Entradas populares

Wednesday, December 30, 2015

LOMBARDA CON BACALAO - COD WITH RED CABBAGE RECIPE

Regeneration
Photo from: catt1871
red cabbage with codfish. This is a common dish in Astorga (León) the Way of St. James.

Red cabbage is in season from June to St. James Day, July 25. Medicinally, a bruised leaf mixed with egg white was applied to red, sore eyes overnight to relieve them.

[Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:98; and Pepys 1047. 15th C?:32

COD WITH CABBAGE FROM FOOD NETWORK KITCHENS
foodnetwork.co.uk>


Ingredients

3 pieces streaky bacon, cut into 0.5cm thin strips
1 tbsp extra-virgin olive oil
1/2 medium onion, thinly sliced
1/2 head savoy cabbage, thinly sliced (about 390g)
1 to 2 tbsp water
1 tbsp whole-grain mustard 1
1 tbsp white vermouth/white wine
3 sprigs fresh thyme, leaves stripped (0.75 tsp fresh thyme leaves)
Pinch allspice
1 tsp salt
Freshly ground black pepper
4 (175–200g) cod or hake fillets

Preparation

Heat a large skillet over a medium-low heat and cook the bacon in the olive oil until lightly crisp and most of the bacon fat renders, about 5 minutes.

Drain all but a thin layer of the reserved fat from the pan, and reserve for cooking the fish.

Add the onion to the pan, and cook, stirring until wilted, about 3 minutes. Stir in the cabbage and cook until wilted, about 2 minutes.

Add the water, mustard, vermouth, thyme and allspice, and season with 0.5 tsp salt and pepper, to taste. 

Cover and cook until soft and fragrant, about 8 minutes more. (This can be done up to 1 hour ahead and then reheated, covered, to serve.) Pat the fish dry and season with the remaining 0.5 tsp salt and pepper, to taste.

Heat a large nonstick skillet over a high heat and add the reserved bacon fat to the pan. Lay the fish, skin-side up, in the pan and cook until golden brown, about 6 minutes. Turn the fish over and continue to cook over a medium to medium-high heat until the fish is opaque but not flaking, about 4 minutes more.

Divide the cabbage among 4 plates, place the fish browned side up on top and drizzle any juices over the fish. Serve.

Monday, December 28, 2015

LOBO WITH 15TH CENTURY BAKED WOLFISH RECIPE

trairao
Big and ugly but surprisingly
athletic, trairao (also called
wolfish or almara) are great
adversaries.
Photo from: Paul Reiss
 
1. wolf. Avenzoar explained that the meat was hot and humid similar to human flesh as it is thick. All carnivorous animals are hot and humid including the wolf. Avenzoar also states that if the dung is drunk in a liquid it will cure a sick person sick suffering from colic. The liver is eaten to fortify those who eat it.

2. L. Anarhichas denticulatus, Eng northern wolfish, blue wolfish, jelly catfish. It looks more like a fat eel than a fish. It is often over one yard long. It has a large mouth, powerful jaws and big teeth, both upper and lower. It can crush all kinds of shellfish even crabs. Further, as it has no scales or barbells, it is wondered if it is a fish at all.

It lives around Iceland and Greenland today. With the exception of two species found in the sea, the other 26 are fresh water fish.

They could have been prevalent in the Bay of Biscay during the Middle Ages but it is not a Mediterranean fish. Nola’s recipe calling for it is unusual. Due to the elementary bone structure, it can be fried or baked whole. The meat is tender and tasty. [Christensen. 1978:66; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:58:125; Nola. 1989:lxv-2; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]


WOLFFISH IN CRUST ADAPTED FROM NOLA'S lxv-2 LOBO DE MAR (146) EN PAN[1]

Ingredients

1 lb wolfish[2]
½ tsp white pepper
1 tbsp ginger scrapings
basil
parsley
dill
1 garlic clove mashed
1 c dry white wine[3]
salt to taste
olive oil

Without a Doubt a Dish for Fish Lovers!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
For a sauce:

juice from 2 oranges
¼ c water
½ tsp pepper
1 tbsp oil
chopped herbs such as basil, parsley, dill and rosemary
1 c liquid from the baked fish

Preparation

Wash and clean the fish. Cut it into pieces. Mix it with spices. Grease a casserole and add the fish.

PREHEAT OVEN TO  400ºF/200ºC

Cook 30-35 minutes or until done.

For the sauce: combine ingredients as per above.  Pour the sauce over the casserole before serving. 


[1] See blog titled “debajo” published November 12, 2013 for this wolfish turnovers.
[2] Conger eel was used as wolfish was not available.
[3] The Medieval Spanish Chef’s addition.

Friday, December 25, 2015

LISIMAQUINA


Loosestrife
Photo from:  Alison Schwarzkopf
(lubinia or lubina [?]), L. Lysimachia vulgaris, Eng loosestrife. According to Calero, the word lunbina, found on page 28a of the original text of Arte Cisoria is actually lutibiva, which he explains in the glossary. It is an herb, the roots of which were used as seasoning. This is in concurrence with Navarro who states in his glossary that Lysimachia is the family and the species is lubinia. Saínz states that lutibua is an herb to accompany certain dishes.  Various Lysimachia species are grown in northern Spain and England. Loosestrife is still found in the Sierra Morena (Granada). Lysimachia species thrive around rocks, riverbeds and in swamplands. It also grows in the mountains in Cantabrica.

Today, they are considered weeds. In the Middle Ages they were used medicinally by making a decoction with the leaves and used as an astringent for their efficiency in healing wounds and restricting the blood. The aroma is so sharp that it scares snakes away and kills flies.

Navarro indicates that the roots must have been used as seasoning and the greens were used to accompany food dishes. Brown, however, in his glossary concludes that the word in question is lubina (sea bass) an ingredient used pigeon capírotada. In this case, he finds it a more logical ingredient than an herb. On page 44 of his edited version, Calero uses the word lubina not lubinia. See lubina. [Font. Plantas. 1999:371:522; Nola. 1989:xxii-1; Schroeter. 1999:453:5425.445:5459; Usher. 1974:367; Villena/Brown. 1986:92:172; Villena/Calero. 2002:44:100:28a; Villena/Navarro. 1879:270; and Villena/Saínz. 1969:138]


Wednesday, December 23, 2015

LISA, MÚGIL WITH 15TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR GRILLED MULLET


Mullets Glore
Photo from Kitsch and Classics
múgil común. OCast. muçola, Cat. llisa, mújol, L. Mugil auratus, Mugil chelo, Mugil saliens, Mugil capito, Eng. mullet (the Mugil auratus is the golden gray mullet, while the others are all called gray mullet). The name is applied to several species due to their similarities. They are abundant in the Mediterranean. Some may penetrate rivers and estuaries in small schools. They always swim close to the shore.

The Mugil auratus, Mugil capito and Mugil chelo are present on the English coasts.  They are bony fish about seven decimeters long. They usually weigh five or six pounds but can be as heavy as 10 to 12 lbs. The body is cylindrical with moderate sized scales.  The back is brown while the sides are gray. The stomach is silver. They have very small teeth. Their eyes are covered with a translucent membrane. On each side of the bronchial arch are a series of gill-rakers that strain the water and permit the fish to consume minute organic substances and silt from the bottom of the sea, detritus and plankton on the surface and worms and mollusks with water. The solids are left in a cavity for mastication. Like birds, the stomach is equipped with thick muscles to mash hard substances.

They spawn from July until October and reproduction is at its height during the second half of September. One female can produce 158,000 to 4,440,000 eggs. They hatch 24 hours after they are ffertilized. They can live for 9 to 10 years. The meat and the eggs are valued for their flavor. The meat is white and has a pleasant flavor similar to sea bass. See mújol. [Corbera. 1996:69; ES: Kuliev. Liza aurata. Jun 16, 02; ES: Kuliev. Liza salina. Jun 16, 02; ES: Lisa. Nov 3, 03; ES: Mullet. n/d; Villena/Brown. 1984:34:83:172; Villena/Calero. 2002:23a; and Villena/Saínz. 1969:139]

GRILLED MULLET ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S lxiii-2 LISA EN PARRILLAS 

Ingredients

1 mullet
olive oil
2 oranges
salt
herbs such as dill, parsley and majaron 

Preparation

Clean the mullet and wash without scaling. Grease it and the grill with oil. Turn it frequently and  grease it frequently. 

Make your light sauce with orange juice, and oil, and salt (Nola adds water which is not necessary), and heat this in a pot and pour it over the fish when ready to serve. 



Monday, December 21, 2015

LISA WITH 15TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR ROASTED BREADED MULLET

Mullet
Photo from: Jeremy
lija, OCast liça, liza, L. Chelon labrosus, Eng thick lip gray mullet. It lives in the Mediterranean at the mouth of rivers in brackish water. Its flesh is not appreciated being too fatty. See corón and lija  [Corbera, 1998:272-273; ES: Chelon. n/d; Nola. 1989:lxiii-2:lxiii-3:lxiii-4:lxiii-5; and Ruíz/Brey. 1965:179:1109a]

BREADED MULLET ADAPTED FROM NOLA lxiii-2 LISA EN PAN

Ingredients

1 lb mullet[1]
½  tsp white pepper
Breaded and Roasted Fish
Photo by: Lord-Williams
salt to taste
1 tsp ginger scrapings
1 raw egg
1 c breadcrumbs
a drizzle of olive oil

Garnish[2]

A sprig of parsley
A slice of lemon

Preparation

Scale, clean and wash mullet. Sprinkle with pepper, salt and ginger inside and out. Dip into breadcrumbs. Cover with slightly beaten egg. 

Drizzle with olive oil. Roast in oven.


[1] As mullet was not available tilapia from the Pacific Ocean was used.
[2] The Medieval Spanish Chef’s addition.


Friday, December 18, 2015

LIRIO WITH RECIPE FOR FRIED LILY BUDS


Lily with Buds
Photo by: Lord-Williams
L. Lilium, Eng. lily. This plant is the symbol of purity, chasteness and virginity. The blue lily was one of the most loved plants by 11th C. Hispano Arabs who wrote: ‘It threw off its white dress with repugnance, the color of its brother, to dress in a blue cape. The sparkle appears to have been taken from the celestial dome; if the peacock could wear it, it would be greeted as the king of all other birds.’

Medicinally, the lily was used ground or as an oil. In Spain, it was applied as a deodorant by rubbing it on armpits and groins. In England, the oil was used to treat the retention of mucus secreted in abdominal areas and in the respiratory passage. Physicians in the Middle Ages, attempted to restore heat and dryness to a woman's disposition, i.e. to force menstruation. Normally, this involved vomiting and purging (the evacuation of bowels) of the patient, who afterward took a medicinal bath. Then she was put to bed, massaged with lily oil and consumed a potion. Fumigation followed by applying extremely odiferous fumes at the genital opening and the physician cautioned the midwife not to allow them to penetrate the patient’s nose because of terrible smell. (Physicians were not allowed to treat women patients directly. Only the midwife could examine her and apply remedies he prescribed.) Next, she was bleed; this was to induce the flow from vagina. Finally a pessary (device worn in the vagina to support the uterus, a remedy for malposition or to prevent conception) or a vaginal suppository was inserted. Preferably this operation took place during the first quarter of moon. If did not work, the process was repeated during the second quarter. Although the procedure seems atrocious, it attempted to relieve patient. It is reported that if the midwife exerted effort, she could relieve the pain and help patient become well.

Lily syrup made with honey was drunk for refreshment. Reportedly, the taste is agreeable not repugnant. It purifies to a great extent the stomach and veins, cuts phlegmatic humors and opens up obstructions. These effects are produced with the large leaves used although small ones are more efficacious. Further, they clean the chest, lungs and visceras; nevertheless they weaken the stomach, for they are not astringent or aromatic. If prepared with a little mastic, the result is more effective and still more useful if prepared once every four days. It is also beneficial against prolonged fevers.

In cookery, the bulb was used like other members of the lily family as the onion, turnip, garlic and aloe. Napoleon’s troops are reported to have subsisted on this during their marches throughout Europe. The roots of wild lilies were ground into flour to make bread in times of famine. The flowers were used to garnish dishes and in wine. Caution, smelling lilies causes freckles according to medieval beliefs. See aceite de azucena.

Wines made with flowers were well-known in Al-Andalus cookery. Lilies were used in syrups and sherbets in Granada. They were consumed cold and hot with the flowers, and fruits. They were consumed as purgatories and drunk for the delicious flavor.

[Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1990:19:51; ES: Calle. “Poetas.” Sep 21, 01; ES: Herbs. Oct 8, 02; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:93:102:104-105]

Delicious Fried Lily Buds to Accompany a Main Dish
Photo by: Lord-Williams
FRIED LILY BUDS FROM THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF

Ingredients

1 bunch of lily buds
¼ c butter
salt to taste

Preparation


Cut lily buds from stalks.  Melt butter in a frying pan. Fry lilies. Add salt to taste. Serve as a side dish.