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Wednesday, August 16, 2017

POMADA - APPLESAUCE THE MEDIEVAL WAY

Nola's Puréed Applesauce
enriched with almonds
Photo by: Lord-Williams
pomade, applesauce. [Nola. 1989:xvi-1]

For Nola’s recipes see the following blogs:
            Agua de rosas, published January 11, 2010
            En uno, published February 21, 2014

Monday, August 14, 2017

POLVORÓN WITH A SPANISH RECIPE TO MELT IN YOUR MOUTH!

Fresh from the Oven
Photo by: Lord-Williams
tarta de polvorón (from polvo, dust), sweet or tiny cake, smaller than cupcakes, made with lard, flour and sugar and flavored to taste, baked and sprinkled with powdered sugar, flour and sugar prior to serving. Upon eating it melts or ‘turns to dust’ in the mouth. This was a typical desert in Al-Andalus, which was readily adopted by Christian Spain. Today it is found everywhere in the country. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:289]THE 



MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF’S RECIPE FOR POLVORONES

Ingredients

1 ½ c flour
¾ c raw almonds
5 oz (1/2 c plus 2 tbsp) butter or lard
¾ c powdered sugar
½ tsp cinnamon

Garnish
½ c powdered sugar


Preparation

A Sweet to Melt in Your Mouth!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
PREHEAT OVEN TO 350ºF/175ºC
Pour flour out onto a cookie sheet. Toast it, moving it around to toast evenly. Leave in over for about 8 minutes. Remove and let cool.

Toast raw almonds on a cookie sheet for 8-10 minutes. Remove  from oven and pput almonds in a food processor. Grind until fine.

REDUCE OVEN HEAT TO 300ºF/150ºC

Cream butter, sugar and cinnamon in a large mixing bowl. Add flour and almonds. Continue mixing until dough if very crumbly.


Make a ball with the dough. Place it on a flat surface and flatten it until it is about ½” high. Cut little cakes with a cookie cutter.

Line a cookie sheet with wax paper. Place the cakes on this and bake 10-15 minutes. Do not let them brown as traditionally they are white. Remove the cookie sheet from oven when down and let cakes cool on the cookie sheet.

When cool sprinkle with sugar and serve.

Friday, August 11, 2017

POLVORIZAR - TO SPRINKLE WITH POWDER

Marzipan Fresh from the Oven
With Broth Drink for the Ailing
Photo by: Lord-Williams
 
polvorear, espolvorear, 1. to pulverize. 2. to sprinkle something powdered, such as ground cinnamon. [Nola. 1989: xxxiiii-4:xliiii-3; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:207]

See the follog blogs:

Aticas published September 13, 2011
Carnestolendas published August 31, 2012
Combinian published May 13, 2013

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

POLVORIZADO - PULVERIZED, POWDERED



Delicious Fritters Sprinkled with Sugar!
Photo by: Lord-Williams


polvorizado, pulverized, powdered, sprinkled. [Nola. 1989:xxx-5:xl-4: Nola/Pérez. 1994:206]

See blogs as follows:

Agrio published October 23, 2010
Gofio published December 8, 2012
Orelletes published December 21, 2016
among others

Monday, August 7, 2017

PÓLVERA DE DUQUE - DUKE'S POWDER

Duke's Powder
Photo by: Lord-Williams
pólvora dulce Cat. pólvora de duch, Eng “the duke’s powders.” This seems to be a corruption of pólvera dulce, sweet powder or sweet ground spices. Nola gives two recipes for this but these are the spices used when in making hipprocas. All that is lacking is the addition of  ½ red wine and ½ white wine white, see hiprocrás. On the other hand, it could be a sauce made with cloves, ginger, sugar and cinnamon. [ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01: ftn 9; Nola.1989:xiii-1:xiii-2; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:185:191:206]

For recipes see the following blogs:

Cardamomo, published Augusr 16, 2012
Escrúpulo published April 18, 2014
Garam masala published October 22, 2014

Friday, August 4, 2017

POLLO, - A, WITH RECIPE FOR CHICKEN BOILED IN LIME JUICE

Chickens
Photo by:  Lord-Willliams
OCast papillo, Cat poll,OCat pol, L. Gallus gallus, pullus, Ar. djaaj, MEng cheken, checonys, chicones, chekenen, cycchen,. Eng. chicken, pullet. In the 15th C the term referred to young chicken without indicating the gender. More chickens are domesticated than any other fowl in the world for the last 4,000 years at least. They are descendants from Indian wild jungle fowl. During medieval times, they were raised for their eggs, meat and feathers. Columbus took chickens to the Americas. See gallina.

[Anón/Grewe. 1982: XXVI:76-77:XXVII: 77:LXXXVII: 121; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:199; Curye. 1985:40:177; Ency Brit. 1998:4:Delusion:908:1b-2a; Essa. 1988:46:POLO:173; ES: Carroll-Mann. Guisados 2-art. Jun 6, 01:glos; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:189; Montoro/Ciceri. 1991:202:84; Sas. 1976:493; and Villena/Calero. 2002: 22b]
Browning Chicken
Photo by: Lord-Williams

CHICKEN ADAPTED FROM IBN RAZĪN  SECCIÓN TERCERA, 
Cap. 2, #4 OTRO PLATO, LLAMADO, KÄFÜRĪYA, p 199

Ingredients 

1 chicken chopped
1 tsp rock salt
1 tbsp ginger scrapings or 1 tsp caraway
2 chopped onions
¼ olive oil
½ c almonds
2 c lime juice, about 12 limes[1]

Preparation

Chicken with Lime Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
This is made exactly like lawzīya step by step: 

Select the chicken and seal with suet.  When browned put in a large pot. Sauté the onion and add that to the pot with a sachet filled with salt, ginger or caraway.

Peel almonds. Wash them in cold water and dry them with a towel. Mash them in a clean wooden mortar until a paste is formed.  Remove the oil produced and put them in a bowl Cover it to prevent dust from falling on them.  Turn them out into a large washbasin. 

Add 2 c water to the chicken. Bring to a boil.  Turn off the heat and strain the broth through a cloth. Return the liquid to the pot. Add the almond mixture to the pot, stirring constantly to dissolve the almond mixture. Add lime juice. Gently boil until the oil rises to the surface. Lower heat to simmer until done.

When the meat is cooked, serve on a platter with the sauce.


 IBN RAZĪN  SECCIÓN TERCERA, Cap. 2, 
#4 OTRO PLATO, LLAMADO, KÄFÜRĪYA, p 199




 IBN RAZĪN  SECCIÓN  SEGUNDO, Cap 2 #27 OTRO PLATO, 
LLAMADO LAWZĪYA ("PLATO CON ALMENDRAS"), p 165


Wednesday, August 2, 2017

POLEO, -A - PENNYROYAL

Pennyroyal
Photo from: Don Loire
L. Mentha pulegium and Preslia cervina, Fr. menthe pouliot, Eng. pennyroyal. The first scientific name is for the male and the second for the female which does not have a common name in English but it is used as much as the male. The female has purple flowers while those of the male are white. Pennyroyal is sharp and a little bitter. It was thought to be hot and dry. The leaves of both are used in infusions as a cure-all for toothaches and other pains, venomous bites, leprosy, gout, to expel afterbirth and dead babies, to thin the phlegm and to relieve vomiting and swooning.

Recently it has been discovered that mint, especially pennyroyal, contains pulegone, a substance which causes abortion. It was used in the Middle Ages to stimulate uterine contractions. Herrera explained that pennyroyal crushed in wine was placed on scorpion and other poisonous bites. Pliny advised that a wreath of it should be worn on the head to prevent giddiness. He thought it more effective than roses. Mixed with oil and vinegar, pennyroyal was applied externally for seasickness. The flower mixed with marrow from veal was used to cure piles and stop pain. It was boiled and drunk with wine to stop stomach aches and to produce urine. It also was thought to help expel stones. To help the spleen pennyroyal was recommended that it be drunk with honey and salt for pulmonary problems. It was thought good to put pennyroyal in the mouth and then spit it out. It was used to help to heal wounds.

Pennyroyal Drunk like Tea
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Al-Andaluand Nola only call for pennyroyal to flavor drinks and broth. Almond-meal porridge with pennyroyal was well known. Pennyroyal was a common ingredient for stuffing in “Hog’s Pudding.”  It was used to color food preparations green.

In England, it is seldom used today as the flavor is very strong. As the Latin classification indicates the name is derived from pulex, flea, indicating that it keeps pests way. Herrera stated that the smell of the smoke of the pennyroyal flower is what kills the fleas. Pennyroyal oil was put out for mosquitoes and gnats as an insecticide. It was used also as a strewing herb. It is placed between layers of clothing to keep the moths away.

Pulegium normally grows in humid areas with a thin soil layer rather than thick although its humor lets it grow in any type of soil. In Talavera there is so much that it does not have to be planted. Pliny said the best came from Carpentana which is in the province of Toledo but Herrera preferred that of Talavera, also in the province of Toledo. 

Pliny and Aristotle claimed that if pennyroyal is hung by the roots it will bloom when days begin to be longer. Herrera was certain that Celestina’s Moorish teachers informed her that when she wanted to animate a friend who was down, she should give him a dish of gachas with almond milk and pennyroyal which they taught her to make as the Spanish word for almond-mead porridge or “thick water” is talvina, from Arabic.

[Anón/Huici.1966:488:267-268:489:268; Curye. 1985:191; ES: Grieve. “Pennyroyal.” May 17, 04; Laza. 2002:169-170; and Nola.1989:xxviii-1: xxviii-2]



See blog titled acedera published October 15, 2010 for Nola’s recipe xxviii-1 “Madame’s Bruet” and galingal published October 31, 2014 for Nola’s recipe xxviii-2 “Good Bruet with Meat.”



Monday, July 31, 2017

POLENTA WITH A BASIC RECIPE FOR POLENTA



Polenta, like porridge
with a dab of butter
Photo by: Lord-Williams
polenta, thick porridge made with any grain used in bread making such as spelt, barely, wheat, etc. Today it is made with cornmeal. Polenta is a corruption of the Roman predessor pulmentum, a soft and pasty mass of dough made with crushed grain or that which is boiled in water or milk to which cheese and honey or other dressing is added. It is a thick gruel or a coarse loaf when placed in a bowl or vessel.

Roman legions ate it as a staple. Pliny provides a recipe for polenta using barley. Apicius’ is cream of wheat, which he molds, slices like cake and fries. He serves it with honey.

Traditionally these were prepared as a thick creamy porridges with chicken broth and almond milk used exclusively by peasants and poor villagers throughout medieval Europe. There is a recipe for it in Sent Soví which is called gachas, which consists of flour and water. Adding oil and salt half way through with boiling sugar or honey is optional.

Nola elaborates on this recipe calling for peeled barley or spelt wheat and almond milk and he sprinkles sugar and cinnamon on top.
For a more refined pottage he uses hen or mutton broth, which he claims to be good for the sick because of its delicacy.

Throughout history there have been few variations. In the 13th century Al Andalus cookery, gachas were made with flour or semolina which was called asida. They also made gachas with semolina and steamed it with couscous, anise seed could be added.

Jews had their version, which they call harisa. In León, it was made with barley or chestnut meal to which cheese and a broth from stew or pork fat could be added. On fish days, eels, crab or other fish were used instead of animal products. See
sémola.  

[Anón/Grewe. 1982:CXI:138; Castro. Alimentación.1996:120; ES: Decker. “Re: SC.” Apr 7, 98; García del Cerro. 1990:17; Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:78:87; Giacosa. 1994:2:159 and Nola. 1989: xxi-3]

See blog titled aloe for the Medieval Spanish Chef’s recipe for Summer Coolers”, published September 5, 2011; and blog titled gachas for Sent Soví recipe #CXI “How to Make Flour Porridge,” published September 24, 2014

A BASIC EVERYDAY RECIPE FOR POLENTA

Ingredients
Fried Polenta
Photo by: Lord-Williams

1 c polenta
1 ½ c milk
1 ½ c water
1 tbsp butter
1 tsp salt
olive oil for frying

Garnish
honey

Preparation

Put all the ingredients into a sauce pan. Bring to a boil, stirring constantly. Reduce heat, continue stirring for about 5 minutes until it thickens. Remove from heat and our into a rectangular container. Let cool.

When ready to eat, cut the polenta into smaller rectangles or circles. Heat olive oil and fry. Remove from heat and place on paper towels to absorb the oil. Drizzle with honey and serve.







Friday, July 28, 2017

PODRIDA WITH A UNIGUE AUSTIAN RECIPE FOR RICE AND BLUE CHEESE

Cabrales Blue Cheese
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Gal, Leon podre, Ar. pūdaj, Per. būdhaj  Eng. rotten. In Galicia and the Maragato region it is used in reference to aged cheese especially. The words in Arabic refer to rotten barley. See olla berciana. [ES: Lord. “Angus”. Sep 27, 11; “cabrales.” Jun 7, 12. and Christmas. Dec 10, 11 etc;  and Perry. “Introductory.” 2001:21]

CONCHA’S CREAM OF RICE RECIPE WITH BLUE CHEESE FROM ASTURIAS

Ingredients 

1 tbsp chopped dates
½ c sweet white wine
1 onion
½ c olive oil 
1 c rice 
salt to taste 
½ tsp white pepper
1 tsp nutmeg 
1 ½ c cream 
½ c whole milk 
¾ c blue cheese 

Garnish:
¼ c walnuts 
1 tbsp blue cheese
 tbsp chopped parsley

Preparation 

Chop walnuts and set aside.

Soak raisins in wine and set aside.

Finely chop onion and set aside. Heat oil and lightly fry onion. Add rice and brown.

Add cream and milk. Season with salt and pepper and flavor with nutmeg. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly to prevent sticking as it forms a paste.

After 15 minutes of cooking add blue cheese, raisins and wine.

Continue cooking for 5 minutes until rice is sof. Cover and let sit 20 minutes.

Pour rice into a serving dish and garnish with walnuts and sprinkle with cheese and chopped parsley.

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

PLINEO WITH PLINY'S DELICIOUS RECIPE FOR MARINATED ROAST PORK

The Eruption of Vesuvius - Pether
Photo from: pepperberryfarm
Plineo, Pliny, Galius  Plinius Secundus, Pliny the Elder, AD 23/4 (?)-79 (in the eruption of Mount Vesuvicus, Italy). He was a Roman nobleman, admiral serving in Germany, Spain and Italy, historian, author of Natural History, an encyclopedic work published in 77 AD. naturalist and he loved food.  

The Natural History work is of disputed accuracy but served as the authority on scientific matters up to the end of Middle Ages. His work was unchallenged during that time for lack of more reliable information and it was a basic text for general education. It consists of some 37 books on a variety of information including anthropology, zoology, botany and pharmacology of the vegetable kingdom.

Pliny believed in magic and superstition. He mixed fact with fiction but he presented a methodical work and through his perceptiveness indicated details of which others were not cognizant. In this glossary, his medicinal opinions are cited from time to time. Sometimes they are correct and other times they must be taken with a grain of salt, such as in Books 12-19 Botany, 20-7 on medical properties of plants, he advises that wrinkles can be removed with asses’ milk! So who wants a face lifting if a she ass is available? See azcúcar de caña, duranzo and indica.
Sealing Marinated Meat
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Pliny learned the secret of bee keeping when in India. He brought bees back with him to test. As a result he is said to have created a powerful marinade combining the honey from the bees, wine from Pompeii, known as the best in the world of all Roman history, and herbs. It was so delicious that it was said that just the smell of it opened the appetites of all who passed by.

Next, Pliny wanted heat as powerful as the marinade and choose the Vesuvius volcano when it erupted. Under the pretense of saving the citizens of Pompeii, he sailed his fleet of ships to Pompeii to organize the evacuation of the city.

Secretly, Pliny tested his theory of heat by selected the hottest spot to roast his pork over the lava splashing over Pompeii. As he died during the eruption the secret of his recipe were lost forever.

[ES: Grieve. “Spurges.” 1995; ES: Johnson. Sep 22, 14; and Historia. 1995:I:7-34]

Eric Johnson in “Tales from The Cook Pliny The Elder’s Fire Roast Pork,” recreated the recipe:
Ingredients
5 lbs pork ribs, butt, chops, sirloin, or whatever cut you have.
Ready to Melt in Your Mouth
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Marinade
2 cups honey
1 bottle red wine- chuck is best for this recipe, half of the bottle for you. The other for the pork.
1 large onion minced
1 bunch of fresh oregano

Preparation


Cut the pork into strips or individual ribs and set the pork aside. Smash the fresh oregano with the flat of your knife and put it in a large bowl. Combine the onion, wine and honey with the oregano in a bowl. Mix it well. Marinade the pork over night. Cook the pork on a very hot fire to sear and partially char the pork.