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Monday, August 31, 2015

LAGUNA, ANDRES, 1489-1559 WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR ALOE SYRUP

A Painting of Andrés Laguna
in the National Royal Academy of Medicine
He was a physician who was born in Segovia. His father was a converted Jewish doctor. Andrés Laguna studied at the University of Salamanca for two years and then went to Paris where he became so fluent in Greek and Latin that he read Dioscorides in the original language. In 1530 he graduated in fine arts and medicine in Paris, returning to the Spain in 1536 where he taught at the University of Alcalá.

He traveled to England, lived for a while in Holland, collecting herbs to verify Dioscorides prescriptions.  From 1540-1545, he resided in Metz, Germany. There he was hired as a physician of the city. From 1545-1554 he lived in Rome where he received various honors from Popes Peter III and Julius III. He spent time in the home of Ambassador Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, in Venice, who was a known humanist and owned of one of the best libraries in Europe of his time. After living in Holland again for three years, Laguna returned to Spain where he created the Botanical Garden of Aranjuez. It is thought that he died in Guadalajara in 1559. He is buried in the church of San Miguel, in Segovia.

An Aloe Leaf
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Laguna published various works on medicine, among other subjects, including commentaries on Medical Materia by Dioscorides after testing herbal descriptions and therapeutic properties of the latter in Europe and on the Mediterranean coast. It proved to be a valuable work through the end of the 18th C. Laguna continued the theory of the four elements but refused to accept witchcraft or quacks. See col forrajera. [Castro. Alimentación.1996:242; ES: Fresquet. “Andrés.” Mar 25, 02]  

 A WAY OF MAKING ALOE SYRUP ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF AL-ANDALUS #490 JARABE DE MADERA DE ÁLOE, RECETA DE SU HECHURA, p 269

Ingredients
 ¼ oz/28.35 . ea:

cinnamon
cloves
cassia
lavender
nutmeg
            mastic seeds
1 tbsp mashed saffron
Soaking Gel to Remove Sap
Photo by: Lord-Williams
4 c rose water
oz musk[1]
1 aloe leaf


Preparation

Put the spices in a bag. Put this in a pot with sugar and rosewater. Dissolve the saffron with a little rosewater and add it to the pot. 

Bring to a boil. Boil gently until the sugar has dissolved and a syrup is formed. Remove from heat. Grind the spices in the spice bag. Add 1 tsp or more, according to taste, of the spices to the syrup and set aside.  

Wash an aloe leaf. Cut off both ends. Remove spine on both sides and put the leave in water for 5 minutes to help eliminate the yellow sap from the gel inside the leaf.

Aloe Syrup
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Remove the leaf from water, Take a blunt knife and remove the green outer coat of the leaf. Dip the leaf in pitcher with clean water to remove as much sap as possible.

Put the aloe in a blender with the syrup. Turn the blender on low for 5 seconds and then high for 5 seconds. Drink 2 tbsp of the liquid mixed with 1/4 c hot water.

The benefits: it fortifies the stomach, liver and other organs; it cheers the heart and tempers the complexion and is beneficial in the beginning stages of dropsy.

Although the recipe is much older than Laguna, this is the type of recipe he could have prescribed.




[1] Musk was not used as it was not available. Further, it is very expensive.


#490 JARABE DE MADERA DE ÁLOE, RECETA DE SU HECHURA, p 269

Friday, August 28, 2015

LAGAR WITH 15TH C RECIPE FOR QUINCE SAUCE

Lagar de Varas
Photo from: Eduardo Estéllez
lagareta, screw press; worm press; wine press. The king of León in the 11th C possessed one to press the grapes from his vineyards. For parts of the screw press see huso, viga de contrapeso de cantos and virxes . [Llamas. 1994:168; and Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:115:124:138:ftn 124]

QUINCE SAUCE COOKED IN THE POT ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S liii-4 MEMBRILLOS COCIDOS EN OLLA

Ingredients

Boiling Quince in Wine
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 l. wine
1 lb quinces
½ c peeled almonds
1 whole cinnamon tube
1 tsp cloves
1 tsp nutmeg
½ tsp mace
½ tsp grains of paradise
1 ½ c sugar

Garnish:
2 tsp sugar
1 tsp ground cinnamon
½ tsp cloves

Preparation

Boil peeled almonds in the wine. Strain the almonds and grind them in a food
Quince Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
processor. Return them to the pot with the wine. Add quinces. Place spices in a bag and add them. Add sugar. Cover and cook until the quinces are soft. Remove them and peel them. Remove the core.


Put the quinces in a food processor and mash them. Return them to the pot and cook 5 more minutes.  Taste for sweetness. Add more sugar if necessary. Cook until the sugar is dissolved. Put the sauce in a dish and garnish with sugar and ground cinnamon and cloves.




Wednesday, August 26, 2015

LAGANE WITH RECIPE FOR LAGANE AND CECI

Rolling out Lagane by Hand
Photo by: Lord-Williams
lagane. They were first recorded in Italy between 65 BC-8 BC as a frugal supper with chickpeas and leaks. It is thought to be the forerunner of lasagna, tagliate and/or fettuccine. They are thin strips of pasta originally made with semolina, spelt or farina and water. The ancient shape is unknown. They could have been in the shape of a pancake or a flat cake. It has been documented that Etruscans did not boil them. Perhaps they were covered and cooked over coals or fried.

Authors like Grainger and Kelly claim Apicius provides layered recipes consisting of alternating meat or fish with "oil cake" which they seem to translate as lagane. They claim that he does not give a recipe for lagane, which leads one to believe that this was common fare.

Making Lagane with a Pasta Machine
Photo by: Lord-Williams
The North Africans are believed to have brought it to Al-Andalus between the 11th-13th C. Its existence in Granada is confirmed in manuscripts found in the Alhambra. The Muslims in Al-Andalus were the first to record boiling them. After boiling in fatty broth, they can be seasoned with cheese, saffron, pepper and cinnamon. It is very soft pasta good for people in the Middle Ages who had teeth problems.

Modern lagane, in central and southern, Italy is like wide tagliatella. They are made with durum wheat or fine wheat flour, water and salt.  It was and continues to be a very popular dish accompanied by chickpeas in southern Italy in particular. It is a versatile dish appropriate for vegetarians as no eggs are used to make the pasta and cheese is optional. Although not common, meat or shellfish can be welcome additions.

[Apicius/Flower. 1958:IV:II:99:103:105:109; Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:104; ES: de Vita. May 29, 15; ES: Kelley. May 30, 15; and ES: “Old”. Mar 24, 05]

PASTA AND CECI, THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S VERSION

Ingredients (4 servings)
Frying the Chickpeas
Photo by: Lord-Williams

For the sauce:


For the sauce:
1 c chickpeas
1 bay leaf ¼ c and 1 tbsp olive oil
Salt to taste
1 small onion
 2 garlic cloves
leaves from 1 sprig of rosemary
¼ c dry white wine
¾ c parsley leaves
4 ½ oz semi-hard cheese (optional)

For the pasta:

1 tsp salt
¾ c warm water
2 c fine wheat flour

Preparation

For the Sauce:

Wash chickpeas and soak them in water overnight. The following day, strain the chickpeas and rinse them. Put them in a large pot. Cover with plenty of water. Add the bay leaf and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and gently boil until tender. The time depends on the age of the chickpea. One and a half hours is average cooking time.

When tender add 1 tbsp olive oil and salt to taste. Remove from heat and strain, reserving the broth.

Chop the onion and sautée it for a few minutes. Add garlic sliced. When the onion is translucent add the rosemary and half the chickpeas and sautée until toasted. Add wine and parsley leaves chopped.


For the Pasta:

A Splendid Dish for Pasta Lovers
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Mix the salt and the water. Add the flour. Roll it into a ball.

Lightly flour a smooth surface. Knead the pasta for about 10 minutes until smooth.

Roll it into a ball and cover it with a cloth or plastic. Place it in a dark spot and leave it for ½ hour.

Divide the dough into 4 parts. If a pasta machine is available, run the dough through the fettuccine setting several times on the thick setting.

If a pasta machine is not available, roll each portion out on a floured surface and cut strips wider than fettuccine and narrower than lasagna and thicker than both. Strips can be between ¼”- 1” wide and 2”-4” in length.

Bring the broth from boiling the chickpeas to a brisk boil and add the lagane. Continue to boil for 3-9 minutes, as per the thickness until the pasta is al diente.

Strain off the broth, reserving it. Add the ½ c of the broth to the sauce. Add the pasta. Mix well and remove from heat.

Grate the cheese if using it and add ¾ of it to the mixture. Reserve the remaining cheese for eaters to sprinkle on the dish when served.


Serve piping hot with a small of grated cheese on the side.

Monday, August 24, 2015

LACÓN (Gal) WITH RECIPE FOR SHOULDER OF PORK WITH TURNIP LEAVES

Pork shoulder not for vegetarians
Photo from: Joanne C.
Cast. brazuelo, L lacca, Eng pork shoulder, picnic shoulder, arm of pork, cottage ham, foreleg of pork; lacón con grelos, cocido with turnip leaves or cabbage; a salted shoulder of pork cooked with turnip leaves and fresh chorizo. 

It is the only cocido that does not contain dried beans. Traditionally, it was a Gallegan winter dish. Pilgrims on the way to St. James frequently ate it. 

Today, boiled potatoes are included. Now it is eaten all over Spain. See cocido. [ES: de Rechupete. Lacón con grelos, May 30, 115; ES: “Lacón.” Mar 25, 05; García Rey. 1934:103; Dialecto. 1947:255; and Sutil. 1994:164]

PREPARACIÓN GALICIAN COCIDO ADAPTED FROM DE RECHUPETE DEL LACÓN CON GRELOS

Ingredients[1]


My #turnip plants are #growing quite nicely.
Photo from: MarkRig
1 c salt
1 c sugar
6 peppercorns
2 stalks celery
2 carrots
1 shoulder of pork
2 sausages
1 bunch of turnip leaves[2]



Place all the ingredients in a large pot. Cover with water and marinate during 48 hours.

Remove the meat from the pot. Cover with clean water and bring to a boil. Lower heat and boil gently for 1 hr. Turn off the heat, leaving the pork on the burner.

Put the sausages in a separate pot. Remove just enough broth from the pork to cover the sausage. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and boil gently for about ½ hr until sausages are done.

Pork with Red Cabbage
Simply Delicious
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Wash the cabbage and discard outer wilted leaves. When the sausages have cooked 20 minutes, add turnip leaves.  Continue cooking uncovered.

Remove the shoulder from the broth and separate the meat from the bone. Slice the meat ¼” thick. Do the same with the sausages. Place all the meat on a platter.

Remove the turnip leaves from the broth and put it in a separate serving dish.



[1] Today, potatoes are included and they are cooked with the sausage.
[2] If not available use 1 head of cabbage and add 1 tsp white vinegar.

Friday, August 21, 2015

LABIADAS WITH HONEYED RICE RECIPE FROM THE 13TH CENTURY


Bee on Snapdragon
Photo from: Nick Lucas
1. labiates, petals or sepals projecting like lips of a flower where the bee enters to collect nectar. Members of the labiate family include snapdragons, catnip and sage. 2. labiate nectar. [Silva. 1994:176]

RECIPE FOR HONEYED RICE ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION INTO CASTELLAN OF AL-ANDALUS #408 RECETA DEL ARROZ CON MIEL,  p 225

Ingredients

1 c rice
2 c milk
1 lb honey
¼ c butter

Make in Small Quantities
Habit Forming - Its that Good!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Garnish:

1 tsp sugar
1 tsp cinnamon

Preparation

Soak rice over night in enough water to cover it. Strain and was the rice. Put it in pot and add 2 c milk or water. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer for about 20 minutes.

Place honey in a saucepan. Bring to a boil and simmer. Skim it. Add the honey to the rice. Continue to simmer until the mixture coagulaes and becomes a paste.

Pout the mixture into a serving bowls and macerate it with a spoon. Make a hole in the center and pour melted butter into it.

Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon. Serve it warm.