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Monday, March 10, 2014


Photo by: Lord-Williams
endívia (fr Ar. anṭûbíya, and this from L. intŭbus). OCast. endiuia, OCat endíuia, andívia,  L. Cichorium endivia, Ar. héndiba, Eng. endive. It is a variety of escarole. Both are members of the chicory family. In England, endives have been called “succory” or chicory. Spaniards have experienced the same confusion between endives, chicory and escaroles.

In England, they grew wild prior to the middle of the 16th C when the English began to cultivate them. Sass’ edition of the 14th C Form of Curye, states that endives were recommended to “temper . . . heating effects” after consuming leeks. 

Apicius' Endives with Honey and Vinegar
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Flower upon editing Apicius 1st C recipes for endive and lettuce dressings states that endives could be endives or chicory. Pérez doubts that endives existed in Spain when Nola recorded his recipes at the end of the 15th C. Iranzo defines the Old Castellan word as endive or escarole. Huici, however, clearly differentiates between chicory and endives providing a recipe for a drink containing endives to be taken to reduce fever and as syrup against ringworm and jaundice. There are three other recipes clearly calling for chicory, see achicoría. 

Benavides-Barajas explains that during Muslim occupation of Al-Andalus they highly developed the Roman irrigation system which permitted them to cultivate many vegetables that previously were wild and they advanced the evolution of several vegetables, the first being the endive. At the same time, he lists chicory as another vegetable consumed.

[Anón/Grewe. 1982: CLXXXVI:192 ftn 23; Anón/Huici.1966:187:121-122:513:279;  Apicius/Flower. 1958: III:XVIII:1:2-3:87:ftn 1; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:127; Corominas. Cast. 1980:II:CE:606-607; ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; ES: RAE. 2001; Groundes-Peace. 1971:29; Nola. 1989:xxxiiii-2; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:169; Nola/Pérez. 1992:195-196; and Sass. 1975:34]

A Spanish Recipe for Endives with
 Honey, Vinegar, Anchovies and Grated Cheese
Photo by: Lord-Williams


2 tbsp honey
1 tbsp vinegar


Wash endives while separating the leaves. Arrange them on a serving dish.

Mix honey and vinegar and pour over the endives.[1]

[1] Like lettuce, endives invite all kinds of ingredients. A favorite in Spain is to add anchovies and grated cheese.

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