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Monday, November 27, 2017

RAZES (al-Razi), WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR CHICKEN

Al Razi_Medicine
Photo from Khair Indonesia
Eng. Rhazes, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (865-925 A.D.), These dates are debatable as other dates given are within the years 841-936. Rhazes was born in Rayy, northeastern Persia near Teheran and trained in Greek science. He was a physician in the court of Baghdad, hospital director and teacher. Rhazes devoted his life to scientific research and almost 250 written works are attributed to him.

The Greco-Roman civilization disintegrated between the 7-8 C. A.D. As a consequence, the Arab world picked up the threads and furthered scientific research. Physicians, like Rhazes, were highly esteemed in Muslim countries. He was influenced by Galen and Hippocrates and with them became one of the founders of clinical science. Like Hippocrates, Rhazes observed patients carefully and keep clinical records on them. Due to the insistence of Ibn al-'Amid, vizier of Rukn al-Dawla, these were edited and divided into some 25 volumes known as the Kitab. al-Hawi fi 'l-tibb (“The Comprehensive Book on Medicine”). King Charles of Anjou in 1279 had his Jewish physician Faradj b. Salim (known as Farraguth) translate them. This became one of the most popular medical books in medieval Europe and continued to be as late as the 18 C.

Plump Stuffed Chicken
A Food to Cure all Ills
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Rhazes was the first physician to distinguish the difference between measles and smallpox. His findings were published separately. His most important work on alchemy Kitab Sirr al-asrar (“Secret of Secrets”) covers distillation, calcinations, and sublimations processes. He established procedures for separation, purification and mixing of substances. As a result of his development of simple and composite medicines, mercurial ointments were introduced into the western world. Further, because Europeans followed his instructions, they learned how to prepare important acids such as pure sulfuric acid.

Rhazes’ Kitab al-Mansuri fi al-tibb (“The Book on Medicine for Mansur”), dedicated to Mansuri, Governor of Rayy, contains 10 books that Tobiel ben Samuel de Leiria, a Jewish physician living in Portugal the last half of the 14 C. translated from Latin into Hebrew.

The Ninth Book became the standard source in therapeutics in Europe and continued to be throughout and after the Renaissance. Rhazes developed pharmaceutical apparatuses used by apothecaries until the early 20th C. including beakers, flasks, phials, glass vessels, mortars and pestles. Further, he wrote about nutrition. See cafeto and jengibre. [Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:15; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5 00:ftn 3; and ES: Rhazes. Nov 5, 02]

CHICKEN MEAT ADAPTED FROM IBN RAZIN’S  RELIEVES DE LAS MESA ACERCA DE LAS DELICIAS DE LA COIDA Y LOS DIFERENCTES PLATOS, MANUELA MARÍN ED. SECCIÓN TERCERA SOBRE LA CARNE DE AVE, CAPÍTULO SEGUNDO, SOBRE LA CARNE DE GALLINA, 1. PLATO,  p 198


Meatballs Ready for Frying
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

1 chicken
salt for depluming
1 tsp grated ginger
1 tsp mastic
1 cinnamon tube
1 tbsp cilantro
1 tsp salt
2-3 small onions
1 chicken breast
2 egg yolks
1 tsp mixed spices
2 egg whites
½ c breadcrumbs (optional)
oil for frying

Garnish
Ground cinnamon
Sprigs of mint leaves

Preparation

Select and was a plump chicken. Rub it with salt to help loosen the feathers. Discard feathers and remove innards.

When clean fill the cavities with ginger, mastic, cinnamon, cilantro, salt, and onions. Sew the breast shut and tie the legs together.

Healthy and Delicious
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Fill a pot with water. Add the chicken. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and gently cook until the meat is cooked.

In meantime, select a chicken breast and remove the bones. Grind the meat in a mortar. Make meatballs with it. Dip them in slightly beaten eggs. Mix spices with breadcrumbs and roll the meatballs in them. 

Heat oil in a frying pay and fry the meatballs. Set aside when done.

When the chicken is cooked, remove from pot and carve. place the meat on a serving platter and place meatballs around the edges. Garnish with ground cinnamon and sprigs of mint leaves. 

Serve warm. Chicken throughout the ages has been recommended to cure all ills and thought very healthy for all. 
  
IBN RAZIN’S  RELIEVES DE LAS MESA ACERCA DE LAS DELICIAS DE LA COIDA Y LOS DIFERENCTES PLATOS, MANUELA MARÍN ED. SECCIÓN TERCERA SOBRE LA CARNE DE AVE, CAPÍTULO SEGUNDO, SOBRE LA CARNE DE GALLINA, 1. PLATO,  p 198


Friday, November 17, 2017

RATA



Greater egyptain herboa (Jaculus Orientalis)
Photo from a_ dg
During Avenzoar’s time, it was thought that if rat meat was roasted, it was consumed by children, they would stop drooling. It did not work for adults. All are hot and dry; the most useful of all is the wild purple one, larger than ordinary rats that are consumed and smaller than rabbits. The best next is the jerboa, a jumping desert rodent the size of a rat found in Africa. Rats are known to have been consumed by humans but basically as famine food.[Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:59:125]



No recipe is provided as consumption of rats is thought to be disgusting.

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

RASPAR

to scrape.  Once the pig is slaughtered the epidermis is singed and scraped off with a scraping knife, piece of cloth, a stone or chip of wood. See lacas. [Pers. Memories. Slaughters Mostoles. 2000:2001:2003; and Serradilla. 1993:147]

Monday, November 13, 2017

RASPADAS


OCast ráelas, rayeduras, rayadas, rayda, Eng scrapings. See rayada. [ES: Lord-Williams: “lepra.” Nov 20, 15; Nola. xxxix-2; and Nola/Iranzo. 1982:171]

Friday, November 10, 2017

RARO

OCast ralo, Eng thin, sparse, rare, said of things having the appendages more separated than normal. [ES: Lord-Williams. “adarme.” Oct 23, 10: “avenante:” Dec 28, 11; “azotarlo.” Jan 17, 12; Nola. 1989:xiiii-2:xxvii-2:xxix-2 etc; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:120-121:208]

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

RAPE WITH RECIPE FOR MONKFISH

Monkfish
Photo from; Will
Ast pixín, L.Lophius piscatorius, Eng. monkfish. It lives in the Atlantic from the northeastern section to the Iberian Peninsula and is common in the Mediterranean. Monkfish have been described as "a tadpole almost the size and shape of a baby grand piano.” They are normally 40-60 cm. long. Lladonosa provides a modernized medieval recipe for monkfish fried and served with clams while Benavides-Barajas’ is cooked in a sauce.

[Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:121; Corbera. 1998:104-05; and Lladonosa. Cocina. 1984:35-36]

MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF’S RECIPE FOR MONKFISH ADAPTED FROM LLADONOSA'S RECIPE TO EXCLUDE MODERN INGREDIENTS

Ingredients

Washing Clams
Photo by: Lord-Williams
8 garlic cloves
½ c olive oil
4 parsley sprigs
6 slices of thin bread
1 lb squash
1 ¼ qt fish broth
1 ½ k monk fish
30 clams[1]
salt to taste
white pepper to taste

Preparation

Finely chop garlic and fry in a little olive oil.  When it browns, add one sprig of parsley chopped. Toss for a few seconds and put it in a mortar with the remaining parsley.

Add the remaining olive oil to the frying pan and fry the bread until golden brown. Add it to the mortar.

Delicious!
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Fry the squash, chopped and without seeds, for a few minutes. Dip it in 1 ¼ qt of broth . If available; if not, use water.

Chop the ingredients in the mortar. Add them to the broth and cook for five minutes. Add salt to taste.

Put sliced fish in an earthenware casserole with clams seasoned with salt and pepper. and heat until fish is cooked, Dampen with sauce from the frying pan and cook until fish is cooked, about 10 minutes.


Ingredientes: 30 clams or 1 kg, 1 tbsp onion, 2 garlic cloves, 1 tbsp flour, olive oil for sautéeing, 1 c white wine, oil, 1 tbsp parsley, salt to taste. Preparation: finely chop onion, gently sautée in a little oil. When they start to brown, add flour and mix until disolved. Cook for a few minutes. Add white wine, Mix well with the flour. Add clams and cook until they open. Sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve.


RECETA DE JOSEF LLADONOSA



Monday, November 6, 2017

RANA WITH BUTTER FRIED FROGS LEGS

Frog
Photo from: Patrick Findeiss
L. Rana vulgarius, Eng. frog. In Spain frogs were eaten when fish were scarce. Villena describes the frog as a medicinal reptile that refreshes the liver. 

An English prescription of Thomas Fayreford, an English practitioner, from the first half of 15th century states: take a green frog that leaps in the trees as it will anoint any tooth that you wish to fall out (ordinary pond frogs are not so good for the purpose). 

Frog references have had derogatory connotations throughout history. During the Middle Ages in particular the English called Parisians ‘froggies’, for their love for frogs’ legs and their rivalries. When something goes badly in Spain "it turns into a frog," not the other way around as happened to the prince as happens in the Grimm brother’s German fairy tale.

Frogs are born tadpoles and live in water the first part of their lives until they develop into amphibian frogs. Frogs’ eyes are on the top of their heads so that they can see all around. Their tongues ae attached to the front of their mouths making it easier to catch bugs to eat. Frogs can jumo across a football field in four leaps. There are more than 4,000 different kinds of frogs in the world. Not only are there green frogs but transparent, red, blue, orange and yellow ones. Some are poisonous.


Chez Aux - Frog Legs
Photo from: Michael T.
Most frogs have eyes on top of their heads, so they can see all around to watch for predators. If you could hop like a frog, you would be able to cross a football field in just four jumps. A frog’s tongue is attached to the front of its mouth, not the back, so it can reach farther for yummy bugs.

No medieval Spanish recipes for frogs seem to have survived but the French are famous for skinning and breading frogs' legs with flour, chopped garlic and parsley and frying them in butter after soaking them in milk. They are served with a butter, garlic and parsley sauce. 

[Castro. Alimentación. 1996:279; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23]


Friday, November 3, 2017

RAMADÁN - RAMADAN WITH A RECIPE FOR COUSCOUS

Fit for a Caliph
Photo by: Lord-Williams
This is the period of the Islamic fast, lasting almost one month, during which Islams do not eat, drink liquids or participate in sexual activity from sunrise to sunset. This is done during the ninth month of the Muslim calendar year. Like Christian’s during Lent, it originally was a time to purify the body, to clear the mind and to make the senses more acute. 

Ramadan ends on the 27th day following the religious service with a feast commencing with harira containing chickpeas, meat, noodles and vegetables. Traditionally, harira is served to prepare the stomach for the feast of lamb, either roasted, couscous or in tagines which are accompanied by fruits and dates. Following the dinner, there is street dancing and singing. [Benavides-Barajas. Alhambra. 1999:53-54; Pers. conversations with Rania Gharib 1989-1990; and Van Dozel. 1994:369]

For other Ramandan dishes see blogs:
alcucero published 12 Juk 11, alcuzcuz published haria
published Feb 13, 15.

A RECIPE FOR COUSCOUS FROM RANIA GHARIB OF RABAT, MOROCCO


Ingredients


Ideal for A Cold Autumn Day
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 kg mutton
1 kg bones ¼ c extra-virgin olive oil
5 to 6 qts water or broth
½ c  chickpeas, drained and rinsed
½ lb carrots, soaked overnight, scraped and cut in half
1 large turnip (½ lb), peeled and cut into 1-inch cubes
½ lb pumpkin or winter squash, peeled and cut into 1" cubes 
¼ tsp ground cumin
¼ tsp ground cinnamon
salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
1 medium onion
2 large garlic cloves
2 c instant (precooked) couscous
1 tbsp unsalted butter, at room temperature


garnish:
cinnamon

Preparatuion

Cut meat into bit sized junks. Put it in a pot with 5-6 qts of water or broth with bones . Bring to a boil and simmer 15 minutes hour.

Drain chickpeas and rinse. Add them to the pot. after 25 minutes add the carrots and squash. Continue cooking for 20 minutes. After 5 minutes, add squash.

In a separate pan heat oil and fry the onion and garlic until soft and golden about 5 to 10 minutes.
Add cumin, cinnamon, salt and pepper. Stir and cook 1 minute. Add 1 c boiling broth, cover and let sit 5 minutes. Add butter, fluff and serve with the other ingredients. Garnish with cinnamon.

Serve with broth in a bowl to be used as a sauce.


Wednesday, November 1, 2017

RABIL WITH 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR GRILLED TUNA

Yellowfin Tuna, Taiwan
Photo from: Mark Tindale
1. L. Thunnus albacres or Noethunnus albacares, Eng. yellowfin tuna. This is a beautiful fish with a grayish black strip on top and white underneath with a yellow stripe. Its maximum weight is 180 kg. It is one of the world’s most popular tunas. The yellowfin like other family members is a great migrant from seas to oceans. The Duke of Medina Sidonia’s fleet fished it often around Cádiz. Medieval documents, however, simply list this as tuna fish with out specifying the type. [Castro. Alimentación. 1996:322; Multilingual. 1969: 305:1108;
Nola. 1989:lxii-4:lxii-5:lxii:6; and Villena/Calero. 2002:39a]

For blogs pertaining to tuna fish see:

Adafina, published Oct 23, 10.
Adobos, puublished Oct23, 10.
Atún, phublished Dec 21 11.
Atún aleta azúl, oublished Dec 22, 11.
Atún blanco published Dec 23, 11,
Carguilla published Aug 22, 12.
Cazón, published Dec 9, 12,

GRILLED TUNA ADAPTED FROM MARIN’S TRANSLATION IBN RAZÏN AL-TUGÏBI, RELIEVES DE LAS MESAS, SECCIÓN 5, CAPT 1, 28. OTRO PLATO, p 250

Ingredients

Grilled Tuna
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 lb tuna steaks
salt to taste
¼ c olive oil
1 tsp murri
4 mashed garlic cloves
½ tsp white pepper
1 tsp cinnamon

Preparation

Select tuna steaks and put it on an iron spit[1], grill it as described above. Baste it with a mixture of dissolved salt, oil, murri, mashed garlic, white pepper and cinnamon and grill until golden brown.

Eat as is. If desired mix the olive oil with cooked and mashed garlic and enjoy it it be God’s will.


[1] The tuna was grilled on a grill, not on a spit.

MARIN’S TRANSLATION IBN RAZÏN AL-TUGÏBI, RELIEVES DE LAS MESAS, SECCIÓN 5, CAPT 1, 28. OTRO PLATO, p 250