Entradas populares

Monday, October 30, 2017

RÁBANO RUSTICANO - HORSERADISH

Horseradish and Cockscomb Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
rábano vagico, rabáno magistro, rabaniza, OCast rávano, rauano vexisco, agisco, rábano gallisco (gallician), L. Cochlearia armoracia or Raphamus sativus Heb het-zayin-resh-saf khazeret, OEng rædic (fr. L. radix, root), MEng radiche, raddyk, rasen, Eng horseradish. It is a native of western Asia and central Europe. It is one of the oldest known vegetables. It grew wild in England before the Romans invaded. It existed in the 12th C, at least, in Spain. It was popular in England during the Middle Ages but not cultivated there until after the 15th C. In 1379, action was taken against London cheats selling radish as ginger.

The plant has white flowers blooming on hills in May and broad rough leaves. Today, it is planted throughout the year and collected year round. In medieval times, the leaves and roots were eaten for their fleshy, slightly pungent flavor.

Horseradishes were used medicinally and as condiments. As a medicinal it is used as an antiscobic, as an appetitive and a digestive to stimulate the mucus secretions in the stomach and as a diuretic and to combat dropsy, rachitic and scrofula, alone or mixed with iodine.

There is a 14th C manuscript providing a recipe for horseradish preserved in syrup. The leaves and roots had the virtue of moving and warming. Eaten with vinegar, horseradishes eliminated kidney stones. The heated root thinned the phlegm and helped the boiling process in the stomach. It was eaten to elongate the stomach. It was consumed raw with salt at the beginning and end of meals and served with any dish and as a sauce as Nola’s Horseradish and Wild Clary Sauce. Chaucer warned cooks not to make sauces. without horseradish stating: “Woe to his cook, unless the sauces were poignant and sharp. . . ”

[Alonso, Martín. 1994:III:N:4110; Chirino/Herrera. 1973:239; ES: Carroll-Mann. “Food.” Sep 1, 02; ES: Chaucer. Aug 23, 03:353-354; ES: Lord. “gallo cresta.” Aug 10, 14; Font Quer. Plantas. 1999:143:254-255; Gázquez. Cocina. 2000:114; Henisch. 1976:97; Hieatt. Ordiance.1988:97; Nola 1989:l-4; Sass.1967:21; and Wilson.1973:205]

See blog titled "gallo cresta" dated Aug 10, 14 for Nola’s recipe for Sauce of Horseradish and of Clary Sage.

Friday, October 27, 2017

QUIMO WITH 15TH CENTURY RECIPE A SARDINECASSEROLE


Mixing Sardines with Soaked  Raisins and Nuts
Photo by: Lord-Williams
chyme, juice, semi-fluid mass into which food is converted by gastric secretion and which passes from the stomach to the small intestine. Avenzoar
recommended eating quail for it produced quality chime.Vilanova favored salt water fish over fresh water fish because he claimed they generated better chyme. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:235; and Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:53]


SARDINE CASSEROLE ADAPTED FROM NOLA lxiiii-3 ATUN O TOÑINA EN CAÇUELA
For 6 persons

Ingredients

A Lovely Sardine Variation
Photo by: Lord-Williams
24 large sardines (about 3 lbs)
1tbsp raisins
1⅓ pine nuts
1 ½ tbsp raw almonds sliced
juice from 1 orange
¾ c virgin olive oil
salt to taste
1 tsp white pepper
1 tbsp ginger
1 tsp mashed saffron
a few sprigs of finely chopped parsley and mint
salt to taste

Preparation

Soak in orange juice raisins, pine nuts, almond slices for 3 hours. Strain.

Wash the sardines inside and out. Remove the heads and season with salt and spices.

Put the oil in a pan and when hot add the sardines. Sprinkle the nuts and raisins over them and do the same with the herbs. Let cook slowly.


Sprinkle with herbs and serve.

(It is not recommended to roast the sardines in the oven as indicated in the original recipe as the temperature is excessive for sardines.)


NOLA lxiiii-3 SARDINAS EN CAÇUELA





Wednesday, October 25, 2017

QUIMERA - WITH THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S RECIPE FOR FRIED RABBITFISH

Rabbitfish
Photo from: Chris
quimeragato, L. Chimaera monstrosa, ME heryngEng. safi, rabbitfish, king of the herring. It is a saltwater fish abundant in the Persian Gulf. Some 18 species have been identified principally in the Mediterranean, many of which are poisonous. Oil is extracted from the liver is used for nutritional purposes for humans and animals. Other than that it is not commercially important, although the English did eat it smoked or roasted. Spaniards roasted it. [Curye. 1985:171;< "Times New Roman"; font-size: 13.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ES: Multilingual. 1968:746:206; Villena/Brown. 1984:19:89:99:102:170; Villena/Calero. 2002:99:23a; Villena/Saínz. 1969:137; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:44:267]

THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S FRIED RABBITFISH RECIPE

Ingredients

Turbot was substituted
but just as yummy
Photo by: Lord-Williams
6 fish[1]
oil for basting and frying
3 lemon wedges cut in half
6 garlic mashed
3 tbsp fresh cilantro
3 tbsp parsley
1 ½ turmeric
1 ½ tsp white pepper
1 ½ tsp nutmeg

Preparation

Wash the fish and gut insides. Remove spins from back and fins. Wash again and pat dry.

Mix the season. Baste the fish inside and out with oil. Sprinkle the seasoning over the fish inside and out.

Heat oil until very hot. Add fish and cover. Cook 3-4 minutes on each side.
  


[1] Turbot was used as rabbitfish was not available.

Monday, October 23, 2017

QUESOS ESPAÑOLES - SPANISH CHEESES FROM TIME IMMEMORIAL

cabrales
Photo by: Manolo-lopez
Leon queiso, Gall, Port queijo, L. casĕus (molded piece of pressed curd) Eng. cheese, coagulated curd. It is thought that cheese originated by accident. Shepherds carried milk in the stomachs of dead animals. Due to the heat and enzymes in the stomachs, the milk coagulated.
           
Cheese remains in Spain date from the Neolithic, Iron and Bronze ages. Medieval cookery manuscripts contain numerous recipes calling for fried cheese, cheese pastries and cakes and cheese sauces. During the 10th C there was a law in León ordering lords to give cheese, wheat and rye bread and onions to villains on the days they labored in their fields. Cheeses were given as gifts as seen in the second part of Don Quijote.

Semi-Cured Manchego
Phioto by: Lord-Williams
Regional cheeses are famous throughout Spain. Asturias produces Cabrales, a blue cheese made with ewes, goats and cows milk wrapped in sycamore leaves and cured in natural caves face north in limestone mountains. (See blog titled “Cabrales,” published July 6, 2012.)

Cabrales cheese is the forerunner of the French Roquefort cheese or visa versa. Spaniards claim that French pilgrims on the Way of St. James took their recipe home.  The French contradict this saying the Spaniards copied their cheese.

Manchego cheese originated in La Mancha, arid central Spain. It is made with ewes’ milk from a breed called “manchega.” It matures at least 30 days,. There are several varieties ranging from soft to hard cheese depending on the length of time it is allowed to mature. It served as a hardy item ever present in Enrique IV's 15th century saddle pack as well as Washington Irving's  in the 19th century.
           
Torta del Casar
Photo from: Toda Extremadura
Torta del Casar, cheese from merino or churra sheep made in April when chard appears. When the ewe eats chard, the vegetable tenet in it automatically curdles its milk without adding any other ingredients or using any processing techniques. The cheese is left to cure in chard leaves. When ready to eat, a circle is cut in the top part of rind of this cylindrical cheese and removed. Pieces of bread are dipped into the cream inside for what has been called the “gastronomic treasure of Estremadura”. Its somewhat acrid lactic flavor is complemented with a dry red wine. Also, it is a fundamental ingredient for sauces.

Tronchón in Teruel, Aragon is famous for its cheese. It is made with ewe’s milk or a mixture of ewe and goat’s ,milk. It is aged, which may range from a soft to a hard texture. Cervantes mentions this twice in the second part of Don Quijote.

Mahón cheese, from the Baleares Islands, was exported to England by the 13th century. Andalusia is known for Payoyo cheese, from Villaluenga del Rosario, made form goat’s milk and El Bosque cheese, from Grazalema natural park, is made from goat or ewe’s milk among so many others.

[Dialecto. 1947:300; García del Cerro. 1990: 188; Inventario. 1996:201:302-303; and Pers. Conversations. Concha de Tielve. 4-5 Jun 03 and Antonio Van der Valle. Apr 19, 03; Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:42 and Trapiello. 1994:14]



Friday, October 20, 2017

QUESO FRESCO WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR CHEESE FILLED PASTRIES

Creamy Cheese Mixed with Dough
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ar. labneh, lahneh, Eng. a creamy cheese made from laban (yoghurt) in the Middle Ages. [Anón/Huici. 1965:9:19:295:167:370:203-204; ES: Glos. of  Arabic. May 23, 03; ES: Lord. “barreño.” Feb 15, 12:“cilantro.” Apr 2, 13: “leche y sus poductos.” 26/10/15: “queso fresco. Oct 25, 17 etc; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:55:62:66 etc; and Nola. xliiii-1: xlvii-4]

HOW TO MAKE ALMOJÁBANAS  (PASTRIES) CALLED AL-MAH
ĀRIQ (“THE DELIGHTS” AND ALSO AL-MUWARRAQA (“LEAF PASTRY) ADAPTED FROM MARIN'S TRANSLATION OF  IBN RAZÎN AL-TUGÎBÎ’S RELIEVES DE LAS MESAS SECCIÓN 1, CH 4 #34. MANERA DE HACER ALMOJÀBANAS LLAMADOS AL-MAHĀRIQ (LAS DELICIAS”) Y TAMBIÉN MUŢALLAŢA (“LAS TRIPLES”) Y AL-MUWARRAQA (“LA HOJALDRADA”),[1] p 126

Just Fried Pastries
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients


2 c semolina
1 c fresh milk
¼ c rose water
300 gr fresh cheese
¼ c butter
oil for deep frying

Garnish
A drizzle of honey
1 tsp sugar
1 tsp cinnamon

Preparation

Yummy Snacks or Dessert
Phioto by: Lord-Williams
Make a dough with semolina, fresh milk and a little rose water. Grate the cheese well and mix it with the butter. If the cheese is dry and salty tasting soak it in water for 24 hours. After that mix the cheese and butter with the dough and let sit on the throuth.

Put enough oil in a frying pan to cover the pastries. Cut the dough into small wafers and make a hole in the middle. Fill the frying pan with wafers and turn them when browned. When done remove them and drizzle them with honey. Let sit 15 minutes. Remove them and put them in a glazed dish.  Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and eat them if it be God’s will,



[1] A recipe for almojábana mutallata can be found in Kitb al-Tabīh fi-l Magrib wa-l-Andalus, p 187; another of muwarraqa on p 184

MARIN'S TRANSLATION OF  IBN RAZÎN AL-TUGÎBÎ’S 
RELIEVES DE LAS MESAS SECCIÓN 1, CH 4 #34. 
MANERA DE HACER ALMOJÀBANAS LLAMADOS AL-MAHĀRIQ (LAS DELICIAS”) 
Y TAMBIÉN MUŢALLAŢA (“LAS TRIPLES”) 
AL-MUWARRAQA (“LA HOJALDRADA”), p 126




Wednesday, October 18, 2017

QUESO DE CERDO WITH PAQUITA'S RECIPE FOR HEAD CHEESE

Paquita supervising author
cutting meat from head for 

her famous head cheese
Photo by: Carmen López
queso de puerco, head cheese. The Spanish version is preserved meat, consisting of scrapes from the pig’s, trotters and head, which are boiled, de-boned, chopped and mixed with herbs and garlic. The mixture is pressed into form of a small wheel or cheese and left to mature before consumed. The English version fundamentally is ground pork that is jellied by boiling pork hocks. It has been questioned if head cheese existed in the Middle Ages. Brawn, the forerunner, was a popular medieval dish in England. See falanges. [Hieatt. Ordinance. 1988:89; and Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003]

PAQUITA’S RECIPE FOR HEAD CHEESE
for 10 portions

Ingredients

6 pig knuckles
1 pig neck
meat from the head of the pig
pig and cow trotters.
bones  
salt to taste
seasoning such as 1 tbsp white pepper and ½ tbsp nutmeg per pound of meat
1 bunch parsley
1 garlic head
1 tbsp white pepper
gelatin made from trotters
1 tsp salt

Preparation

IMGP0079
Photo from: Antonia Urbiola
Boil knuckles, neck, meat from the head, bones, and trotters in water, with salt to taste for two hours. Remove, strain and let cool.  Remove skin and meat from the bones, knuckles sand neck and discard the bones. About 7 pounds of meat is necessary for 10 portions.

Chop the remaining meat and skin and wash off grease with hot water, Put all this into the pot. Cover with water, add salt and seasoning. Mix well, Bring to a boil.. Reduce heat and gently boil 2 to 3 hours as per the age of the pig.  Add more water if necessary. Cook until tender. Skim off grease.

Wash parsley and put it in a food processor with peeled garlic, salt to taste and white pepper, Add a little broth and grind to make a green sauce.

When the pork is ready, remove from heat and add the green sauce. Stir with a wooden spoon until all the ingredients are well mixed.

Add 1 tsp gelatin from trotters per cup of broth and continue stirring,

Pour the mixture into a large, deep bowl. Press down to make a solid cake. When the mixture starts to gel, refrigerate for at least a month to six weeks.




Monday, October 16, 2017

QUESO ASADERO - MELTED OR ROASTED CHEESE

Caciocavallo Silano DOP
Photo from:
 La Compagnia del Cavatappi
OCast queso assadero (14-17 C), Eng 1. meltedor roasted cheese  Medieval recipes often call for melting grated cheese. Although supposedly for the “purpose of roasting,” Nola melts grated cheese in a pan and then adds other ingredients for a thick soup. [Alonso, Martín.
1994:I:A:518; ES: Lord.“Brufalino,” Feb 5, 12: “Caciovallo,” June 14, 12 etc; Lladonosa. 1984:92-93; Nola. 1989:xlv-1; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:104]

See blog titled “Caciocavallo” published June 14, 2012 for the Medieval Spanish Chef’s interpretation of Nola’s recipe lxv-1 sopes with  melted cheese and blog titled “Bufalino”  published February 5, 2012 for Lladonosa’s interpretation of the same recipe.

Friday, October 13, 2017

QUESADA WITH A RECIPE FOR GALICIAN CHEESE CAKE


OCast quexada, Ar. qayŷāta, Eng meat, cheese or sweet pastries or cakes. They are made during Shrovetide particularly. See almojabana, queimón and tarta de queso [Baena/Dutton. 1993:325:324:5e; Castro. Alimentación.1996:260; Villena/Brown. 1983:175; and Villena/Calero. 2002:120]

A RECIPE FOR GALICIAN CHEESECAKE FROM
TARTA DE REQUESÓN O QUESADA GALLEGA
DEL CHEF MIGUEL LÓPEZ CASTANIER

Irristable!
Photo by Lord-WIlliams
Ingredients

350 gr. (2 c) flour
200 gr. (1 c) sugar
2 natural yogurts
375 gr. (1½ c) whole milk
5 eggs
600 gr. (1 lb 5 oz) requeson
15 gr. (1 ½) envelopes) yeast
zest from ½ lemon  
¼ tsp salt

Garnish:

honey, marmalade or powdered sugar to cover cake
walnuts

Preparation

PREHEAT OVEN TO 375ºF/190ºC


Sift flour with yeast and salt and set aside.


Beat eggs with sugar for about 5 minutes or until double the original volume and the mixture is pale yellow. 

Add yogurts, milk, lemon zest and continue beating until all is well mixed.

Add flour, one tablespoon at a time every 5 seconds, beating non-stop. 

When all the flour is mixed add requeson.  Contunie beating until the mix is creamy without lumps.

Grease a pie or cake tin and pour the mixture into this. Back for about 60 minutes or until a toothpick comes out clean. 

Let cool.

Serve with a drizzle of honey and walnuts.




Wednesday, October 11, 2017

QUEIMÓN (GAL) WITH THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S HEAVENLY RECIPE FOR GALLEGAN CHEESECAKE

Cast. quesadilla, And. almohábana, Eng a cake or fritter in which the batter is mixed with cheese.  It is an forerunner of the Andalusian. almohábana, which in turn is of Roman origin. In Al Andalus, it was like a fritter in that the dough was filled with a regional goat cheese called quesadilla.
The Batter
Photo by: Lord-Williams



In Villena’s day it could be a meat or sweet pastry or just cheese. It was made during specific periods of the year. In Leon it was a cheese made in Lacinan but today is a hot ewe’s cream cheese or a mixture of animal meat.

Today it can made as filling for Mexican tortillas and served as a snack. During Passover, the Jews make it with mazto dough. See almojabanas, levanduras, mantecados, quesada, and tarta de queso.


[Anón/Granja. 1960:79:23.Anón/Huici. 1965:142:96-97:409:225-226:410:226 etc; ES: Anón/Lord. “almojábanas. Aug 24, 11; ES: Lord:”almuerzo.”Aug 31, 11:”levanduras.”Nov 25, 15: and “mantecados.” Mar 21, 16; Marin. 33:125-126:34:126:35:127 etc; Trapiello. 1994:141; and
Villena/Calero. 2002:120]

GALLEGAN CHEESECAKE, THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF’S RECIPE

Ingredientes
Heavenly Smells Flowing from the Oven!
Photo by: Lord-Willliams

4 eggs
1 c granulated sugar
1 c yogurt
1 c whole milk
1 c flour
1 Royal yeast envelope
8 oz cream cheese 
10 oz requesón cheese shredded
2 tbsp cognac
zest from ½ lemon

Garnish
a drizzle of honey

Preparation

Beat eggs. Add sugar and continue beating until double in size. Add yogurt mix well. Add milk and beat again.


Add flour with yeast. Beat to a fine cream. Take care not to beat too much as it will become too bubbly. Add cognac and lemon zest. Stir well.

Grease a cake tin with butter. Sprinkle it with flour. Pour the batter into it and bake 15 minutes at 400º F/200º C. Reduce heat to 350 ºF/175ºC and continue to bake for 30 minutes or until a toothpick comes out clean.

If the cake browns too quickly cover the top with a damp rag.

When done, remove from oven and let cool 1-2 hours. Remove from cake tin and place on a serving dish. Drizzle honey over it before serving.

Monday, October 9, 2017

QATĀ ‘IF (AR), QATAYEF WITH MEDIEVAL RECIPE FOR SWEET ARAB CREPES

Frying Bottom Side of Crepes
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Eng, qatayef[1], filled and folded crepes suzettes . The original recipe at the Alhambra is from the 13th C. Today, this is the traditionally famous dessert served every evening during Ramadan and not the rest of the year.

[ES: Anon/Perry. 2000:ftn 187; and Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:153]

RECIPE FOR ABBASID QATAYEF, STUFFED PANCAKES, 
ADAPTED FROM HUICI'S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS 
#441 RECETA DR LOS "QATĀIF” ABBĀSIES, p 262

Ingredients

FOR THE PANCAKES:
2 c breadcrumbs[2]
½ tsp yeast
1 tbsp sugar
Stuffing the Crepe
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 1/3 c lukewarm water
2/3 c rosewater
1 c milk
1 raw egg
olive oil for frying


FOR THE FILLING:
½ c peeled and finely chopped almonds[3]
1 tbsp sugar
½ tsp spikenard
¼ tsp cloves
¼ cinnamon
2 tbso rosewater plus rosewater for dampening pancakes
¼ tsp camphor

Garnish
rosewater syrup,  julep or skimmed honey

Preparation

FOR THE PANCAKES:

Make breadcrumbs out of flatbread. Spread this out on a plate and let dry overnight until the consistency is like semolina.

Mix yeast, sugar and ½ c lukewarm water. Let sit about 10 minutes for foam to rise. Add breadcrumbs, salt, the rest of the water and other ingredients. Whisk well. Let rest ½ hour until fluffy and bubbly.

PREHEAT SKILLET TO 375º F/190ºC

Add enough oil to prevent sticking. Pour out about ¼ c batter on the surface to make 4” pancakes. Let the batter bubble and dry. Cook until browned on the bottom, remove from heat. Cover with a tea towel to keep moist.

FOR THE FILLING:

Delicious Crepes  - Half Moons and a Full Moon!
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Mix chopped almonds with sugar, spikenard, cloves and cinnamon. Sprinkle this with rosewater containing dissolved camphor.

Add 1 to 2 teaspoons of this filling to each pancake. Fold them into a semi-circle[4]. Glue the edges with dough by dampening them with rosewater.

Heat 1” deep of olive oil in a pan. Add the pancakes. Lightly brow about two minutes and remove immediately. Let the oil drain off the cake.

Pour rosewater syrup, julep of skimmed honey over pancakes.  Turn them over to soak the other side.

Several cakes can be made, piling one on tip of another and after filling them, press the edges together making circles and half circles.


[1] Perry maintains that Huici’s explanation that qataif is derived from a berb meaning to sift flour is incorrect. “Qataif” is, according to Perry, the plural of the known meaning “plush velvet.” He explains that crepes were called “mushadhhada” in al-Andalus, which elsewhere is defined as flatbread. These are filled and deep fried.
[2] Today 1 ½ C flour and ½ c semolina can used.
[3] Today, half the pancakes can be filled with grated white or mozzarella cheese and half with the almond or other nut mixture.
[4] Perry suggests that instead of folding crepes that one circle could be placed on top of another and sealed with rosewater, which is easier as the crepes tend to split when folding them over after adding the filling.
HUICI'S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS
#441 RECETA DE LOS "QATĀIF ABBĀSIES"