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Friday, October 20, 2017

QUESO FRESCO WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR CHEESE FILLED PASTRIES

Creamy Cheese Mixed with Dough
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ar. labneh, lahneh, Eng. a creamy cheese made from laban (yoghurt) in the Middle Ages. [Anón/Huici. 1965:9:19:295:167:370:203-204; ES: Glos. of  Arabic. May 23, 03; ES: Lord. “barreño.” Feb 15, 12:“cilantro.” Apr 2, 13: “leche y sus poductos.” 26/10/15: “queso fresco. Oct 25, 17 etc; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:55:62:66 etc; and Nola. xliiii-1: xlvii-4]

HOW TO MAKE ALMOJÁBANAS  (PASTRIES) CALLED AL-MAH
ĀRIQ (“THE DELIGHTS” AND ALSO AL-MUWARRAQA (“LEAF PASTRY) ADAPTED FROM MARIN'S TRANSLATION OF  IBN RAZÎN AL-TUGÎBÎ’S RELIEVES DE LAS MESAS SECCIÓN 1, CH 4 #34. MANERA DE HACER ALMOJÀBANAS LLAMADOS AL-MAHĀRIQ (LAS DELICIAS”) Y TAMBIÉN MUŢALLAŢA (“LAS TRIPLES”) Y AL-MUWARRAQA (“LA HOJALDRADA”),[1] p 126

Just Fried Pastries
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients


2 c semolina
1 c fresh milk
¼ c rose water
300 gr fresh cheese
¼ c butter
oil for deep frying

Garnish
A drizzle of honey
1 tsp sugar
1 tsp cinnamon

Preparation

Yummy Snacks or Dessert
Phioto by: Lord-Williams
Make a dough with semolina, fresh milk and a little rose water. Grate the cheese well and mix it with the butter. If the cheese is dry and salty tasting soak it in water for 24 hours. After that mix the cheese and butter with the dough and let sit on the throuth.

Put enough oil in a frying pan to cover the pastries. Cut the dough into small wafers and make a hole in the middle. Fill the frying pan with wafers and turn them when browned. When done remove them and drizzle them with honey. Let sit 15 minutes. Remove them and put them in a glazed dish.  Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and eat them if it be God’s will,



[1] A recipe for almojábana mutallata can be found in Kitb al-Tabīh fi-l Magrib wa-l-Andalus, p 187; another of muwarraqa on p 184

MARIN'S TRANSLATION OF  IBN RAZÎN AL-TUGÎBÎ’S 
RELIEVES DE LAS MESAS SECCIÓN 1, CH 4 #34. 
MANERA DE HACER ALMOJÀBANAS LLAMADOS AL-MAHĀRIQ (LAS DELICIAS”) 
Y TAMBIÉN MUŢALLAŢA (“LAS TRIPLES”) 
AL-MUWARRAQA (“LA HOJALDRADA”), p 126




Wednesday, October 18, 2017

QUESO DE CERDO WITH PAQUITA'S RECIPE FOR HEAD CHEESE

Paquita supervising author
cutting meat from head for 

her famous head cheese
Photo by: Carmen López
queso de puerco, head cheese. The Spanish version is preserved meat, consisting of scrapes from the pig’s, trotters and head, which are boiled, de-boned, chopped and mixed with herbs and garlic. The mixture is pressed into form of a small wheel or cheese and left to mature before consumed. The English version fundamentally is ground pork that is jellied by boiling pork hocks. It has been questioned if head cheese existed in the Middle Ages. Brawn, the forerunner, was a popular medieval dish in England. See falanges. [Hieatt. Ordinance. 1988:89; and Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003]

PAQUITA’S RECIPE FOR HEAD CHEESE
for 10 portions

Ingredients

6 pig knuckles
1 pig neck
meat from the head of the pig
pig and cow trotters.
bones  
salt to taste
seasoning such as 1 tbsp white pepper and ½ tbsp nutmeg per pound of meat
1 bunch parsley
1 garlic head
1 tbsp white pepper
gelatin made from trotters
1 tsp salt

Preparation

IMGP0079
Photo from: Antonia Urbiola
Boil knuckles, neck, meat from the head, bones, and trotters in water, with salt to taste for two hours. Remove, strain and let cool.  Remove skin and meat from the bones, knuckles sand neck and discard the bones. About 7 pounds of meat is necessary for 10 portions.

Chop the remaining meat and skin and wash off grease with hot water, Put all this into the pot. Cover with water, add salt and seasoning. Mix well, Bring to a boil.. Reduce heat and gently boil 2 to 3 hours as per the age of the pig.  Add more water if necessary. Cook until tender. Skim off grease.

Wash parsley and put it in a food processor with peeled garlic, salt to taste and white pepper, Add a little broth and grind to make a green sauce.

When the pork is ready, remove from heat and add the green sauce. Stir with a wooden spoon until all the ingredients are well mixed.

Add 1 tsp gelatin from trotters per cup of broth and continue stirring,

Pour the mixture into a large, deep bowl. Press down to make a solid cake. When the mixture starts to gel, refrigerate for at least a month to six weeks.




Monday, October 16, 2017

QUESO ASADERO - MELTED OR ROASTED CHEESE

Caciocavallo Silano DOP
Photo from:
 La Compagnia del Cavatappi
OCast queso assadero (14-17 C), Eng 1. meltedor roasted cheese  Medieval recipes often call for melting grated cheese. Although supposedly for the “purpose of roasting,” Nola melts grated cheese in a pan and then adds other ingredients for a thick soup. [Alonso, Martín.
1994:I:A:518; ES: Lord.“Brufalino,” Feb 5, 12: “Caciovallo,” June 14, 12 etc; Lladonosa. 1984:92-93; Nola. 1989:xlv-1; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:104]

See blog titled “Caciocavallo” published June 14, 2012 for the Medieval Spanish Chef’s interpretation of Nola’s recipe lxv-1 sopes with  melted cheese and blog titled “Bufalino”  published February 5, 2012 for Lladonosa’s interpretation of the same recipe.

Friday, October 13, 2017

QUESADA WITH A RECIPE FOR GALICIAN CHEESE CAKE


OCast quexada, Ar. qayŷāta, Eng meat, cheese or sweet pastries or cakes. They are made during Shrovetide particularly. See almojabana, queimón and tarta de queso [Baena/Dutton. 1993:325:324:5e; Castro. Alimentación.1996:260; Villena/Brown. 1983:175; and Villena/Calero. 2002:120]

A RECIPE FOR GALICIAN CHEESECAKE FROM
TARTA DE REQUESÓN O QUESADA GALLEGA
DEL CHEF MIGUEL LÓPEZ CASTANIER

Irristable!
Photo by Lord-WIlliams
Ingredients

350 gr. (2 c) flour
200 gr. (1 c) sugar
2 natural yogurts
375 gr. (1½ c) whole milk
5 eggs
600 gr. (1 lb 5 oz) requeson
15 gr. (1 ½) envelopes) yeast
zest from ½ lemon  
¼ tsp salt

Garnish:

honey, marmalade or powdered sugar to cover cake
walnuts

Preparation

PREHEAT OVEN TO 375ºF/190ºC


Sift flour with yeast and salt and set aside.


Beat eggs with sugar for about 5 minutes or until double the original volume and the mixture is pale yellow. 

Add yogurts, milk, lemon zest and continue beating until all is well mixed.

Add flour, one tablespoon at a time every 5 seconds, beating non-stop. 

When all the flour is mixed add requeson.  Contunie beating until the mix is creamy without lumps.

Grease a pie or cake tin and pour the mixture into this. Back for about 60 minutes or until a toothpick comes out clean. 

Let cool.

Serve with a drizzle of honey and walnuts.




Wednesday, October 11, 2017

QUEIMÓN (GAL) WITH THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S HEAVENLY RECIPE FOR GALLEGAN CHEESECAKE

Cast. quesadilla, And. almohábana, Eng a cake or fritter in which the batter is mixed with cheese.  It is an forerunner of the Andalusian. almohábana, which in turn is of Roman origin. In Al Andalus, it was like a fritter in that the dough was filled with a regional goat cheese called quesadilla.
The Batter
Photo by: Lord-Williams



In Villena’s day it could be a meat or sweet pastry or just cheese. It was made during specific periods of the year. In Leon it was a cheese made in Lacinan but today is a hot ewe’s cream cheese or a mixture of animal meat.

Today it can made as filling for Mexican tortillas and served as a snack. During Passover, the Jews make it with mazto dough. See almojabanas, levanduras, mantecados, quesada, and tarta de queso.


[Anón/Granja. 1960:79:23.Anón/Huici. 1965:142:96-97:409:225-226:410:226 etc; ES: Anón/Lord. “almojábanas. Aug 24, 11; ES: Lord:”almuerzo.”Aug 31, 11:”levanduras.”Nov 25, 15: and “mantecados.” Mar 21, 16; Marin. 33:125-126:34:126:35:127 etc; Trapiello. 1994:141; and
Villena/Calero. 2002:120]

GALLEGAN CHEESECAKE, THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF’S RECIPE

Ingredientes
Heavenly Smells Flowing from the Oven!
Photo by: Lord-Willliams

4 eggs
1 c granulated sugar
1 c yogurt
1 c whole milk
1 c flour
1 Royal yeast envelope
8 oz cream cheese 
10 oz requesón cheese shredded
2 tbsp cognac
zest from ½ lemon

Garnish
a drizzle of honey

Preparation

Beat eggs. Add sugar and continue beating until double in size. Add yogurt mix well. Add milk and beat again.


Add flour with yeast. Beat to a fine cream. Take care not to beat too much as it will become too bubbly. Add cognac and lemon zest. Stir well.

Grease a cake tin with butter. Sprinkle it with flour. Pour the batter into it and bake 15 minutes at 400º F/200º C. Reduce heat to 350 ºF/175ºC and continue to bake for 30 minutes or until a toothpick comes out clean.

If the cake browns too quickly cover the top with a damp rag.

When done, remove from oven and let cool 1-2 hours. Remove from cake tin and place on a serving dish. Drizzle honey over it before serving.

Monday, October 9, 2017

QATĀ ‘IF (AR), QATAYEF WITH MEDIEVAL RECIPE FOR SWEET ARAB CREPES

Frying Bottom Side of Crepes
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Eng, qatayef[1], filled and folded crepes suzettes . The original recipe at the Alhambra is from the 13th C. Today, this is the traditionally famous dessert served every evening during Ramadan and not the rest of the year.

[ES: Anon/Perry. 2000:ftn 187; and Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:153]

RECIPE FOR ABBASID QATAYEF, STUFFED PANCAKES, 
ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS 
#441 RECETA DR LOS "QATĀIF” ABBĀSIES, p 262

Ingredients

FOR THE PANCAKES:
2 c breadcrumbs[2]
½ tsp yeast
1 tbsp sugar
Stuffing the Crepe
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 1/3 c lukewarm water
2/3 c rosewater
1 c milk
1 raw egg
olive oil for frying


FOR THE FILLING:
½ c peeled and finely chopped almonds[3]
1 tbsp sugar
½ tsp spikenard
¼ tsp cloves
¼ cinnamon
2 tbso rosewater plus rosewater for dampening pancakes
¼ tsp camphor

Garnish
rosewater syrup,  julep or skimmed honey

Preparation

FOR THE PANCAKES:

Make breadcrumbs out of flatbread. Spread this out on a plate and let dry overnight until the consistency is like semolina.

Mix yeast, sugar and ½ c lukewarm water. Let sit about 10 minutes for foam to rise. Add breadcrumbs, salt, the rest of the water and other ingredients. Whisk well. Let rest ½ hour until fluffy and bubbly.

PREHEAT SKILLET TO 375º F/190ºC

Add enough oil to prevent sticking. Pour out about ¼ c batter on the surface to make 4” pancakes. Let the batter bubble and dry. Cook until browned on the bottom, remove from heat. Cover with a tea towel to keep moist.

FOR THE FILLING:

Delicious Crepes  - Half Moons and a Full Moon!
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Mix chopped almonds with sugar, spikenard, cloves and cinnamon. Sprinkle this with rosewater containing dissolved camphor.

Add 1 to 2 teaspoons of this filling to each pancake. Fold them into a semi-circle[4]. Glue the edges with dough by dampening them with rosewater.

Heat 1” deep of olive oil in a pan. Add the pancakes. Lightly brow about two minutes and remove immediately. Let the oil drain off the cake.

Pour rosewater syrup, julep of skimmed honey over pancakes.  Turn them over to soak the other side.

Several cakes can be made, piling one on tip of another and after filling them, press the edges together making circles and half circles.


[1] Perry maintains that Huici’s explanation that qataif is derived from a berb meaning to sift flour is incorrect. “Qataif” is, according to Perry, the plural of the known meaning “plush velvet.” He explains that crepes were called “mushadhhada” in al-Andalus, which elsewhere is defined as flatbread. These are filled and deep fried.
[2] Today 1 ½ C flour and ½ c semolina can used.
[3] Today, half the pancakes can be filled with grated white or mozzarella cheese and half with the almond or other nut mixture.
[4] Perry suggests that instead of folding crepes that one circle could be placed on top of another and sealed with rosewater, which is easier as the crepes tend to split when folding them over after adding the filling.
HUICI'S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS
#441 RECETA DE LOS "QATĀIF ABBĀSIES"


Friday, October 6, 2017

QALAM WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR A SUGAR DISH

Cones of sugar
Photo from: christieandsteve
MEng lofe sugar, Eng sugardloaf; refined sugar molded into a cone.  Sugarcane was brought to Iberia by the Muslims and planted in southern Spain.

Avenzoar claimed that Galen classified it as a variety of honey and preferred it to honey in syrup preparations for stomach, esophagus and urinary conditions. 

Sugar was known to have the same properties as honey. It was valued for its high number of calories.

Sugarcane was exported from New Guinea to China and India before the Arabs brought it to Persia. With Arab conquests in Europe, sugar cane was take to Italy and Spain and cultivated in Sicily and southern Spain. 

Between the 8th and 12th centuries, it was a luxury product domestically and pharmacology,. As it was so expensive, only the upper class had it.  

During the Nazari reign (1230-1492)sugar became a common product in Iberian households as sugarcane production expanded. It became an ingredient for a large number of dishes, drinks and sweets popularly sold in souks such as fritters, wafer cakes or puffs, qurzas etc. 


Sugarcane
Photo from: liying the MONST

It was considered a spice in the rest of Europe until the 16th Century when it was produced in American colonies. It did not become a common household product until the process of extracting sugar from beetroot was discovered in the 19th Century.

[Castro. Alimentación.1996:245; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:94]

For recipes calling for sugar see the following blogs, among others, include:

            Alcorza, published Jul 11, 11, Almojábanas, published Aug 28, 11, Embadurnar, published Feb 7, 14, and Mesue, published Jun 27, 16.



A SUGAR DISH AS DICATED BY ABU ‘ALI AL-BAGDADI 
ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS 
#148 AZUCARADO SEGÚN EL DICTADO DE 
ABÜ ALÏ AL-BAGDÃDÏ, p 99  


Sugar dish Cut into Bitsize Shapes
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients


1 c sugar
⅓ tbsp
 rosewater
½ c chopped almonds
½  tsp cinnamon[1]
¼  tsp cloves[1]

Garnish

¼ c powdered sugar


Preparation


Mix sugar with rosewater and bring to a boil until it begins to thicken.

Fry almonds, taking care not to burn them. Pound them and add them to the sugar mixture. Stir in low heat until thickened.

Remove from heat and spread out on a dish. Sprinkle with powdered sugar.




[1] The Medieval Spanish Chef's addition.


HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS 
#148 AZUCARADO SEGÚN EL DICTADO DE 
ABÜ ALÏ AL-BAGDÃDÏ, p 99  




                                       

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Wednesday, October 4, 2017

PURÉS, PURES WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR STUFFED EGGPANT

Eggplant and Meat Puree
Photo by: Lord-Williams
purees are documented from Roman times and in Spanish cooking from the 13th centur. . Wheat, barley, rice, lettuce with onions, parsley, parsnip, leeks, eggplants, rocket and other vegetables. 

[Anón/Grewe. 1982: LXXXXV. 126-127: CXIIII:140; and 69:230-231; Apicius/Flower. 1958:XV:1:2:and 3:1958:84-85; ES: Lord-Williams. “apio.” Oct 27, 11; “arienco.” Sep 11, 11; “cuarto.” Apr 10, 13 etc ; Marín. 2007:85:102-104; and Nola. 1989:xxiiiii-4]

puré de berenjenas, Ar. muttabal, puréed eggplant. Castro points out that this was a basic part of nutrition with puréed chickpeas for special occasions

[Castro. Alimentación.1996:177; ES: Lord-Williams. “agraz.” Oct 23.10; ES: “Siria.” Apr 22, 02: Nola. 1989:xxiiii-4.]

EGGPLANTS STUFFED WITH GROUND MEAT AND EGGPL,ANT ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #199 EMPANADA OF CARNE Y BEREJENA, pp126-127

Ingredients

2 medium eggplants
2 tbsp sea salt
½ lb ground beef
½  onion
2 tsp spices such as 1 tsp cinnamon, ½ tsp cloves, ½ tsp nutmeg
1 tbsp olive oil
1 tbsp vinegar
¼ c breadcrumbs
1 tbsp cilantro
salt to taste
1 tsp chopped rue
1 tbsp murri

Garnish
1 tbsp breadcrumbs
½ tsp white pepper
1 tsp cinnamon

Stuffed Eggplant
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Wash eggplants, cut off stems. Slice in half.  Sprinkle with salt and turn face down on paper towels for about one half hour to bleed out the bitter taste of the pulp.

Cut up meat and put it in a pot with it onions, spices, salt, oil and vinegar.  Sautée until the onion is translucent.                          

Barely cover with water. Bring it to a boil. Add breadcrumbs to thicken. Gently boil uncovered.

Remove pulp from eggplants, saving the skins, and chop.  Add this to meat with cilantro, salt, rue and murri. When the eggplant is soft mash the mixture in a food processor to make a pureée.

PREHEAT OVEN TO 400ºF/200ºC

Fill the shells with the mixture. Sprinkle with breadcrumbs mixd white pepper and cinnamon. Bake for about 15 minutes until golden brown.

HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS 
#199 EMPANADA OF CARNE Y BERENJENA, pp126-127