|Braided Bread with Poppy Seeds|
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Unfortunately, Iberian bread recipes from the 15
It is known that this is a flatbread, which has been considered to be the worst as it is heavy and difficult to digest. García Sánchez maintains that only those with strong stomachs can eat it. Once the bread cooled it was thick and hard, not spongy.
It was considered to be “peasants’ bread." It was the basis of their alimentation. No specific recipes for this bread are available in the texts reviewed but it seems that any flatbread recipe would do. Most breads in Al-Andalus were made with wheat except in times of shortages.
[Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:36; ES: Flickr. "World of Tim." Posted Apr 30, 15; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez, Alimentación. 1983;140:150]
hallulla, Ar. al-malla, Heb. hallah, challah. Eng. halo bread, egg bread for the Jewish Sabbath. This is a round or braided loaf of Jewish bread, which may have raisins inside. It was made in Jewish communities especially for the Sabbath. The Hebrew word refers also to the portion of dough reserved for the rabbi. In general, loaves of bread were round during the Middle Ages.
Photo by: Lord-Wiliams
See blog titled “Hogaza” posted March 30, 2015.[Ares. Gastronomía. 2000:117; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:72; ES: Lord. Medieval. “hogaza.” Posted Mar 20, 15]
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Muslims held flax material in high regard for its richness, quality and delicateness. The hemp, flax and silk industries gave many families livelihood not only in Muslim Spain but also in Estremadura.
See blog titled “Lino,” published November 11, 2015 for the bread recipe.
[ES: Lord. Medieval. “Lino.” Posted Nov 11, 15.]
pan ácimo, Sp. Heb. mása, Heb. matza(h), mazoth, Eng. matzah, matzo, matzoh, matza, unleavened, flatbread eaten during Pesakh (Passover). It was made with white flour and cold water. Egg and olive oil could be added. Avenzoar thought it had a noxious, heavy, phlegmatic humor difficult to digest and he maintained that it produced vulgar humors. He recommended it for those who performed heavy labor. The working class in Al-Andalus ate it. It was baked in tandoor ovens.
In northern Europe, slices of one-day old bread were used as trenchers instead of plates. Each eater or two eaters, depending if trenchers were shared or not, received a new slice with every course of the meal. They were piled up between eaters. At the end of the meal, trenchers were not thrown out but given to the poor.
See blog titled “Cenceño,” posted October 20, 2010. Blogs titled "Rebanada" and "tRajadero" will be published in the future.
[Aguilera. 2002:95; Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:124;
1979:I:A:263; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva
Clássica. 1995:36; Castro. Alimentación.
1996:187:255;ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02:ftn 150; ES:
Castro. “de Nuevo.” Posted 1999-2000; ES: “Gastronomía.” Posted May 2, 03; ES:
Lord. Medieval. “Ácimo.” Posted Oct 20, 10; Gázquez. Cocina.
1999:286-287; Hieatt. Pleyn.
1976:xii; Ibn Razín/Marín.
2007:Ch1:4:79; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:46; Montoro/Ciceri. 1991:203:102; Nola.
1989:xxiii-4; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:212]
pan adárgama, pan de flor, Ar. darmak, Eng. fine wheat bread made with extra fine flour; white bread, bread made with finely sifted wheat flour. Avenzoar explains that it was the most nutritious of all breads. Averroes calls it "pan darmach." Ibn Razīn calls for “flor de harina” (fine wheat flour) in his recipes for this bread and pastries.
[ES: Lord. Fadalat. Posted Jan 26, 08; Ibn Razīn/Granja.1960:1:19:52:21:60:22; Ibn Razīn/Marin. 2007:Ch1:1:77-78:Ch4:1:108:8:108 etc; Ibn Zuhr. 1992:46 ftn 2]
pan al rescoldo, bread baked under ashes. See hallulla and aljubz.
[Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:77]
pan de almortas
Before the 8th C. B.C., Spaniards were making cakes with acorn flour and cooking them over the fire. They have been baked and used as a coffee substitute. During fruit famines they have been eaten as fruit. Villena lists them as such.
|Sour Dough Rye Bread|
Photo by: Lord-Williams
pan de centeno, Eng. rye bread. After wheat bread, rye and spelt were the most consumed for their dryness and nutritious elements. As both rye and spelt have hard short straw with the grain firmly attached to the spikelets, these grains were considered better than barley for bread making.
Medieval pilgrims on the Way of St. James did not always eat bread made from wheat but did eat rye, for the steep mountains, dry lands and wide barren plains only produced rye. For the same reason villagers living around the skirt of the Teleno Mountains in León are accustomed to eating jerky with rye bread.
In many areas in England, rye has been common for the same reasons. As in Spain, it has been used in times of wheat famine. In Canterbury Tales, the nun ate maslin bread (which is a medieval mixture of wheat, barley and rye and means mixture in French). In both countries rye was the food of the poor due to the prices for wheat. See blogs titled “Alcandía,” posted March 12. 2010; “Centeno,” posted October 22, 2012, “Ergotísmo” posted February 4, 2014; and “Pan de Escanda,” below.
[Ares. 1994:102; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica.1995:36-37; Drummond. 1994:48; ES: Lord. Medieval. “Alcandía.” Posted Mar 12. 10; ES: Lord. Medieval. “Centeno.” Posted Oct 22, 12; ES: Lord. Medieval.“Ergotísmo” Posted Feb 4, 14; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:77; and Viñayo. 1994:53]
pan de cizaña, darnel, tare bread. Avenzoar claimed it was hot and dry. He claimed it will barely hurt those with a phlegmatic complexion. [Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:48]
pan de escanda, L. Triticum spelta, Eng. spelt bread. This is confused with rye bread (pan de cebada, L. Secale cereale) as it is the same color. Spelt is a graminaceous plant similar to wheat but the grass is harder and shorter and the grain firmly attached to the spikelets. These grains were considered better than barley for bread making. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica.1995:36-37: Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:47:ftn 7; and Trapiello. 1994:139]
pan de flor, see pan adárgama.
pan de garbanzos, chickpea bread. After wheat and barley bread, it is the most healthy and very nutritious. It augments sperm greatly. It has a marked aphrodisiac nature and generates fewer gases than fava bread.
See blog titled “Garbanzos,” published October 24, 2014.
[ES: Lord. Medieval. “Garbanzos.” Posted Oct 24, ’14; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:48]
pan de habas, fava bread. Avenzoar said it is dry and inclined to be cold. It produces nightmares and sometimes sweet dreams; it perturbs the mind and produces gases and stomach and intestinal aches. See haba. [Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:48]
pan de hogaza, see hogaza, above.
pan de lentejas, lentil bread. Avenzoar says it is like millet bread. See “Lentejas,” posted November 13, 2015.
[ES: Lord. Medieval. “Lentejas.” Posted Nov 13, ’15; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:48]
|Flatbread Made with Millet|
Photo by: Lord-Williams
pan de mijo, Leon borona, Hisp Ar Jubz al-baniy, Eng, millet bread. Probably Avenzoar is referring to pearl millet when he states that millet was used in porridge and as fodder for livestock (see “pan de panizo,” below). It could be used only to make flat or unleavened bread especially in times of wheat famines.
Moors and poor peasants are known to have eaten millet bread frequently. The Hispano-Muslim recipe is one of the few that was native to the area, see blog titled “mijo” posted July 20, 2016 for Barajas-Benavides’ recipe. Most recipes used there during Muslim occupation were based on Middle East cuisine.
Avenzoar considered millet bread to be colder and drier than barley or rye bread, although more astringent than barley, rye or spelt. In Leon, millet bread or cake was made but today, that is substituted with corn flour. “Boroña preñada” is the same with chorizo or lard filling. See “Al-jubz,” above.
[Barajas-Benavides. La Alhambra. 1999:96-97Castro. Alimentación. 1996:205; ES: Castro. “The Role.” Aug 3, 03; ES: Lord. Medieval. “Mijo.” Posted Jul 20, ’16; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:77; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:48:ftn 9; and
pan de panizo, L. Panicum, MEng. panik, Eng. panic grass bread. Avenzoar states that it is cold and dry. It has more flavor then all the other breads after wheat and barley bread. Marín states that it was well-liked in Al-Andalus. Ibn Razín’s recipe calls for making flatbreads and baking them in the oven. [Ibn Razín/Marín. 2007:Ch1:5:79; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:48]
Fadalat has one recipe for baked flatbread and two cooked on a griddle. Granja seems to indicate that first recipe in Fadalat is for a loaf while Marin clearly states that it is flatbread.
[Anón/Huici.1966:142:96-97:383:210:415:228 etc; Castro. Alimentación. 1996:177; ES: Decker. “Which”. Posted Jun 14, 01; ES: Lord. Medieval. “Arroba.” Posted 17 Nov, ’11: ES: Lord. Medieval. “Cocho.” Posted Mar 15, ’12: ES: Lord. Medieval. “Pan.” posted Dec 26, ’16; ES: Organic. Posted Apr 14, 03; Ibn Razīn/Granja. 1960:1:19; Ibn Razín/Marin. 2007:CH1:1-3:77-79; Lord. Hispano. May 24, 06: 1]
pan de sorgo, sorghym bread. It was thought to be cold, dry and not very nutritious. See sorgo. [Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:48]
pan de trigo, wheat bread. According to Avenzoar, the most valued bread was that containing fermented yeast and baked in a tandoor or oven. Normally, it was made with a lot of water and well kneaded in order to make bread that is similar to sponges for the perforations. It was thought to be moderately warm and humid. It is good for the healthy and the sick throughout the year. The best is freshly baked and the worst was old. See trigo. [Anón/Huici. 1966:169:110:179:177:430:237; ES: Lord. Medieval. “Arroba” Posted 17 Nov, ’11: ES: Lord. Medieval. “Mišāš.” Posted Aug 1, 16: ES: Lord. Medieval. “Mezquino, -a.” Posted Jun 29, 16; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:46]
pan de trigo y centeno, wheat and rye bread. In León for centuries wheat and rye were combined to make their common bread due to wheat shortages in the region. During the 10th C. there was a law stating that lords must give this bread with onions and cheese to villains on the days that they labored in their fields. [Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:42]
pan fermentado, leavened bread. [Anón/Huici. Al-Andalus. 1965:160:104-105:275:159-160:447:260-261; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 00:84]
pan gramado, white bread. Breadcrumbs from one-day old white bread were thought to be the best. Ibn Razīn uses fine, white breadcrumbs from white bread to make breaded veal heads. [<>Ibn Razīn/Granja. 1960:6:20]
pan hueco, Ar, ka’k, Eng. round or ring shaped biscuits. Recipes for making them are found in medieval Arabic Manuscripts and they are mentioned in Knights. They contain yeast. Like “pan bismat,” above, in Al-Andalus, they were made with plenty of oil.
They were more popular than pan bismat being a spongy biscuit containing almonds, honey or sugar, as per the quality. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:37; Perry. “Appendix.” 2001:453:461; and Robinson. “Studies.” 2001:143:155]
pan integral, whole wheat bread, whole grain bread. It is made with unrefined flour of mature wheat, including the bran layers and germ. It is salted, made into dough and baked in the oven. Correctly made, it is the most nutritious. During the Spanish Middle Ages, all three cultures (Muslim, Jewish and Christian) made this type of bread with yeast. They baked it in the oven or under the coals. The custom was lost in the Orient but carried on in the West. It was common in the Mediterranean and in cereal cultures. Maimonides recommended it as the best of all foods for nutrition. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:82-83]
pan salvado, canto de soma, bran bread. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:260]