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Friday, August 29, 2014

FREJURATE WITH 14TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR NOUMBLE POTTAGE

Contrary to the English, the Spaniards Sautée 
the Meat and Onions
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
O Cast. frexurate, OCat  frixum, L. frixura, Fr. frexuras, Eng noumble pottage, organ meat pottage. This consisted of entrails, especially the lungs and organs connected to it. While Sent Soví provides numerous recipes calling for goat, mutton or pork entrails in which are sauteéd (a Catalan inovation) before boiling all the ingredients of the pottage. together Nola’s recipe is similar. Later, the word came to mean a medieval dish basically consisting of baked kid, mutton, salt pork, onion and breadcrumbs moistened with vinegar.  English noumble pottages were simply boiled organs without sautéing them. There are a fish day noumble pottages calling for pike and conger. [Curye. 1985:64:100:124etc ; Delgado. 1985:109; and Nola. 1989:xviii-1]

NOUMBLE POTTAGE ADAPTED FROM NOUMBLE POTTAGE ADAPTED FROM GREWE'S TRANSLATION OF SENT SOVÍ, CXXII POTAJE QUE SE LLAMA FREXURATE, QUE ES POTAJE DE ASADURA, pp 145-146[1] 


Ingredients
Straining Almond Milk and Liver
Photo by: Lord-Williams

entrails kid, kid sheep or goat[2]
salt to taste
2 onions
1 mutton liver[3]
4 slices of bacon
½ c almonds
1 bread, crusts removed
½ c White vinegar
1 tsp salsas finas[4]
2 egg yolks


Preparation

Take entrails cook them in a pot. Add 1 ½ qt water with ingredients to make broth[5] and add salt to taste. Bring to a boil and simmer for 3 hrs, or cut cooking time in half by using a pressure cooker, until entrails are tender.

A Pottage Meant for Paté Lovers
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PREHEAT OVEN TO 400ºF/200ºC

Clean liver and roast it 20 minutes or until done.

When the entrails are cooked remove them form the pot, and cut them in pieces the size of a finger. Remove the onion and any other vegetables used to make the broth. Slice them and return them to the pot.  

Fry bacon. When golden brown remove it and set aside. Gently fry the entrails and the second onion in the grease.

Boil and peel almonds. Put them in a food processor and grind them with the liver and the bread soaked in vinegar. When blended add the broth.  Strain this through a cheesecloth. Put this in a pot with the entrails, onion and salsas finas and cook for about 15 minutes. Add more water if necessary. When thick and bubbly, taste for vinegar and add more if necessary to enhance the taste. 

Put 2 egg yolks in each soup bowl and our boiling hot the pottage into the bowls. Crumble the bacon and garnish the bowls with it. Let cool a little and serve.



[1] See blog titled cachuela published June 16, 2012 for an entirely different version.
[2] As entrails could not be found pork belly was used.
[3] As mutton liver could not be found a pug’s liver was used.
[4] See blog titled dárselo published November 29, 2013 for recipe.
[5] This can include the onion to be sautéed later. Quarter it and add other items such as a carrot, celery, a spice bag with such spices as peppercorns, 1 cinnamon stick, ginger, cloves etc.

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

FRIEDURA WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR FRIED FISH

frying, a way of preparing a dish as opposed to boiling or baking. Normally dishes were fried in olive oil on fish days because animal products such as butter and lard were prohibited.
[Serrano. 2008:376]

ANOTHER FRIED DISH ADAPTED FROM MARÍN’S TRANSLATION OF FADALAT Sec 5. Cap 1,  #8. OTRO PLATO FRITO, p 243

Frying Trout in Olive Oil
Photo by: Lord-Williams 
Ingredients

1 lb fish
½  c olive oil
1 egg
1 c flour                                                               

Vinaigrette:
½ c vinegar
1 garlic clove

Optional:
1 tbsp parsley
1 tbsp mint
1 tbsp rue
2 tbsp walnuts

Preparation

Simply Delicious
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Select a fish, big or small, with or without scales. Clean it and scald it in boiling water. Wash it. If large cut it into portions and remove the bones. If small leave it as is.

Put oil in a frying pan and when hot fry the fish, turning it carefully over medium heat. If the fish might break, cover it with flour and then dip it in a slightly beaten egg before frying. When cooked and golden brown, remove from the frying pan and put it on a serving platter.

If the fish has scales, select a clay dish, add a little olive oil and put mashed garlic in it. with the garlic. Cook the garlic and add vinegar. Bring it to boil and pour it over the fish for the fish to absorb it. If desired, add chopped herbs. Wait for it to cool and eat it if it be God’s will.

If the fish does not have scales, Heat water and olive oil in a frying pan with mashed garlic cloves. Bring to a boil to reduce the water. Then pour this over the fish. If the fish is a surmullet or red mullet, cook garlic in vinegar and add ground walnuts.



Friday, August 22, 2014

FRAUDES EN EL PESO DE LOS PANES WITH 13THE CENTURY RECIPE FOR BISCUITS OR WAFERS

Medieval Bakery
Photo from: Vrangtante Brun
fraud in weighing bread. This has been a continual problem throughout Europe over the ages in spite of ever present legislation because it was not common to have an oven in the home. Dough was prepared in the home and taken to the local baker to bake it. Often a baker's boy would pick up the dough in the morning and return the loaves when baked.

In 10th C León, a woman baker was whipped the first time she was caught. The second time she was so heavily fined that she ruined her family.

In 1327 in London, it was discovered that dough was being removed from bread brought to a bakery by bakers by means of openings in the molding boards enabling the bakers to steal bits of it before the loaves were cooked. The women were convicted and sent to Newgate prison while the men were put in the pillory with dough around their necks. Although bread examiners were ever present, some English bakers weighted loaves with copper coins. [ES: “History Tuzla.” Mar 16, 05; and Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:119-120]

UNLEAVENED BREAD ADAPTED FROM FADALAT #4 RECETA DE PAN ÁCIMO, p 79
For 24-30 biscuits 2 ¼” in diameter


Dough Ready to Roll
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Ingredients

For biscuits or wafers:
1 c  milk[1] 
¼ c olive oil
1 tsp salt 
2 c semolina flour[2]


Filling[3]
¾ c raisins
¼ c crushed cardamom seeds
1 yogurt
¼ c pine nuts

Preparation

Put milk, oil and salt in the pot.  Heat on the stove for 2 minutes,


Remove from heat and add flour and knead well.

Wrap it in cloth and refrigerate for 2-3 days from it to become soft.



Medieval "Sandwiches" Hot from the Oven
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PREHEAT OVEN TO 425ºF/220ºC

Remove the dough from the refrigerator and knead well. Roll it out and make biscuits or thin wafers. Place them on a board or cookie sheet and bake in the oven or put an iron plate and cook on the stove top. Bake or cook 10 minutes and remove from heat.

Turn half the biscuits or wafers upside down and spread filling on the bottom. Top each with the other half of the biscuits. Bake or cook 5 more minutes or until done.

This makes a unique dessert or afternoon snack.


[1] Milk was used instead of water.
[2] Multi-grain flour was used as a variation.
[3] This is the Medieval Spanish Chef’s addition.

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

FRANCOLÍN WITH THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S WILD GAME CASSEROLE

Crested Francolin
Photo from: Steve Garvie
L. Francolinus francolinus, Arag. francolí, Eng. francolin. It was the size and shape of a pheasant but had distinct plumage. The head, chest and stomach were black while the back was gray with large white spots. His neck was surrounded with a brown collar. It is extinct in Europe today.

In medieval Al-Andalus, it was considered to have the tastiest meat after the roster and the hen. It was thought to have been better than partridge and frequently the people of Al-Andalus consumed francolin cooked in various ways.

In León Suero Quiñones served it during his jousting tournament in 1434 with other game thought luxurious. Villena reported, they were abundant in Aragon and that they should be carved in the same manner as the peacock. Avenzoar maintained that the meat has a tendency toward dryness. [Alonso Luengo. 1994:40; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:198, 219-220; .
universal. 1998:24:1103; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:138:189; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:51; OXF Eng Dict. 1989:VI: Follow:145; and Villena/Calero. 2002:22b:26a]

THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S WILD GAME CASEROLE

Ingredients

Slivers of Garlic in Vinegar and Wine
Photo by: Lord-Williams
2 francolins or other game birds[1]
7-8 garlic cloves chopped into slivers
1 dash of balsamic vinegar
¼ c wine vinegar
½ c red wine
1 c flour
butter for browning meat
1 large onion, chopped
1 c mushrooms, sliced
1 large chopped carrot[2]
3 large chives, sliced
1 large turnip,[3] sliced
 3 sprigs fresh rosemary, coarsely chopped
1 bunch of basil, coarsely chopped
1 pinch of thyme, coarsely chopped
2 bay leaves
¼ tsp white pepper
2 c chicken stock
1 c cream


A Savory Dish for the King of the House!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Quarter the birds. Remove the skin of the garlic cloves and slice them into pieces. Put them in the in a dish with the vinegar and wine. Then stick the slivers through the skin of the birds.

Roll the birds in flour and let sit for 30 minutes. Then brown the pieces in butter. Add the onion and mushrooms and cook until translucent. 
PREHEAT OVEN TO 375ºC/190ºC 

Put the meat in casserole dish and put the vegetables around them. Put the herbs on top. Mix the wine and vinegar with the pepper, chicken stock and cream. Pour this over the birds.

Put the lid on and cook in the oven for 2-3 hours until meat is tender. Serve on a bed of rice or couscous.


[1]One chicken was used as game birds were not available.
[2] Use a white carrot if available as orange carrots did not exist in the Middle Ages.
[3] A beet was used as a substitute as turnips were not in season but note that beets were not being used in medieval Spanish foods at that time. They were consumed during Roman occupation but feel out of use until the 16th century.

Monday, August 18, 2014

FLOR DEL VINO


Barrel of Montilla wine, showing the "flor"
Photo from Chris Juden
yema de mosto, "flor" of wine, yolk of must, a natural yeast. As they age in barrel, they develop a layer of a, yeast-like growth that helps protect the wine from excessive oxidation. It is formed in grape skins, pits and stems, collected from the first pressing of grapes and aged in the barrel while becoming a orujo, a grappa. This is aged in oak for two to six years. The alcohol content is between 16.5-50%. It is said to be drunk “to kill the [intestinal] worm[s].” It is a killer of a drink! See encina. [ES: Sherry. May 15, 04; and Pacho. “Cocina.” 1994:156]