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Friday, March 31, 2017

PESCADO DE ALTA MAR WITH RECIPE FOR A LARGE FISH

Tuna
Photo from: Peter Groves
Ar. samak lujjī, Eng. deep-sea fish. [Perry. “Medieval.” 2001:481]

A DISH OF LARGE FISH ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #78. PLATO DE PESCADO GRANDE, p 55-56 

Ingredients

Step 1

2 lbs large fish deboned
1 tbsp murri[1]
1 stick of fennel
1 citron leaf
½ tsp white pepper
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp  coriander
1 tsp cumin
1 tsp caraway salt to taste

Step 2

1 c water
1 fish bouillon cube
½ tsp cumin
½ tsp cinnamon
½ tsp coriander

Step 3
½ c breadcrumbs
½ c flour
4 eggs
½ tsp white pepper
½ c water
8 egg yolks

Garnish
Fine spices[2]

Preparation
Mahshi of Mixed Fish
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Step 1

Select a piece of meat from a large fish. Clean it, remove bone and divide it to make meatballs with half of it of it.

PREHEAT OVEN AT 400ºF/200ºC

Put the other half of the fish in a pan. Add mixture of water and spices and bake in the oven.

In the meantime make the meatballs. Add them to the pan.

Step 2

Make this mixture and pour it over the fish. Bake ½ hour.

Step 3

Beat breadcrumbs with flour and 4 eggs. Add ½ tsp white pepper and cover the pan with this dough. When fish is done, turn off the oven and dot the pan with 8 egg yolks. Let sit until egg yolks are done. Sprinkle with fine spices. Serve God willing. 


[1] almorí with Byzantine murri
 blog published August 25, 2011 for recipe.
[2] Salsas finas, 
see blog titled dárselo published November 29, 2013 for recipe.


ANÓN AL-ANDALUS #78




Wednesday, March 29, 2017

PESCADO WITH TOASTED FISH BONES, A DELICACY

Spanish Trout
Photo from: Yorkshire Dales Flyfshing
1. dead fish. Due to the Atlantic and Mediterranean, rivers and lakes, Spain still commonly sells three times more varieties of fish found in American supermarkets today. Although living inland in medieval times, Juan Ruíz names some 24 varieties of salt water fish. Nola gives recipes for some 22 different kinds.

In Al-Andalus salt water fish were believed to be better than fresh water fish with the exception of trout. Fresh fish was preferred to salted. Fried fish with garlic were served in a fruit vinaigrette. On other occasions, fresh fish with cheese and often eggs were consumed in sauce. Other fish were marinated in salt brine mixed with water, salt and vinegar, while in northern Spain they were smoked.

Toasted Fish Bones
Photo by: Lord-Williams

After the carver removed the meat from the fish, he extracted the bones and spinal cord in one piece. These were saved and toasted for guests to nibble as an appetizer during the last recorded tournament of knights in Leon, which commenced the first of July 1434 at Passo Honroso, which was recorded by the king's scribe Pero Rodriquez de Lena.  

They were called tuétano de trucha, which means marrow of trout or médulo Note: trout bones contain no marrow. Villena mentions marrow but in reference to that found in veal bones.

See pelaya, pez and trucha.

[Alonso Luengo. 1994:40-50Anón/Huici. 1966:20:10; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:158; Dialecto. 1947:290; Nola. 1989:xxvii-4:xliiii-2:lvi-2 etc; Ruíz/Brey. 1965:1103a-1164b:178-185 etc; and Villena/Calero. 2002:35ª]
A Fishy Delicacy
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Ingredients


1 fish

Preparation

Wash the fish. Slice it open by inserting a knife through the stomach over the bones to the spine. Remove the meat above the spine. Slide the knife under the bones and the spine. Remove the spine with the bones whole.

Toast the spine and bones. Serve warm. 





Friday, March 24, 2017

PESCADILLA EN POLVO WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR MURAWWAJ FISH

Șīr
Photo by: 
Lord-Williams
Ar. Șīr (from Copic tjir, salted fish, perhaps the Egyptians borrowed it from the Canaanite language, cf. Hebrew tzūr, brine), Eng. small fish thoroughly dried without salt and pulverized for flavoring dishes. [Perry. “Introduction.” 2001:281]

MURAWWAJ FISH ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS #
361 EL PESCADO MURAWAŶ, p 198

Ingredients

1 lb fish of the day
salt to taste
olive oil for deep frying and enough oil to cover fish in another frying pan 
2 tbsp vinegar
1 tbsp murri[1] or Șīr[2]
½ tsp white pepper
1 tsp cumin
1 tsp thyme
1 tsp cinnamon

Deep Frying Fish in Oil with Brine
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Choose fish at will. Scale it and cut it into pieces. Lightly scald it in water with salt. Remove and let dry.

Put a frying pan over moderate heat. Fill a frying pan with enough olive oil to deep fry the fish. Add fish and fry until golden brown. Remove from the pan and set aside.

In another frying pan add the remaining ingredients and enough olive oil to cover the fish. Slowly heat. When boiling add fish. Let fry until dry. Remove from heat and let cool. This is customary in Ceuta and in Western Al-Andalus.[3]


[1] See Almorí with Byzantine Murri Recipe blog published August 25, 2011 for recipe.
[2] The Medieval Spanish Chef addition. Actually one fish bullion cube was used.
[3] Elsie Fleming points out that this is not the same territory as the province of Andalusia today.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

CHARLES PERRY WITH HIS TRANSLATION OF AN EXTRAORDINARY DISH OF CHICKEN

Perry's work with
Maxime Rodinson and A.K.Arberry
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Perry, Charles, is an American expert on Middle East cookery and translator of culinary manuscripts. He is a graduate of the University of California in Berkeley, where he obtained a bachelor’s degree in Near Eastern Languages. He has studied under the Carnegie Foundation at the Middle East Center for Arab Studies in Shimlan, Lebanon. He constantly travels to the Middle East visiting innumerous countries including Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Yemen and Uzbekistan, to discover food every where he goes. He began as a journalist and contributing editor of the magazine Rolling Stone. Since he worked as a food columnist and restaurant reviewer in Los Angles.

What is of utmost importance in this work is his Arabic contributionc to Elsie Fleming's English translation of Ambrosio Huici Miranda's translation from Hispano-Arabic into Spanish of Manuscrito Anómino, also known as Anonymous, Al-Andalus, an untitled 13th C. Spanish-Arabic recipe collection from Moorish Spain. Other contributors to Ms. Fleming's work included  Stephen Bloch and Habib ibn-al Andalusi.

Perry also contributed to Medieval Arab Cookery with Maxim Rodison and A.J. Arberry, fowarded by Claudia Roden. Both publications serve as links between cookery in the Arab world with that of Spain in the Middle Ages and ultimately Europe. [ES: Perry. Sep 5, 00; and Roden. 2001:14-15]

THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF ANON, AL-ANDALUS #85. AN EXTRAORDINARY DISH OF CHICKEN/PLATO EXTRAORDINARIO DE GALLINA WITH ADAPTIONS BY THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF

Ingredients

Frying Meatballs and Sausage
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 chicken
¼ c and 2 tbsp olive oil
3 tbsp murri
2 tbsp vinegar
1 tbsp thyme[1]
1 tbsp rue
4 garlic cloves[2]
1 tbsp pine nuts
1 tbsp almonds
1 tbsp coriander
1 tsp cumin
½ tsp pepper
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp Chinese cinnamon
1 tbsp lavender
1 chopped and mashed onion
salt to taste
1 tbsp fresh cilantro
1 lb mutton
4 egg yolks
2 white sausages
2 c broth[3]

Garnish
1 tsp fine spices" [4]

Preparation

Uniquely Yummy
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Clean a young, fat hen. Roast it over coals. Take care that it does not burn. Baste it with ¼c oil and 2 tbsp murri until browned.

Chop the innards and put them in a pot with the remaining ingredients. Bring to a boil and reduce heat. Gently boil.

Grind mutton and make meatballs. Add them to the pot. When the meatballs are cooked, remove and brown them. Return them to the chicken and meatballs. Dot the dish with four egg yolks.

Slice sausages made for this purpose, brown them and add them to the pot. Bring it to a boil. Reduce heat and gently boil until the sauce is absorbed.

Pour this into a serving dish and garnish with the meatballs and egg yolks. Sprinkle with fine spices. God willing, present it.


[1] Perry says thyme but Huici, in his translation, says mint.
[2] Huici says four grams.
[3] The Medieval Spanish Chef’s addition.
[4] Salsas finas, see blog titled dárselo published November 29, 2013 for recipe.



PERRYS TRANSLATION OF ANON, AL-ANDALUS 
#85. AN EXTRAORDINARY DISH OF CHICKEN

Clean a young, plump hen and roast it over coals, and watch that it not burn. Baste it with oil and murri continuously until it is browned. Then take its innards, cut fine and put them in an earthenware pot, and throw in two spoonfuls of oil, two of vinegar, one of murri, and thyme, rue, four cloves of garlic, pine-nuts, almond, coriander, a little cumin, pepper, cinnamon and Chinese cinnamon, lavender, onion ground with salt and some cilantro; boil all this over a moderate fire. Make meatballs of mutton and throw them in the sauce until they are cooked, and take them out and roast them until they are browned. Dot the dish with four egg yolks and throw in it the roast chicken and meatballs. Cut isfî riyâ and lu'âniq (sausages) made for this purpose, cut into rounds in the form of earrings, and throw them in the pot and let it boil until the hen absorbs the sauce. Put it in a dish and garnish it with its meatballs and its eggyolks, and scatter fine spices over it and present it, God willing.

HUICI'S TRANSLATION  OF AL-ANDALUS #85
PLATO EXTRAORDINARIO DE GALLINA, pp 60-61


Monday, March 20, 2017

PERILLOS DE FALDA - LAP DOGS



Lap Dog Today!
Photo by: Santiago Alonso-Lord


OCast. perrillos de halda, Eng lap dogs. Nola’s introduction contains a section on health in which they are mentioned as pastimes of queens and ladies of the aristocracy, while the man of the house has the responsibility to keep order in family and other matters including the staff and insuring good health. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:80:199]

Friday, March 17, 2017

PERERO - FRUIT KNIFE AND LATER FRUIT FORK

Calero's drawing of a
medieval fruit knife
Photo by: Lord-Williams
fruit knife, later fruit fork. It was used to peel and carve fruit. It is supposed that fruit forks are an invention of Enrique Villena in Spain who claimed them legal because fruit comes from a plant, not an animal (see tenedores and Villena).

A Three Prong Fruit Fork
Photo by: Lord-Williams
The one described by Villena looks like an under grown sword with a hilt as long as the width of the hand, a cup-shaped guard and instead of a blade, a wedge that is half a finger length and the diameter of the baby finger. It was used for peeling fruit and eating quince, pears and apples. Then it was silver or gold.

This developed into the two or three prong fruit fork, also called the ‘feminized toy’. In 1434, during the tournament held by Suero Quiñones at el Paso Honroso just outside the city of León, they were supplied to guests with dessert and were the novelty of the day. 

[Alonso Luengo. 1994:41:45-47; ES: Chap 1. Apr 1, 04; Villena/Calero. 2002:19:ftn 56:13b; and Villena/Navarro 1879:30-31]

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

PEREJIL WITH 15TH C PARSLEY SAUCE RECIPE

1 Bunch of Parsley
Photo by: Lord-Williams
petroselinoOCast perexil, prexil, Cat 
juvert, L. Petroselinum hortense or Apium petroselinium, Ar. maadanose or baqdounis, Fr. persil, Eng. parsley, rock parsley. It probably originated in southern Europe, some say Sardinia, but it is not confirmed. The Greek name petros indicates that it grows around rocks and stones. Pliny’s fishponds were sprinkled with parsley seed to cure the fish of any infirmity. To ward off intoxication, Greeks wore parsley leaves on their necks. In other European countries, men and women have eaten the seed to increase fertility. Men sprinkled it on their heads to make their hair grow back. Arabs chewed it to dispel halitosis. In Spain, it has been used in all dishes except desserts but including snails. They never eat it as it is poisonous for them. Parsley is not recorded in England until 1548 but it is believed that the Romans took it there.

Stirring in One Direction
Photo by: Lord-Williams


perejilada, OCast perexilada, Eng parsley sauce. See blog titled "manera, una" posted February 24, 2016 for recipe. [Nola. 1989:liiIi-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:151]

Also see the following blogs: “cañarejo apio” posted August 8, 2012; for Sent Soví’s recipe for parsley; “manera, una” posted February 2, 2016; for Nola’s recipe liiii-1 "Parsley Dish" and blog titled “alidem” posted August 2, 2012  for Nola’s recipe for Alideme Pottage.  

[Anón/Grewe. 1982:IIII:65:CLXVI, pp 179-180; ES: Lord. Medieval. “cañarejo apio.” Posted August 8, 2012; ES: Lord. Medieval.  “manera, una” Posted Feb 2, 16. ES: Lord. Medieval. blog titled “alidem” posted August 2, 2012;  Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:246; Nola. 1989:xxxi-2; liiii-1; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:170; Villena/Calero. 2002:23a; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:44

PARSLEY SAUCE ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S RECIPE l-3 FOR PEREXIL

Ingredients

Parsley Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 bunch of parsley or 1 c parsley leaves
1 slice of bread
2 tbsp  white vinegar
½ tsp white pepper
1 c honey

optional
2 tbsp vinegar
2 tbsp water

Preparation

Strip off leaves from a bunch of parsley. Was well and grind in a food processor. Add bread soaked in vinegar and grind. Add pepper and mix well.

Melt honey. Add parsley mixture from food processor. Stir constantly in one direction until blended.

If the sauce is too thick, thin it with a little watered down vinegar. It should not be sour. 
Heat two smooth pebbles from the sea or a river. Heat them and when red hot, pick them up with thongs and add them to the sauce. Let cool.

Taste the sauce. The addition of pepper should be noted. It should be sweet and sour.  


NOLA’S RECIPE l-3