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Monday, September 29, 2014

GALÁPAGO WITH A RECIPE FOR SWEET AND SOUR PORK RIBS

Tortoise
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1. L. Emys orbicularia, Eng tortoise. This turtle is commonly found around Valencia in marsh lands where currents are slow. It varies in color from greenish-brown to almost black with yellowish spots. The shell can grow to 30 cms in length but normally it is smaller. It takes sunbaths near the shore. If felt threatened it rapidly disappears in the water. It eats crustaceans, mollusks, fish and sometimes plants. It lays from four to 16 eggs in the beginning of June or July and again in August. It buries them near the water. They take two to three months to hatch.

Today it is illegal to catch them but not in the Middle Ages. Although there must have been recipes for turtle soups and other concoctions as Villena mentions them as food eaten in his day, they to do not seem to be recorded.

2. gallivero, gullet, upper part of pig's trachea.

3. Estr. the ribs in the cervical region of the pig. When they are uncovered after the pig has been slaughtered they look like a tortoise.

[ES: Reptiles. Sep 24, 04; Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003; Serradilla. 1993:143; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a ] 

SWEET AND SOUR PORK RIBS RECIPE FROM THE FEAST OF THE SLAUGHTER IN MOSTOLES 2002
4 servings

Ingredients
Pork Ribs on Flatbread
Photo by: Lord-Williams

1 c brown sugar
¼  c flour
½  tsp salt
¼ tsp white pepper
½ tsp ground mustard seed
2 c water
½ c  dry sherry
½ c  vinegar
2 lbs pork spareribs 
¼ c olive oil  
2 mashed garlic cloves


Preparation

Mix the first five ingredients in a bowl. Add the water, sherry and vinegar.

Put the ribs in a pot and cover with water. Bring to a boil. Gently boil 10 minutes and remove the ribs from the water and slice.

Heat a frying pan. Add the oil and brown the ribs on all sixes. Add the sauce. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat and simmer for 30 minutes. Add the garlic and cook 15 more minutes until done.

Serve over rice, couscous or flatbread.



Friday, September 26, 2014

GALANGA WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR CHICKEN IN FLATBREAD

Dried Galanga
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OCast garingal, galanjal garangal, garanjal, L. Alpina galanga (greater galangal) and Kaempheria galangal or Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal), Fr. galanga de l’Inde, gran galanga or galanga, Eng. galingale, galangal, greater galangal, alpinia galangal, Laos ginger, Siamese ginger, Thai ginger, lesser galangal. The rhizome is harder than ginger and creamy white with a mildly hot, ginger-peppery, resinous flavor that is used as a seasoning. This originated in Java or China where it grows on the southeast coast and spread west to southeastern Asia, namely Malaysia, Indonesia and parts of India.

Today it is popular in Thai cooking and can be purchased at oriental shops. Lesser galangale, Kaempheria galanga, is smaller and has a reddish-orangey flesh outside and almost white inside. It has organic flesh and is stronger, hotter and more resinous flavor than greater galangal. It is not as bitter and has fewer medicinal properties. Both galangales have been imported to Europe.

 Ibn Khurdadbah, an early Arab writer from Sindh, recorded the first shipment in 869, where, like ginger, the rhizomes were incorporated into cookery to flavor a wide variety of sauces, stews, soups and medicines. As fresh galangale is good for six months only, it came to Europe dried. Today it is frozen.

Galangale mixes well with garlic, fennel, ginger and turmeric. It tastes like ginger with a hint of cinnamon. When none is available ginger is used but there is no real substitute for it.

Making a Lid with Pita Bread
Photo by: Lord-Williams
During the Middle Ages, it was frequently used in cooking and mixed with spikenard and other spices for meat gelatins. Nola added it to a majority of fish dishes.

It is called for in medieval English manuscripts. Like ginger, lesser galangal is bruised, crushed or ground into powder. As it is quite tough it is soaked in wine before grinding.

Today coffee grinders are used. The flowers are eaten pickled or raw.

Medicinally, both have been used for seasickness, catarrh, stomach problems and rheumatism. Indians have used galangal as a deodorant. Both galangales were used for halitosis and as an aphrodisiac in Asia and Europe. Essence d’Amali, an essential oil, is extracted from the rhizome for use in perfumery. Arabs gave galangale to their horses to “ginger” them up. See juncia olorosa [ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:ftn 36; ES: “Food Dict.” Dec 7, 03; ES: Forme of Cury. Feb 16, 05; ES: Stefan’s “galangale”. Jul 24, 06; Lladonosa. Cocina. 1984:157; Nola. 1989:xxii-2; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:168; and Nola/Pérez. 1992:198]

CHICKEN IN FLATBREAD ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF AL-ANDALUS #58. THE RECIPE OF IBN AL-MAHDI'S MAGHMÛM, p 44 [1]

Ingredients

1 chicken
4 oz sweet olive oil
¾ tsp coriander
3/8 tsp  dirham white pepper
3/8 tsp cinnamon
3/16 tsp ginger
3/16 tsp ganingale
3/16 tsp lavender
3/16 tsp cloves
3 oz vinegar
2 oz onion juice
1 oz cilantro juice
1 oz murri[2]
1 splash of rosewater
2-3 pieces of flatbread (pita today)


 Most Remarkably Delicious
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF/180ºC 


Selecta a fat hen. Debone it and cut the meat into bite size pieces.  Heat a pot. Add olive oil. Add chicken and seal the pieces. Add the remaining ingredients. Mix well and pour this into an oven-proof dish. Make a lid by covering it with pita bread. Cook 30-45 minutes
until cooked.

Remove and let sit 15-20 minutes. Then invert it onto a dish and present it; it is remarkable.



[1] Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi, an Abbasid prince, who was anti-Caliph for some months, and whose hospitality and culinary expertise made him famous. Al-Bagdadi gives his name to this dish and calls it Ibrahimiya. (Huici)

[2] See blog published August 25 2011 titled almorí for recipe.

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

GACHAS WITH 14TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR GACHAS (A WHEAT PORRIDGE)

Wheat
Photo from: Bud Johnson
migas, OCast farradurasfourmentee o formentea (with a wheat base), puches, L. pŭltes (fr. puchada, puchero), Ar. sawiq (powdered barley, barley porridge), Eng polentas, porridges of parched grains. 1. unglazed earthenware pot used in some areas for boiling salt. 2. see hoz. 3. granulated semolina particles,  breadcrumbs. This was a typical dish of the 14th C. Gacha when made with millet flour. 4. bread soups boiled with lard. The basic ingredient is flour or breadcrumbs from various types of grains.


Huici instructs to pound the grain. Gachas can contain vegetables, meat, honey and be sprinkled with sugar. It was a common dish for the Bedouins and pre-Islamic society. It is said that when desert Bedouins and Jews camped out near Medina to take revenge on Muhammad in 624, they were discovered and the Prophet and his men went after them. The former fled leaving their provisions including sawiq to the delight of the aggressors. (Avenzoar stated that sawiq is made with toasted and ground barley.)

This porridge is consumed regularly in Africa. The Muslims introduced gachas to Spain. Traditionally, it was sold in suks along with harisa.

Frying Bread for Croutons
Photo by: Lord-Williams
It became generalized there after the 12th C. it is a typical dish in the Mancha where it is a wheat porridge consisting of wheat boiled in salt water to which milk, honey or another liquid could be added. It is well spiced and sometimes served with lentils or another legume. There in medieval times, the principle food of the lower classes consisted of bread but when wheat was scarce they consumed gachas as a substitute. During the winter in rural areas, it was common to make gachas as a dessert or the main dish for supper.

It was presented as a third course during important banquets of the monarchs of Navarra. In 1433, it was served with honey, spices and venison on one occasion and with breaded lamprey on another.   Recipes have remained in the traditional Andalusian religious cookery as they are appropriate during Lent, All Hallow’s Eve (Halloween) and All Saints’ Day.

Also, this dish was given to those with digestion problems as it is simple, it was easily assimilated. This porridge can be prepared with wheat or toasted wheat, mashed and mixed with dates and sugar. Avenzoar recommended it for those needing good nutrition but in small quantities, which is the most advisable as it did not alter the digestive system.

If cooled in moderation, it provided balanced nutrition, which balanced the humors . It was recommended for those suffering from high fevers and especially in summer for those having a fever and for  also  the healthy. See alcuzcuz, aprovechables, asida, gacha, harisa migas, polenta, sémola, talvina, zahína. [Anón/Huici.1966: 404:222-223: :530:287; Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:94-97; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:83-85; ES: al-Mubarakpuri. May 11, 06; ES: As-Sawiq. Dec 26, 06; Gázquez. 2002:87;
Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:47:ftn 6:49; and Serrano. 2008:393-395]


GACHAS ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #CXI QUI PARLA CON SE DEU FFER FFARINES, p 138

Ingredients
Gachas with Croutons
Phto by: Lord-Williams

1 qt water[1]
1 ¼ c toasted wheat flour
1 c sugar or honey
2/3 c olive oil
1 tsp salt[2]

Garnish
cinnamon and sugar[3]

Preparation

Heat a pot. Add water. Add wheat flour, which has previously been toasted, and sugar or honey, stirring constantly to avoid lumps. Add olive oil and a pinch of salt. Gently boil until thick. Remove from heat but continue to stir non-stop. Pour soup bowls and garnish with cinnamon and sugar if desired.



[1] As milk is richer, it was used.
[2] Traditionally 25 gr of anise seed and  zest from a lemon are added although they do not appear in this recipe.
[3] Croutons of toasted or fried bread are also customary garnish for this dish.

Monday, September 22, 2014

FURN WITH 15TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR EMPANADA FILLED WITH SHAD

Furn
Photo by: Lord-Williams
bread oven, the European-style brick oven. In Arab cooking, it was used as the bread oven and also for baking fish and other foods. See horno de ladrillo and tannur. [ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 02:glos]

EMPANDADA FILLED WITH SHAD ADOPTED FROM NOLA’S lviii-3 SABOGA EN PAN

Ingredients

dough for an empanada
1 k shad, scaled and clean
spices:
¼ tsp pepper
1 tsp ginger
¼ tsp salt
oil


Empanada with Shad
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Sauce:
juice from 1 orange
1 tbsp olive oil
salt to taste
chopped herbs (parsley, rue and marjoram were used


PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F/175ºC

Make dough for an empanada. Roll it out and cut in the desired shape. Lay the scaled and cleaned shad on that. Make a mixture of the spices and sprinkle them on the shad. Drizzle olive oil over this and cover it with empanada dough.

Fish Lovers' Delight
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Bake at 350ºF/175º C for 10 minutes. Reduce heat to 300ºF/150ºC and bake 15-20 minutes more.

If it is to be eaten cold, remove the broth because it does not preserve well if the broth is left in it.

Shad can be eaten roasted but it is not desirable to boil it. If roasting it, it is not necessary to remove the scales. Open it and put it on a grill greased with oil to prevent it from sticking. Put it over low heat in the beginning and then increase it little by little, Grease the grill every time the shad is turned.

Make a sauce with orange juice, olive oil and a little water, salt and chopped herbs.
Pour the sauce over the dish before serving.

Fresh water fish in general cooked in this manner.