the pan. When cool crumble it and set aside.

Seal the meat in the bacon fat and set aside. Add olive oil to the pan as needed and sauté the onions until translucent. Add the meat, vinegar and chopped herbs. Cover with 1 qt water and cook slowly for 1 hour. When half done add Duke’s powder.

When done, separate the meat from the broth and onions.  Pour the broth and onions into soup bowls and garnish with crumbled bacon and sprigs of herbs.  Place the meat on wooden plats and serve separately. The recipe does not specify the kind of meat to be used.



[1] See blog titled carne de vaca, published August 24, 2012 for a different version of this recipe.
[2] The recipe does not specify the type of meat used. Saracens would not have used pork.
[3] See blog titled cardamono published August 16, 2012 for the recipe.

Friday, November 22, 2013

CULTELLO DE MESA WITH 15TH CENTURY MARINATED LAMB RECIPE



Note forks were not used
and spoons were wooden
Photo by Lord-Williams
(OCast), cutlery. [Pacho. 1994:149; Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:152; and Viñayo. 1996:56]

MARINATED LAMB ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xlix-1 CARNERO ADOBADO

Ingredients

2 lbs leg of lamb deboned
5 qts chicken broth
½ tsp peppercorns
3 cloves
6 egg yolks
1 pinch saffron
¼ c vinegar
¼ c honey
salt to taste
1 pear and/or 1 quince

Preparation

Cut the meat into equal bite size pieces and cook it in the chicken broth with
A Treat for Lamb Lovers!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
little salt, cloves and peppercorns. When done there should be about a quart of broth. Remove it from the heat. Mash the saffron in a mortar and mix it with the vinegar, honey and egg yolks. Pour it into the broth and heat it moving constantly with a wooden spatula. Add this mixture little by little to the broth. Do not let it boil; when it is about to boil, it should have started to thicken. Add the sauce from the lamb and salt to taste and serve.

It should be almost yellowish and have sweet and sour taste.

Serve in soup bowls and this can be accompanied by little pears peeled and quinces also peeled and quartered and boiled in water and then mixed with the sauce.


           



Wednesday, November 20, 2013

CULPEPER, NICHOLAS (1616-1654) AND THE CHERRY TREE



On my Desk. . .Culpepper’s Herbal 4
Photo from: Konnykards
the most renown English herbalist of all times. He was the author of Culpepper’s Complete Herbal, an historical treatise on medical and botanical science of his era. Culpepper studied at Cambridge and became a physician, apothecary and astrologer. [Culpeper. 1995:ix-x]

Culpeper gave detailed descriptions about individual plants such as this one [1]:”

THE CHERRY TREE

“I suppose there are few but know this tree, for its fruit’s sake; and therefore I shall spare writing a description thereof.
           
Cherry Tree II
Photo from: Joakim Brrndes 
Place.] For the place of its growth, it is afforded room in every orchard.
            Government and virtues.] It is a tree of Venus. Cherries, as they are of different tastes, so they are of different qualities. The sweet pass through the stomach and the belly more speedily, but are of little nourishment; the tart or sour are more pleasing to an hot stomach, procure appetite to meat, to help and cut tough phlegm, and gross humours; but when these are dried, they are more binding to the belly than when they are fresh, bring cooling in hot diseases, and welcome to the stomach, and provokes urine. The gum of the Cherry-tree, dissolved in wine is good for a cold, cough, and hoarseness of the throat; mends the colour in the face, sharpens the eyesight, provokes appetite, and helps to break and expel the stone, and dissolved, the water thereof is much used to break the stone and to expel gravel and wind. “[Culpeper. 1995:63-64]



[1] See blog titled cereza, published 11/12/12.

Monday, November 18, 2013

CULON WITH A 15th CENTURY MEAT CASSEROLE RECIPE

Zell am See cow’s bum
Photo from: tim_rodie
broad butt. [Pacho. 1994:156

MEAT CASSEROLE ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S xlii-3 CAZUELA DE CARNE[1]
For 4 persons

Ingredients

2 lbs rump of veal
1 c solid lard
2 l meat broth
½ c bitter orange juice
3 eggs
2 tbsp vinegar
½ tsp salsa fina[2]

salt to taste
cinnamon
honey[3]




Preparation

The Prefect Sweet and Sour Balance
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Cut the meat in pieces the size of a nut. Cut the lard into pieces without skin to melt in the pan. Salt the meat and add it to the pan when well sautéed add spices, orange juice, the broth and let it cook slowly. When the meat is tender and almost ready to serve add beaten eggs mixed with vinegar. Shake the pan in zig zags and little by little it will thicken.

Serve in soup bowls. Pour a drizzle honey and sprinkle with a little ground cinnamon over each bowl.



[1] Adapted from Josep Lladonosa’s version.
[2] See blog titled dárselo published November 29, 2013 for recipe.
[3] Lladonosa’s addition.

Friday, November 15, 2013

CULEÑA WITH CHORIZO STUFFING


Washed and Cleaned Pig Bungs
Photo by: Lord-Williams
pig bungs, the terminal straight end of last large intestine extracted from the pig after the slaughter. It is the closest to tail (culo), from which the Spanish name is derived. It is 1 to 1.5 m. long and the diameter varies from 30-50 mm. It is used as a wrapping for a type of chorizo called culeño consisting of lion and butt portions of meat. In England it is used with dry sausage and liverwurst. [Cerdo. n/d: no page numbers; ES: FAO. “Small.” Dec 10, 01; and Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000-2001:2003]


CHORIZO FOR PIG BUNGS* ADAPTED FROM SLAUGHTERS IN MOSTOLES 2000-2001

Ingredients

1 pig bungs intestine
½ c chopped raisins
½ c brandy
1 lbs pork loin 
Bungs Stuffed with Chorizo the Medieval Way
Simply Delicious!
Photo by: Lord-Willliams
 
¼ lb bacon fat
½  tsp cinnamon
½  tsp black pepper ground 
a pinch salt 
1 tsp oregano
¼ tsp ground nutmeg
1 garlic clove mashed 
a splash of white wine pig bungs
string for tying

PREPARATION

Soak raisins in brandy overnight.

Grind the meat and the bacon fat. Add the seasoning, wine and raisins and knead well.
Fill the pig pungs and tie with string.

Hang in a cool place until ready to serve. Boil in water one half hour and brown in the frying pan before serving.


*For another recipe for bungs see embudo published February 12, 2014.

Wednesday, November 13, 2013

CULEBRA


rattlesnake
Photo by: Mrs. Rachel
rattlesnake. In this notes on Pliny’s Book VIII, Chapter XXIII, Geronimo de Huerta wrote: their bones are like fish-bones. If you cut off the tail, they will turn into lizards. If you put two together they will look like one with two heads. 

They eat more than any other animal and drink little, unless it is wine, which they love. They are caught by putting wine out near where they live. When they become inebriated, they are easy to catch. 

They shed their skin starting from the eyes and head until the entire skin has fallen off the body ending at the tail. They remain bare for a day and a half. They do not eat meat for three to four days but they eat fennel. Then they bath themselves in water. It is said that grass is very agreeable for it protects them from cold and, on the contrary, ash wood bothers them and is noxious for them. They not only flee from it but also from their own shadow. 

Rattlesnakes have three nerves running down the length of their bodies. It is said that they are used as strings on citherns and that when played they have the power to make people have sex. The meat of the rattlesnake is good for those suffering from leprosy. The skin that falls off when boiled in vinegar and is put in ears to relieve earaches and toothaches if left for a while in the mouth. This is tied on the back of woman in labor to ease the birth. Placed between clothes, it kills moths. It clears the vision when rubbed on the eyes. A dried rattlesnake thrown on the fire a little to receive the smoke augments menstruation. 

Diosorides wrote in Chapter XVII of Book II that a strip of snake boiled in wine and put in the ears cured earaches. Placing it in the mouth cured toothaches. It was mixed with medicine to clear the vision especially vipers. Laguna added that in spring snakes seek a rugged, narrow place to shed their skins to be replaced by another that is more delicate and brighter. The pulverized remains of a viper applied to a shaven head mixed with laurel oil makes the hair grow back rapidly. Venomous tongue mixed with honey clears the vision. Villena maintained that rattlesnake meat was eaten for the morphine content and that Italians ate it for wisdom and health. See untos.[Laza.2002:122-123; and Villena.2004:23b]

Monday, November 11, 2013

CUEZO WITH BLANCMANGE FRIED TART RECIPE

Kneading Dough in my Bread Bowl
Photo by: Jesse K. 

OCast cuezga, 1. small kneading trough. 2. pres. indic, pres. subj. cocer  (to cook).[Corominas. Cast.1980:II: CE-F:283-284; Gázquez. 2002:146;Nola/Iranzo. 1982:168; and Nola/Pérez.1994:193]

BLANCMANGE FRIED TART RECIPE ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S xlvii-2 FRUTA DE MANJAR BLANCO

Ingredients

2 c flour
2 eggs
2/3 c chilled butter
1/3 cold white wine
¼ c lard

Preparation

Sift the flour. Knead it in a small trough with two eggs; add butter and wine and continue kneading. Roll it out and cut it to make tarts.

Make blancmange (one of the recipes below). Fill the tarts with this and top them with a piece of dough. 

Heat lard in a frying pan and fry the tarts.

CRAYFISH BLANCMANGE RECIPE ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #XXXXVIIIIQUI PARLA CON SA DEU FFER MANJAR BLANCH pp 93-94

Blancmange Fried Tart
Photo by: Lord-Willliams
Ingredients

1 lb unshelled crayfish
1 tbsp vinegar
1 tbsp virgin olive oil
3/4 c peeled blanched almonds, ground
1/4 c rice 
1 tbsp. sugar
1 tsp. ginger
pinch of salt

Garnish

Crab claws and dill

Preparation

Start a broth by boiling the crayfish and vinegar in a pot half filled with water for a 20-25 minutes until the meat is cooked. Shell them, extracting the meat from the body and claws and refrigerate. Save a few shelled claws for garnish. 

Heat olive oil in a pan, fry the shells for a minute. Add 1 c water used to boil the crayfish and simmer for 45 minutes. Put the stock and shells in a food processor and grind the shells. Strain and discard the shells.

Grind the almonds in the food processor. Add 1 ½ c broth and continue to grind. Let sit 20 minutes. Grind again and strain though a cheesecloth into a pot.

Grind the rice in a food processor to make flour and add it to the pot. Simmer for 15-20 minutes.

Shred the crayfish meat. Add it to the pot with sugar, salt and ginger. Simmer 5 minutes more until it thickens. Pour out into a tart molds and bake or fry.

Garnish with claws and dill and serve warm.


Friday, November 8, 2013

CUEVANOS WITH RECIPE FOR CANDIED PEARS



pasiego con cuevano 2
Photo by: Jose L. San Roman
baskets, hampers. They were used in many ways from carrying logs for fires to storing pears in straw during the winter months. [Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:42]

A Treat for All Pear Lovers!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
CANDIED PEARS[1]

Ingredients

2 lbs small pears
2 qts wine vinegar
6 cinnamon sticks (each a finger in length)
12 whole cloves
2 lbs sugar

Preparation

Peel, quarter and core the pears, then put tem in a large pot of boiling water; take them out when they have become soft to the touch. Drain them well and put them in a glass jar. Boil the vinegar with the cinnamon, cloves and sugar, then pour the boiling liquid over the pears and let them macerate for 24 hours (let cool before sealing the jar).

Decant the liquid, bring it to a boil and pour it over the fruit once again. Repeat this step a third time 24 hours later.  



[1] Recipe from Lilia Zaqyali’s Medieval Cuisine of the Islamic World, A Concise History with 174 Recipes, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2007, p 177.

Wednesday, November 6, 2013

CUESCO WITH RECIPE FOR PIT SYRUP

Separating the Pits from the Flesh
Photo by: Lord-Williams
pit, as in a date, peach, apricot, nectarine, plum, cherry, olive etc. Peach pit oil is extracted from the pit in the same manner as almonds. It is a good softener. Avenzoar recommended ground peach pits to be used as a cleaner and to beautify the face and peach pit oil dropped into the ear to sooth and evacuate it and to diminish deafness. The pits were thought to be toxic. In Spain, therefore, they were totally ground to prevent poisoning. Since, it has been found that pits are not poisonous Peach pit flour was used to make bread during wheat famines. Around 1400, cherry pits were added to wine and drunk to purge the kidneys, destroy kidney stones and intestinal worms.  [Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:131; Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:120; Castro. Alimentación. 1996:300; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:75:119; Nola/Iranzo.1982:168; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:193; and Villena/Calero. 2002:63a]

Plainly Delicious!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PIT SYRUP FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF

Ingredients 

1 c pits
2 c juice from the fruit and/or water
2 c sugar
1 splash of brandy

Preparation


Remove the flesh from the pits and save the juice. Grind pits, in a food processor, into small pieces. Place them in a saucepan with the juice and sugar. Bring this to a boil. Let cool and refrigerate overnight. Strain before serving and add a splash of brandy. It can be used in cocktails or in compotes or it can be used as a sauce for a fruit pie. It can be kept in the refrigerator up to three weeks.

Monday, November 4, 2013

CUERVO WITH RECIPE FOR CROISSANTS FILLED WITH ALMOND PASTE

Corneille noire - Corvus corone - Carrion Crow
 Photo by: tchikedou

corneja negra, OCast crajo, cuerua, cornecha, L. Corvus corone, Eng crow, carrion crow. It is present throughout Spain today although scarce in Estremadura, Castile and Andalusia. It lives in varied terrains from forests and cultivated fields to beaches. Its coat does not have the black luster as other species such as the raven but it is robust. It does not sing but shouts using some 40 different sounds which enable it to communicate with others of its species. The only positive aspect about a crow as far as humans can see is “the way the crow flies,” in a straight line from the point of take off to its destination, even its meat was considered noxious and only used to bake alive with a total of four and twenty black birds in medieval banquet pies.

In 13th C Badajoz, there is a legend about a Jewish girl who fell in love with a Christian knight. A crow, living in the crevices of a stonewall next to her house, came daily a window in her kitchen where she gave the crow a croissant (cuernos de gacela). In return for the roll, he gave her Ann Lander’s advise on how to woe her lover. Thanks to her offerings of croissants and the bird’s 40 different sounds in gratitude, she was able to understand how to conduct her romance and how to make it continue. See cuernos de gacela. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:199; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:189; Jutglar. 1999:520; Misc. Reading. Badajoz; and OXF Eng Dict. 1989:IV:Creel:66]

CROISSANTS FILLED WITH ALMOND PASTE BY INÉS GARCIA FROM BADAJOZ

Cutting Dough Into Squares, then Triangles
Placing filling on dough and Rolling it
Photo by:Lord-Williams
Ingredients

Filling:
1 lb crushed almonds
½ lb sugar
zest from 1 lemon
½ c orange blossom water
2 egg yolks

Pastry:
2 c flour
1 egg white
1 ½ tsp butter
½ c orange blossom water

Topping: 1 egg white slightly beaten

Preparation

Croissant Filled with Almond Paste
Photo by: Lord-Williams
For the pastry:

Put the flour in a bowl. Make a well and add the butter melted, the egg white and orange blossom water. Knead by hand until the pastry is smooth. Cover and let rest 15 minutes.

For the filling: 

While the pastry is resting, mix the crushed almonds with orange blossom water, the zest from a lemon and the egg yolks. Mix well.

Dip hands into olive oil and make little croquettes with the filling. Spread olive oil on a plate and put the croquette filling on it.

(WARNING: Do not taste the filling because it is so good none will be left when ready to fill the croissant dough!)

PREHEAT OVEN TO 340 ºF / 170º C

Roll out the dough with a rolling pin. Cut into squares and they cut each square diagonally into triangles. Begin to roll each triangle starting with the longest side. Add place the filling on the pastry and finish rolling the dough to shape it like a horn or half moon.  Press the edges together and trim them with a knife. Paint the tops with egg white. 

Bake the horns for about 20 minutes. Let cool and serve.