Entradas populares

Friday, April 29, 2016

MATARIFE WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FAKE BURGERS MADE WITH CHICKPEA FLOUR

Spanish Slaughter Man Taking a Deep Breath
before Severing the Aorta with the Sped of Lightening
Photo by: Lord-Williams
jifero, Est matachín, Heb shojet, Eng slaughter, a man who “sacrifices” livestock, a slaughter who does the actual killing and directs the entire operation. The position is more respected than that of a butcher. As in bull fighting, it is an art requiring strength, speed and precision to cut the aorta cleanly with one thrust of the dagger for the death to be painless.

Traditionally the slaughter takes place on the street in front of the owner’s home for all to see the ‘sacrifice’ and to observe the art of cutting up the carcass, such as removing the bile, chopping off the hooves and separating the meat from the lard and fat. It does seem ironic that Protestant England slaughters or butchers its animals but in Spain animals, especially pigs, are “sacrificed”.

Pope Gregory III prohibited sacrifices in the name of the RC Church. The local Spanish priest, however, continues to be given the best cut after the slaughter. Not fulfilling this tradition would be unthinkable. At the end of the three days during which the slaughters are performed and the meats prepared, the local priest says mass to bless the slaughter in return for the meat he receives.

The Jewish rabbi did not wait for his portion for it was in his hands. He was the matarife of the Jewish community. In Tetuan, he was called the Wiseman. The animal was killed with one blow; it died two or three minutes after that. All the blood was drained from its body, as it was unclean to eat that.

Slaughter Man Removing the Head
Then the Tongue in One Piece
Photo by: Lord-Williams
The law prohibited Jews from purchasing meat killed by Christians but not the other way around. In Trujillo, Estremadura, Christians bought meat from the Jews and even the king ate meat prepared by them during his visits there as reportedly Jews were the best slaughters in the area and sold the best meat. Still in the 21th C the rabbi kills cattle and oxen.

Muslims in Spain had their own slaughter-man and to this day, “sacrifrice” their animals instead of animals instead of killing them. As the Jews, they slit the throat of the animal rather than the aorta as Christians do. The blood from Jewish and Muslim beasts is let to run out on the ground as it is not considered consumable and the animal is purified with prayer. Further, Jews soak meat in water five or six times with salt to insure there is no blood left. They also removed the sciatic vein from the joints. Larding meat is unheard of in Jewish communities as all fat is removed from the beast.

At midday, the slaughter was served a humble dish but one of his favorites. Groats were popular.

[Camba. 1995:41:91;
Ares. Gastronomía. 2000:71; Gitlitz. 1999:110:147:157 etc; Martínez Llopis. Historia.1981: 130; Sanz. 1967:18-21; and Serradilla. 1993:34:35:37 etc]


A VERY SPECIAL DISH FOR THE SLAUGHTER MAN COULD BE:

FAKE BURGERS MADE WITH GARBANZO FLOUR ADAPTED FROM HIUCI’S TRANSLATION OF AL-ANDALUS #7 LA “ISFIRIY” FALSIFICADA DE GARBANZOS, p18 PLUS SAUCE BELOW

Ingredients

1 ¼ c raw chickpeas

 Chickpea Mixture
Photo by: Lord-Williams
For burgers:
1 c raw chickpeas
1 onion + ¼  onion for sauce
¼ tsp white pepper
¼ c aromatic herbs such as basil mint, oregano and parsley + more herbs for sauce
1 garlic clove mashed


Preparation prior to frying:
½ c chickpea flour
1 egg
olive oil for frying

Sauce, see below

Preparation

Grind chickpeas in a food processor until ground into a fine flour. Remove ¼ c 

Soak the second cup of chickpeas overnight. Rinse and boil the following day. When soft let cook.

Peel and chop onion. Sautée in olive oil.

Grind pepper and mix with chopped herbs and garlic clove. Mix with chickpeas.  Add 1 tbsp chickpea flour and mix well. Make burgers with this mixture.

Put the remaining chickpea flour in a bowl. Roll burgers in the flour.

Heat olive oil in a frying pan. Add burgers. Turn when browned and remove.

Make a humus sauce.

Serve warm with sauce on the side.  

THE SPANISH MEDIEVAL CHEF'S VERSION OF A HUMMUS SAUCE 

An Exquisite Way to Compliment 
A Hard Day's Work
Photo by: Pedro Pablo Montero
Ingredients

½ c broth from boiling chickpeas
¼ c leftover burger filling
2 tbsp vinegar
1 tbsp mustard
1 tsp ginger
1 tsp olive oil
1 tbsp herbs such as: parsley, basil, marjoram and mint

Preparation

Combine all ingredients except ½ tsp of the herbs. Put in a pot and bring to a boil. Simmer until it thickens. Pour the sauce into a serving bowl and sprinkle with the remaining herbs.

Serve "Fake Brugers" with sauce on the side.


HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF AL-ANDALUS #7





Monday, April 25, 2016

MASTUERZO WITH 14TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR RISSOLES WITH AROMATIC HERBS

Watercress
A Delight in Salad and Rissoles
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OCat moritort, Cat morritort, L  Lepidium sativum, Eng. garden cress, watercress, peppergrass. The plant traveled from Babylonia to Egypt in the times of the pharaohs. Pliny knew it. It came to Andalusia where it is picked around June, just before or after the flowers open. Since Roman times, it has been used as a salad herb with its white flowers, dry fruit with two seeds. It was common in English medieval herb gardens. The greens have a biting peppery taste. The more mature the plant, the hotter the leaves. In Andalusia it was also used to flavor salmuera (salt brine [see almorí de pescado]), marinades and pottages.

Generally, it is not used medicinally, although it contains a natural antibiotic. In Al- Andalus it was used as a diuretic for stomach pain.

[Anón/Grewe. 1982: CLXVIIII:181-182:ftn 6: Apè III:239;ES: FAO. Ch 29. Feb 2, 98; Henisch. 1976:109; Martínez Llopis. Historia. 1981:108; and Pullar. 1970:104.]


RISSOLES[1] WITH AROMATIC HERBS ADAPTED FROM GREWE’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN SENT SOVÍ CLXVIIII QUI PARLA CON SE FFA FFREXOLS[2], pp181-182

Ingredients

½ c mixed green herbs[3]
2 ¼ tsp yeast
1 ¼ c water
2 c flour
¼ tsp salt

olive oil for frying

Preparation

Perfectly unique hors d'oeuvres that can be made 
ahead of time and fried at the last minute
Photo by: Pedro Pablo Montero
Wash and chop herbs. Set aside.

Sift flour and yeast. Add water little by little until smooth. Add herbs and mix well. Cover and let sit in a warm spot for one hour.

Heat oil in a frying pan. When hot drop spoonfuls of the batter into the oil. When browned remove from oil and place on paper towels. Serve warm with dip.

Mint and Yogurt Dip by the Medieval Spanish Chef

1 individual natural yogurt
1 tbsp chopped mint
1 raw mashed garlic clove
1 tbsp honey

Preparation

Mix all ingredients. Place in a small serving bowl, cover and refrigerate over night. Serve at room temperature.


[1] This is a forerunner of croquettes.
[2] The Forme of Cury, p. 189 calls this “fritters” or “fried cakes” and lists the recipes for this in the manuscript. The one calling for herbs, IV:156, p 132 drizzles the fritters with honey when done.
[3] Sent Soví calls for “all good herbs:” all good herbs such as watercress, mint, cilantro, hyssop, parsley, sage, savory, fennel, rue, cumin and anise. The Medieval Spanish chef used what was available.  These included ¾ c of watercress, ¾ c mint, 1 tbsp chopped cilantro, 2 tbsp parsley flakes, ½ c sage leaves, 1 tsp ground cumin and 1 tbsp anise stars. Items that were not chopped were put in the food processor with water and then strained and mixed with the other herbs.


GREWE’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN SENT SOVÍ 




Friday, April 22, 2016

MASADOR WITH TANTALIZING 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR FLAKY BREAD ROLLS

Kneaded Dough 
Photo by: Lord-Williams
 dough mixer, egg beater. During the Middle Ages this referred to the baker not a machine.

FLAKY BREAD ROLLS ADAPTED AND ELABORATED ON FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF AL-ANDALUS #145 EMPANADA DE HOJALDRE, p 98[1]

Ingredients 
for about 2 ½ dozen rolls

For dough:
2 eggs[2]
5 ¾ c flour
2 c water
7 tbsp goat milk powder[2]
½ c oil
2 ½ tbsp. yeast

Other:
Oiling Center Half of Rectangle
Photo by: Lord-Williams
½ c oil for spreading on dough
2 tbsp oil for frying (optional)

Garnish (optional)

A drizzle of honey
½ tsp white pepper

Preparation

Dampen semolina and let sit until soft (about 24 hours).

Mix eggs, flour and other ingredients knead until smooth from 20 to 25 minutes. Make a ball with this and cover with a cloth. Put in a dark place and let rise (this can be 15 minutes or overnight).

Place the dough on a floured surface and roll out into a square about ½” thick. Cover with a towel and let rest 15 minutes.


Spread oil on ⅔ of the square. Fold the side without oil over the center ⅓ of the dough. Fold the remaining ⅓ of the dough over this. Put dough on a baking sheet and place this in the freezer for ½ hour.

Melt the remaining butter, if using butter.

Remove the dough from the freezer and flatten into a rectangle about 24” long and 1/4″ thick.

Slicing Dough for Bread Rolls
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Brush the oil on the center half of the dough. Fold one fourth of the part with no oil over half of the oiled part. Do the same with the other part with no oil. Flatten this with a rolling pin.

Brush half of the dough lengthwise. Fold half the dough over the other half, lengthwise. With a rolling pin flatten this strip to be about 1” thick and 3” wide.

Cut the dough into ½ to ¾” pieces. Place each piece flat on the cutting board. Roll from top to bottom.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF/175ºC
Baked Rolled Roll with a Drizzle of Honey
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Heat olive oil for frying. Add bread rolls and roll to cover with oil.[3] Place rolls on a cookie sheet and bake in the oven. Half way through baking turn the rolls bottom side up to prevent burning. When done place the rolls in a serving dish. Drizzle with honey and sprinkle with pepper.




 [1] PLEASE NOTE: The original recipe is provided below for the reader to compare differences between the Medieval Spanish Chef's interpretation. Any alterations from the original text are to modernize applications as cooks have machinery instead of servants to assist preparations; and further to enrich the results, within the lines of product availability prior to the 16th century in the Iberian peninsula. 
[2] The Medieval Spanish Chef's additions. 
[3] The original text states: place grapes (uvas) over bread. Perry translated "uvas" to mean "fingers."

HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF AL-ANDALUS #145


Wednesday, April 20, 2016

MARTA CEBELLINA

Image from page 127 of
"The animal kingdom "
From: Internet Archive Book Images
L. Mustela zibellina Eng. sable (‘sable marten’). This flesh-eating animal, feeding on small animals, eggs, fish, seeds, honey and fruits, is a member of the weasel family. According to Benavides-Barajas, it is of Turkish origin, while other sources claim that it is a native of artic and sub-artic regions of Europe and Russia. 

Today, it only exists in Kamchatka (northern Russia) between the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. Sable in America is another larger species. The fur of Spanish and Portuguese sables was treasured particularly in the 15 C and exported to England but the meat went to Iberian pots, especially in Al-Andalus. Most sources state that the color of the fur varies from brown to black while the Oxford English Dictionary claims it is brown but dyed black.

[Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:220; Espasa.1988:33: MARI:426; OXF Dict. 1989:XIV:Rob:322-323; and Webster’s New Geographical Dict. 1992:584]

Monday, April 18, 2016

MARRANA

A Little Lady with a History
Photo by: Lord-Williams
female swine. When she gives birth, she should have 12 piglets, one for each nibble. The babies suck the same one as long as they breast feed. See cerdo and guarra. [Cerdo. n/d: 42]

The pig in the photo was sent to the slaughter by mistake. No one knew this at the time. When hurling her onto the slaughter block,  she slipped out of the slaughter man's hands in her desperation to live. She showed super woman power, knocking down a metal fence and racing to a river below.

The slaughter man and his assistants chased her and lassoed her on the bank. It took eight of them to drag her to back to her death. When opening the uterus, to their horror, they found 12 piglets.

Everyone was very sorry for her but she did provide sweet and sour meal.

BARBARA SANTICH’S ROAST PORK WITH SWEET-SOUR SAUCE ADAPTED FROM ROSTO IN CISAME BONO E PERFECTO OTIMO (LIBRO PER CUOCO, VENETIAN 14-15 C)

Ingredients

1 boned loin of pork, crackling removed, about 1 k (2 lb)
10 dates (preserved, but not the seeded and compressed kind)
2 tbsp currants
½ c muscat or cream sherry
½ c wine vinegar
1 tsp ginger
good grinding black pepper
1 egg
1 tbsp pine nuts

Preparation

An Excellent Sauce for a Tender Lady
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Roast pork at 200ºC (400ºF) for about 1 hour or until cooked through (cooking time will depend on the thickness of the meat). Allow to rest in warming oven while preparing sauce.

Remove stones from dates and chop roughly. Add dates and currants to wine and vinegar and cook over low heat for 10 minutes, stirring from time to time. The dates will soften and become pulpy. Add ginger and pepper. Take out a few spoons of the liquid and allow to cool. Beat egg thoroughly, then gradually beat in lukewarm wine and vinegar mixture. Return this to the pan, and stir constantly until sauce thickens to the consistency of a thin custard. Remove from heat. Lightly toast the pine nuts, wither under the grill or in a lightly oiled pan, and add to sauce. Carve meat, and offer sauce separately.

Spinach cooked with pancetta and currents (pp 128-129)[1] make a harmonious accompaniment to this dish.


[1] Recipe – Ingredients: 1 k (2 lb) spinach, 2 tbsp currants, 60 g (2 oz) pancetta. Preparation: Wash spinach and trim stalks. Cook in a large saucepan without Add additional water, turning spinach over from time to time to allow it to cook evenly and prevent it burning on the bottom. Cook for 2-3 minutes after it begins to steam. Drain, cook and squeeze dry.

Meanwhile soak currants for 5 minutes in hot water to cover, roughly chop pancetta and fry in a lightly oiled pan until the fat runs. Roughly chop the spinach, and add to the pan with the drained currants. Toss spinach with pancetta and currants until heated though, and serve. (Recipe adapted by Barbara Santich from Libre del Coch.)


Friday, April 15, 2016

MARRAJO WITH GRILLED MACRO STEAK RECIPE IN ORANGE SAUCE


Shortfin Mako Shark
Photo from: bellvillekevin
1. L. Isurus oxyrinchus, Eng. shortfin mako sharks. These are dangerous fish for men. They are extremely fast swimming close to the water surface in oceans and capable of covering 90 miles a few hours. Often, they form numerous schools. As their meat is highly valued, it is expensive. They are present in the Atlantic up to the British Isles, in the Mediterranean and the Pacific Ocean. 2. indomitable bull or ox that does not mind unless beaten. [Castro. Alimentación. 1996:327; and Corbera. 1998:43]

THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF’S GRILLED MAKO STEAKS IN ORANGE SAUCE 

Ingredients:

Grilled Macro Steak in Orange Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
4 mako shark steaks[1]

4 garlic cloves mashed
1 c fresh orange juice
1 ½ tsp chopped oregano
1 tbsp chopped parsley
1 tbsp chopped celery
1 tsp dill
salt to taste
½ tsp white pepper
olive oil for frying

Garnish

4 orange slices
sprigs of dill

Preparation
Wash steaks in cold water and pat dry. Rub with with garlic on both sides.
Let sit while combining the remaining ingredients except the olive oil in a bowl large enough for the steaks. Dip each steak in this and turn to dip the other side.  Let the steaks sit for 15 minutes to absorb the juice and herbs.
Brush the steaks with the left over marinade. Heat the olive oil and fry for about 5 minutes on one side and turn to fry about 5 minutes on the other side until done. Garnish and serve immediately



[1] Ordinary shark can be used if makos are not available.

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

MARMITE WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR TEL KADAYIF/DECORATIVE CREPE NIBBLES


Marmite
Photo by: Lord-Williams
marmite, earthenware cooking container, stockpot. Today, these are being replaced by teflon pots and pans. [Anón/Grewe; 1982:XXXXVIIII; Anón/Hucci. 1966:330: 183:405:223:408:225]

PREPARATION OF TEL KADAYIF
[1]/FINE PASTRY ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS, #405 HECHURA DE LA “KINĀFA[2], p 223

Ingredients[3]

4-5 crepes made with semolina flour[4]
¾ c olive oil
¾ c honey
½ c rosewater
camphor[5]
1 ½ c powdered sugar
Shredding Orange Peel for Crepes
Photo by: Lord-Williams
15 small pieces of taffy
spikenard[6]
¾ tsp cloves
3 tsp peeled and chopped almonds

Preparation

Take paper-thin crepes and cut them up in pieces the size of rose pedals. Some 40 pedals were cut. They were divided into 3 batches.

Pour enough oil in a marmite to cover pieces of crepe (¼ c in this case) and bring to a boil. Place as many pedals as another marmite (9” diameter) will hold (12-15 in this case). Pour boiling oil over the pedals. Let the oil boil until absorbed (pour off excess oil if necessary).

Put 5 pieces of taffy in a different pan and melt it over low heat.

Add enough clarified honey to cover the pedals (¼ c), and sprinkle it with rose water (¼ c) in which camphor has been dissolved. Stir it gently to prevent if from sticking to the bottom of the marmite.


Pouring boiling water over 
 crepes shaped like rose pedals
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Sprinkle it with powdered sugar (¼ c), stir it gently and when starts to thicken, pour melted taffy over the pedals. Remove from heat, stir it and place it on a plate. Sprinkle it with spikenard, ½ tsp cloves, ¼ c powdered sugar, 1 tsp chopped and peeled almonds. Smooth it with a spoon while it cools[7] and the oil disappears, as you do with mu'assal[8]. The people of Bijaya and Ifriqiyya [Tunisia] make kunafa with fresh and clarified butter instead of oil, but oil is better and lasts longer.[9]

Repeat this recipe two more times or until the pedals have all been treated.

Place the pedals on a plate, serve warm if possible and enjoy.



Yummy tidbits!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
[1] Fine pastry strands. Today pastry cut up like noodles as per “Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cooking,” 1998, pg 137 but in the 13th century, it was paper thin bread, basically crepes.
[2] Huici states that this means encircle.
[3] Measurements are flexible as per the utensils used.
[4] Recipe: 
Ingredients - ¾ c semolina flour, 2 eggs, ½ tsp salt, ⅔ c milk, 1 tsp baking powder, 2 tbsp powdered sugar, ½ tsp orange peel, ⅓ c water.
Preparation – Sift flour, add salt, baking powder, sugar and resift. Add orange peel. Beat eggs, add milk and water. Pour liquid ingredients into sifted ingredients, combine with a few swift strokes – ignore lumps.
Heat a 5” skillet, grease it with a  few drops of good oil. Add a small quantity of batter, tip the skillet and let batter spread over the bottom. Cook crepe over moderate heat. When brown underneath, flip it over and brown the other side. Use a few drops of oil for each crepe.
[5] Camphor was not used as it tastes like mothballs.
[6] Not available.
[7] Huici translates this as “fries” / fríe but that is a little difficult if removed from the heat. Perhaps he meant enfríe, it cools.
[8] Huici states this means “honeyed”.
[9] Charles Perry adds: “Fascinating recipe. Today kunafa is the baked Arab pastry that looks like shredded wheat; in the Middle Ages it was a thin crepe but in this recipe it is cut into small pieces and fried rather than baked.”

HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS, #405