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Friday, March 24, 2017

PESCADILLA EN POLVO WITH 13TH C RECIPE FOR MURAWWAJ FISH

Șīr
Photo by: 
Lord-Williams
Ar. Șīr (from Copic tjir, salted fish, perhaps the Egyptians borrowed it from the Canaanite language, cf. Hebrew tzūr, brine), Eng. small fish thoroughly dried without salt and pulverized for flavoring dishes. [Perry. “Introduction.” 2001:281]

MURAWWAJ FISH ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATION OF ANÓN, AL-ANDALUS #
361 EL PESCADO MURAWAŶ, p 198

Ingredients

1 lb fish of the day
salt to taste
olive oil for deep frying and enough oil to cover fish in another frying pan 
2 tbsp vinegar
1 tbsp murri[1] or Șīr[2]
½ tsp white pepper
1 tsp cumin
1 tsp thyme
1 tsp cinnamon

Deep Frying Fish in Oil with Brine
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Preparation

Choose fish at will. Scale it and cut it into pieces. Lightly scald it in water with salt. Remove and let dry.

Put a frying pan over moderate heat. Fill a frying pan with enough olive oil to deep fry the fish. Add fish and fry until golden brown. Remove from the pan and set aside.

In another frying pan add the remaining ingredients and enough olive oil to cover the fish. Slowly heat. When boiling add fish. Let fry until dry. Remove from heat and let cool. This is customary in Ceuta and in Western Al-Andalus.[3]


[1] See Almorí with Byzantine Murri Recipe blog published August 25, 2011 for recipe.
[2] The Medieval Spanish Chef addition. Actually one fish bullion cube was used.
[3] Elsie Fleming points out that this is not the same territory as the province of Andalusia today.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

CHARLES PERRY WITH HIS TRANSLATION OF AN EXTRAORDINARY DISH OF CHICKEN

Perry's work with
Maxime Rodinson and A.K.Arberry
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Perry, Charles, is an American expert on Middle East cookery and translator of culinary manuscripts. He is a graduate of the University of California in Berkeley, where he obtained a bachelor’s degree in Near Eastern Languages. He has studied under the Carnegie Foundation at the Middle East Center for Arab Studies in Shimlan, Lebanon. He constantly travels to the Middle East visiting innumerous countries including Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Yemen and Uzbekistan, to discover food every where he goes. He began as a journalist and contributing editor of the magazine Rolling Stone. Since he worked as a food columnist and restaurant reviewer in Los Angles.

What is of utmost importance in this work is his Arabic contributionc to Elsie Fleming's English translation of Ambrosio Huici Miranda's translation from Hispano-Arabic into Spanish of Manuscrito Anómino, also known as Anonymous, Al-Andalus, an untitled 13th C. Spanish-Arabic recipe collection from Moorish Spain. Other contributors to Ms. Fleming's work included  Stephen Bloch and Habib ibn-al Andalusi.

Perry also contributed to Medieval Arab Cookery with Maxim Rodison and A.J. Arberry, fowarded by Claudia Roden. Both publications serve as links between cookery in the Arab world with that of Spain in the Middle Ages and ultimately Europe. [ES: Perry. Sep 5, 00; and Roden. 2001:14-15]

THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF ANON, AL-ANDALUS #85. AN EXTRAORDINARY DISH OF CHICKEN/PLATO EXTRAORDINARIO DE GALLINA WITH ADAPTIONS BY THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF

Ingredients

Frying Meatballs and Sausage
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 chicken
¼ c and 2 tbsp olive oil
3 tbsp murri
2 tbsp vinegar
1 tbsp thyme[1]
1 tbsp rue
4 garlic cloves[2]
1 tbsp pine nuts
1 tbsp almonds
1 tbsp coriander
1 tsp cumin
½ tsp pepper
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp Chinese cinnamon
1 tbsp lavender
1 chopped and mashed onion
salt to taste
1 tbsp fresh cilantro
1 lb mutton
4 egg yolks
2 white sausages
2 c broth[3]

Garnish
1 tsp fine spices" [4]

Preparation

Uniquely Yummy
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Clean a young, fat hen. Roast it over coals. Take care that it does not burn. Baste it with ¼c oil and 2 tbsp murri until browned.

Chop the innards and put them in a pot with the remaining ingredients. Bring to a boil and reduce heat. Gently boil.

Grind mutton and make meatballs. Add them to the pot. When the meatballs are cooked, remove and brown them. Return them to the chicken and meatballs. Dot the dish with four egg yolks.

Slice sausages made for this purpose, brown them and add them to the pot. Bring it to a boil. Reduce heat and gently boil until the sauce is absorbed.

Pour this into a serving dish and garnish with the meatballs and egg yolks. Sprinkle with fine spices. God willing, present it.


[1] Perry says thyme but Huici, in his translation, says mint.
[2] Huici says four grams.
[3] The Medieval Spanish Chef’s addition.
[4] Salsas finas, see blog titled dárselo published November 29, 2013 for recipe.



PERRYS TRANSLATION OF ANON, AL-ANDALUS 
#85. AN EXTRAORDINARY DISH OF CHICKEN

Clean a young, plump hen and roast it over coals, and watch that it not burn. Baste it with oil and murri continuously until it is browned. Then take its innards, cut fine and put them in an earthenware pot, and throw in two spoonfuls of oil, two of vinegar, one of murri, and thyme, rue, four cloves of garlic, pine-nuts, almond, coriander, a little cumin, pepper, cinnamon and Chinese cinnamon, lavender, onion ground with salt and some cilantro; boil all this over a moderate fire. Make meatballs of mutton and throw them in the sauce until they are cooked, and take them out and roast them until they are browned. Dot the dish with four egg yolks and throw in it the roast chicken and meatballs. Cut isfî riyâ and lu'âniq (sausages) made for this purpose, cut into rounds in the form of earrings, and throw them in the pot and let it boil until the hen absorbs the sauce. Put it in a dish and garnish it with its meatballs and its eggyolks, and scatter fine spices over it and present it, God willing.

HUICI'S TRANSLATION  OF AL-ANDALUS #85
PLATO EXTRAORDINARIO DE GALLINA, pp 60-61


Monday, March 20, 2017

PERILLOS DE FALDA - LAP DOGS



Lap Dog Today!
Photo by: Santiago Alonso-Lord


OCast. perrillos de halda, Eng lap dogs. Nola’s introduction contains a section on health in which they are mentioned as pastimes of queens and ladies of the aristocracy, while the man of the house has the responsibility to keep order in family and other matters including the staff and insuring good health. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:80:199]

Friday, March 17, 2017

PERERO - FRUIT KNIFE AND LATER FRUIT FORK

Calero's drawing of a
medieval fruit knife
Photo by: Lord-Williams
fruit knife, later fruit fork. It was used to peel and carve fruit. It is supposed that fruit forks are an invention of Enrique Villena in Spain who claimed them legal because fruit comes from a plant, not an animal (see tenedores and Villena).

A Three Prong Fruit Fork
Photo by: Lord-Williams
The one described by Villena looks like an under grown sword with a hilt as long as the width of the hand, a cup-shaped guard and instead of a blade, a wedge that is half a finger length and the diameter of the baby finger. It was used for peeling fruit and eating quince, pears and apples. Then it was silver or gold.

This developed into the two or three prong fruit fork, also called the ‘feminized toy’. In 1434, during the tournament held by Suero Quiñones at el Paso Honroso just outside the city of León, they were supplied to guests with dessert and were the novelty of the day. 

[Alonso Luengo. 1994:41:45-47; ES: Chap 1. Apr 1, 04; Villena/Calero. 2002:19:ftn 56:13b; and Villena/Navarro 1879:30-31]

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

PEREJIL WITH 15TH C PARSLEY SAUCE RECIPE

1 Bunch of Parsley
Photo by: Lord-Williams
petroselinoOCast perexil, prexil, Cat 
juvert, L. Petroselinum hortense or Apium petroselinium, Ar. maadanose or baqdounis, Fr. persil, Eng. parsley, rock parsley. It probably originated in southern Europe, some say Sardinia, but it is not confirmed. The Greek name petros indicates that it grows around rocks and stones. Pliny’s fishponds were sprinkled with parsley seed to cure the fish of any infirmity. To ward off intoxication, Greeks wore parsley leaves on their necks. In other European countries, men and women have eaten the seed to increase fertility. Men sprinkled it on their heads to make their hair grow back. Arabs chewed it to dispel halitosis. In Spain, it has been used in all dishes except desserts but including snails. They never eat it as it is poisonous for them. Parsley is not recorded in England until 1548 but it is believed that the Romans took it there.

Stirring in One Direction
Photo by: Lord-Williams


perejilada, OCast perexilada, Eng parsley sauce. See blog titled "manera, una" posted February 24, 2016 for recipe. [Nola. 1989:liiIi-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:151]

Also see the following blogs: “cañarejo apio” posted August 8, 2012; for Sent Soví’s recipe for parsley; “manera, una” posted February 2, 2016; for Nola’s recipe liiii-1 "Parsley Dish" and blog titled “alidem” posted August 2, 2012  for Nola’s recipe for Alideme Pottage.  

[Anón/Grewe. 1982:IIII:65:CLXVI, pp 179-180; ES: Lord. Medieval. “cañarejo apio.” Posted August 8, 2012; ES: Lord. Medieval.  “manera, una” Posted Feb 2, 16. ES: Lord. Medieval. blog titled “alidem” posted August 2, 2012;  Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:246; Nola. 1989:xxxi-2; liiii-1; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:170; Villena/Calero. 2002:23a; and Villena/Navarro. 1879:44

PARSLEY SAUCE ADAPTED FROM NOLA’S RECIPE l-3 FOR PEREXIL

Ingredients

Parsley Sauce
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1 bunch of parsley or 1 c parsley leaves
1 slice of bread
2 tbsp  white vinegar
½ tsp white pepper
1 c honey

optional
2 tbsp vinegar
2 tbsp water

Preparation

Strip off leaves from a bunch of parsley. Was well and grind in a food processor. Add bread soaked in vinegar and grind. Add pepper and mix well.

Melt honey. Add parsley mixture from food processor. Stir constantly in one direction until blended.

If the sauce is too thick, thin it with a little watered down vinegar. It should not be sour. 
Heat two smooth pebbles from the sea or a river. Heat them and when red hot, pick them up with thongs and add them to the sauce. Let cool.

Taste the sauce. The addition of pepper should be noted. It should be sweet and sour.  


NOLA’S RECIPE l-3 























Monday, March 13, 2017

PERDONES WITH 14TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR CANDIED WALNUTS

Examples of Dried Fruits
Almonds, Dates, Hazelnuts and Raisins
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ar. bunduqiyya, Fr. quatre mendianys (four beggars), Eng. hazelnuts, walnuts, raisins, figs, etc., dried fruits and other small items bought by pilgrims during their pilgrimages. They came to be known as “pardons” during the Middle Ages in northern Spain. Actually, they have come to mean a small present taken to someone who for some reason could not join someone else on a trip. Upon the traveler’s return, therefore, this little token showed that the traveler pardoned the other for not accompanying him.

Hazelnuts are produced by the European filbert or hazel tree (Sp avellanas, OCast auellanas, OCat velanes, valanes, avalances, avellanes,  L. Corylus avellana, Fr. aveliuieer, OFr coudree, OE coudre en tens de nois (fruit from the hazel-tree). It is a low tree common to the mountains in Catalonia, Valencia and Alicante. The nuts are eaten raw or toasted. They are added to cakes and other desserts or served plain or caramelized for centuries.

Valencians have converted hazelnuts into horchata, a refreshing drink in hot weather. The nut contains 50-66% oil, which means that they can keep for a long time. As the French, the English made Coudree en temps de nois, hazelnuts sauce. The bark of the tree, for its astringent properties, is boiled in water and drunk. It was used also to stop diarrhea and hemorrhaging. The skin from the roots is more efficacious than that of the branches. The pollen is drunk in warm water as a sudorific. See higo, nuez and pasa.

Sent Soví provides a recipe for walnuts carmelized with honey, cloves, ginger, pine nuts  and pistachios., which must have been quiet a treat when given as a pardon in the Middle Ages.

 [Anón/Grewe. 1982:
LXVIIII:111:CLXIIII:178:166:178 etc; Curye. 1985:181; Dialecto. 1947:288; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

CANDIED WALNUTS ADAPTED FROM SENT SOVÍ #61 NOUS CONFITES, pp 227-228

Ingredients

Caramelizing Walnuts and Pistachios
Photo by: Lord-Williams
3 lbs honey
2 c water
1 lb green walnuts (250 walnuts)
500 cloves
500 pistachios
ginger roots
500 pine nuts

Preparation

Make a cut in the middle of every walnut on both sides and both ends.

Soak them in cold water for nine days and nights. Change the water daily.

Then scald them on boiling water. Soak them overnight. Put them in a pot with 3 lbs honey and 1 qt of water and cook it to reduce it to ½ qt.

Remove the walnuts from the pot and put them in a basket to drain overnight. Then spread them out on a screen and put them on their ends; leave them overnight.

Heat 13 lbs honey. When it boils, skim well and add the walnuts. Cook until the honey is sticky. Stick every nut with a clove on one end, a pistachio nut on the other a shaving of ginger and 1 pine nut.

Put all the nuts in a sauce dish and pour hot honey over them.

A simplified recipe created by the Medieval Spanish Chef:

Candied Walnuts with Chopped Pistachios
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ingredients

3 c walnuts
¼ c chopped or ground pistachios
¼ c chopped or ground pine nuts[1]
1 tbsp ginger scrapings
1 tsp ground cloves
1 c honey
1 c butter

Preparation

PREHEAT OVEN TO 350º F/175ºC

Cover a cookie sheet with parchment paper.

Heat honey in a sauce pan. Mix it with the other ingredients. 

Spread the ingredients on the parchment paper. Bake 5 more minutes.

Remove from oven. Let cool 10-15 minutes. Break them up and serve.



[1] As pine nuts were not available, more pistachios were added.