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Monday, July 9, 2018

SIROPE WITH A 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR GREAT CHEERING SYRUP


Pouring Syrup
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ar.sharab  (wine or other beverage), Eng. syrup, a thick sweet liquid concentrated solution of sugar in water with fruit, in accordance with the time of the year, boiled until thickened. Syrups were made in Persian style, known as efshurjwhich were boiled three times, as juwarish, a fruit paste or others times known as faludajor dried fruit paste. They were used as preservatives and sweeteners in cookery and confections, as a cold drink or for purging. 

Avenzoar gives recipes for various syrups for digestive purposes and to regulate the humors. Hispano-Arab syrups were original as they contained flowers such as roses The Anon Al-Andalusprovides two recipes for flowers as well as many others that include aloes and citron leaves. Avenzoar’s provides recipes calling for roses and lilies. See almíbar, jarabe and arrope. 

[Anón/Huici.1966:50:40:490:269:492:270 etc; Delgado. 1994:207; Zuhr/García Sánchez1992: 101-109; and OXF Eng Dict.1989:XVII:Su:945]

493. EL JARABE GRAN ALEGRADOR, SU FÓRMULA - THE GREAT CHEERING SYRUP - WAY OF MAKING IT, PP 269-270

Ingredients

½ lb borage leaves
½ lb mint leaves
½ lb citron leaves
½ lb sugar
1 tbsp aloe stems
1 tbsp Chinese rhubarb
1 tbsp Chinese cinnamon
1 tbsp cinnamon
1 tbsp cloves


Preparation

Cook leaves covered with water until tender. Add sugar. Pound aloe stems, Chincese rhubarb, chinese cinnamon, cinnamon and cloves until coarse. Put them in a cloth bag and tie well. Place this in a pot and macerate it svral times until the flavor comes out and the liquid takes on the consistency of syrups. Then add three cups of hot water for every ½ lb of leaves. 

Take half a ratl each of borage, mint, and citron leaves, cook them in water to cover until their strength comes out, then take the clean part and add it to a ratl of sugar. Then put in the bag: a spoonful each of aloe stems, Chinese rhubarb, Chinese cinnamon, cinnamon and clove flowers; pound all these coarsely, place them in a cloth, tie it well, and place it in the kettle, macerate it again and again until its the flavor comes out, and cook until [the liquid] takes the consistency of syrups. Take one û qiya with three of hot water. Benefits: It profits [preceding two words apparently supplied; in parentheses in printed Arabic text] weak stomachs, fortifies the liver and cheers the heart, digests foods, and lightens the constitution gently, God willing.



Monday, July 2, 2018

SIFIUM WITH ROMAN RECIPE FOR SILPHIUM SAUCE

Compass Plant (Silphium laciniatum)
Photo from: Chcuk Kime
L. silphium(Firulanarthex)Ar. anjudān, Fr.silphium, Eng. silphium. It is a Mediterranean plant also called laser and laserpitium. The Arabic “’Ūd al-raqqa” is the “mahrūth”or root of silphium from which the resin or juice is extracted. This yields asafœtida, also called Devil’s dung, fetid gum or resin. 

The Ancients used the juice medicinally for its extensive heeling properties. It was added to food in small quantities to give it a fragrant effect. Too much spoils the food. 

Romans used the powdered root is a condiment as much as liquamen. Barbara Flower recommends it for fish specially. It is thought that it was used for its aphrodisiacal effect and in food prepared for banquets especially. It was a major export from Cyrenaica as it grew in large quantities there but was extinct by Pliny’s time. Apicius provides two rcipes for Silphum Sauce.

In North Africa it was grown especially in Cyrene where it was cultivated for export. There it was used in medicine and in cooking. The Anon al Andalus calls for it in "Tabahaja," a dish of fried goat meat. Today, several Middle Eastern recipes call for asafœtida. [Anón/Huici.1966:250:149; Apicius/Flower. 1958:28-29:57; ES: Lord “Asafœtida,” posted Feb 28, 07; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02; and Pullar. 1970:242] 


APICIUS BOOK 1, XVI SILPHIUM SAUCE


Ingredients[1]


silphium
vinegar
liquamen
pepper
parsley
dry mint
silphium root
honey
vinegar


Preparation

“Dissolve silphium from Cyrenaica or Parthian silphum
in luke-warm water and mix with vinegar and liquamen; or mix pepper, parsley, dry mint, silphium root honey, vinegar, liquamen.


[1] Measurements are not indicated. 
[2] le asafoetida.
.

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

SETAS - MUSHROOMS

Mushrooms
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Cat  bolets, L. Agaricus campestres, etc, Eng wild mushrooms. Essentially, these are members of the basidiomycetes group of fungi (see hongos). In Europe there are some 3,500 species including saffron milk caps (Sp. niscálo), truffles (Sp. trufas) and amanitas, poisonous mushrooms.

 As mushroom spores are not visible to the human eye, during the Middle Ages, wild mushrooms were defined as ‘spongy vegetables spontaneously born after rain in meadows and the majority produce colic.’ 

Avenzoar relates that wild mushrooms are much worse than truffles, for they when totally digested generate a chyme that is a little noxious. Mushrooms growing in manure can cause death by poison or asphyxiation. 

Although much has been learned since, mushrooms continue to contain many secrets for men. It has been found that wild mushrooms are more prolific in areas with large rat populations. Too, man has had very little success in cultivating these species. 

Sliced Mushrooms for Frying
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Of the edible fungi in this group, the same cooking rules apply for hundreds of years. They can be grilled, cooked in ashes or fried if the flesh is very soft. Boiling them causes loss of aroma and flavor. They can be served as a side dish as seen in Richard II of England’s coronation or to garnish roast meat or fowl. Sent Soví calls for a mushroom sauce with parboiled and fried mushrooms mixed with ground herbs, spices and chopped onion and vinegar and verjuice. They are added to sauces to enhance the flavor. 

The poisonous amanitas and puffballs, unfortunately have a place in history. Agrippa, Emperor Claudius’ fourth wife, had him poisoned with the death cap (Amanita phalloides) in order for Nero, her son from a previous marriage, to succeed as emperor, which turned out to be an important step in the fall of the Roman Empire. 

Pope Clemente VII was poisoned by the death cap too. It is believed that Buddha died from an unidentifiable mushroom growing underground. Still people die from puffballs or mushroom poisoning every year. 

[Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXXV:165; ES: Cobos. Oct 1, 04; ES: Farabee. Jul 2, 01; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:91; and Villena/Calero. 2002:24a:39b:40b]

See blog titled "cagarria" for Sent Sovi's Recipe CXXXXV "How to Make Mushroom Sauce," published June 20, 2012 and blog titled "Hongo" published April 6, 2015 for a different version of the same recipe.


Tuesday, June 26, 2018

SIDRA - ITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING SIDER

Straing Made Apples and Juice
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OCast sícera(10thC.), Eng cider. Apple juice, which can be fermented or unfermented. It also varies as to the type of apples used, whether they are sweet, bitter or sour. Since the Middle Ages, Asturias has been known for its hard cider, which is drunk instead of wine. It is fermented in chestnut barrels before bottled. It was a common beverage for peasants and the middle class in northern medieval Spain. [Castro. Alimentación.1996:151-152; and Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:44:160]

THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S 
RECIPE FOR SIDER

Ingredients

4 ripe apples
¼ c sugar

Preparation

Peel apples and remove the core. Mash the apples saving the juice. Add sugar to the juice. Taste and add more sugar if necessary.


Monday, June 25, 2018

SESOS - BRAINS

Day 203/365.. i WISH this was a hat..
i could slow cook my brain..
From: Hoggarazzi Photography
OF cervel, ME caruel, Eng brains. Although not often mentioned in Spanish cookery, Apicius provided recipes for boiling them and then grinding them with several other ingredients. These dishes seem to have disappeared by the Middle Ages but his instructions for boiling them like meatballs has been found in a 15 C German recipe. The English ate pork brains in the Middle Ages. One of their recipes, “caruel of pork” consists of parboiling them and then dipping them in egg yolk before frying.[Curye. 1985:176]

The Turks introduced the custom of eating lamb brains to Spain but it was lost over the years. Nuria Resit, a Turkish lady, came to Madrid in the 1970's and could not find brains for sale like in Istanbul. She hunted and hunted and finally found them in an outdoor market. After that her recipes, stemming from medieval recipes that existed all over the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.were introduced to modern household.
NURIA RESIT'S RECIPE FOR LAMB BRAINS

Ingredients for creamy and firm brains from 1 lamb

Seasoning
1 tbsp olive oil
juice from 1 lemon
1 tbsp parsley
oil for frying
A Bewitched Cat?
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Preparation

Wash brains in cold water.

Marinate brainsin 1 tbsp olive oil, lemon and parsley for one half hour or more. Serve cold.

Or heat olive oil in a frying pan and fry brainsand serve. 

A third way of preparing them is to boil brainsin a pot until creamy but firm. Remove from water and drain on a towel. Cut into four pieces.  Season with olive oil, lemon juice and parsley. Refrigerate or bread them and fry in oil over medium heat 7-8 minutes.

sesos y maleficio, los, brains and bewitchment. This refers to the superstition that eating cat’s brains bewitch the eater. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:200]




Friday, June 22, 2018

SERVICIO - SERVANTS WITH PORK SOUP RECIPE

The Old Servant
Photo from: Niels Dejgaard
OCast seruicio,Eng servants, service, staff. Until recently the staff had one menu and the lord of the household and his family had another. Even the lord might have a menu which the family which was not the same as the family. As he hunted, it was thought he should eat meat and was given a special helping. Staff, on the other hand, seldom ate meat. Hardy soups were commonly served. As the staff, for the most part, as non-alphabetical, [-Nola/Iranzo. 1982:171]

PORK SOUP RECIPE FROM JOSÉ V. SERRADILLA MUÑOZ’ LA MATANZA DE VERA, “SOPA DE CACHUELA,” p 103



Ingredients

Pork Soup for the Servants
Photo by: Lord-Williams 

½ lb pork liver
1 tbsp chopped onion
1 tsp red pepper from Vera[1]

¼ qt blood from the pig
1 tsp cumin
2 garlic cloves
salt to taste
2 tbsp croutons

Preparation

Cut liver into small pieces. Fry it with 1 tbsp chopped onion.

When golden brown, not burned, add 1 tsp red pepper and cover with water.

Bring to a boil and simmer for 10 minutes. Remove from heat and add the blood, mashed garlic, cumin and stir continually to prevent the blood from coagulating. 

When cooked, add croutons

Cover and let sit 10 minutes prior to serving.






[1]This did not exist prior to the discovery of America.

Monday, June 18, 2018

SERPENTINA - NEW JADE

Serpintine Jewels
Photo by: Lord-Williams
serpentine, new jade. The name comes from ‘serpent’ as the gem looks like snake skin. It can be green, brown-red, red, white or brown-yellow. In the Middle Ages it was worn on the baby or ring finger on the right hand when serving or eating food to ward off poison, sorcery and disease. It was used also as a protection against insects and snakes. It was thought that when placed on the skin it relieved stomach, kidney and other problems for its relaxing influence. The stone was imported to Spain from England. See manos, comer con. [ES: “Serpentine.” Jul 20, 07 and Villena/Calero. 2002:16]

Friday, June 15, 2018

SERENO, AL - TO CALM DOWN


Hanging Dead Pig
Photo by: Lord-Williams
to calm down, cool down, clear up. Slaughtered fowl and rabbits were left hung overnight to calm down or cool down for the serenity transmitted through the fresh air at night. Arnau de Vilanova, 14th C dietitian, in Régimen de Salud recommended hanging old dead partridges and rabbits at least 24 hours before eating. Cranes and pheasants should not been eaten for two days in summer and three in winter. Peacocks in any season of the year should be dead two days but if over a year, at least three days. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:193; Nola. 1989:xxxvi-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:186.210-211; and Sas.1986:581]

Not only were animals hung to calm down but also for remaining blood to drip out of the carcus. 

Traditionally animals were slaughtered before lunch and a hearty soup was prepared to restore the mens' energies.

A STEW MADE FROM PIG OFFALS TRANSLATED FROM JOSÉ V. SERRADILLA MUÑOZ' RECIPE FROM HIS PUBLICATION LA MATANZA EN LA VERA RECETARIO TRADICIONAL DE CHACINERÍA VERATA, p 103 

2.5 lbs pig liver
1/4 qt blood from a pig 
cumin 
garlic
onion
red pepper from Vera



Wednesday, June 13, 2018

SERENAR - TO CALM AND COOL

Hanging Dead Pig
Photo by: Lord-Williams
to calm down, cool down, clear up. Slaughtered fowl and rabbits were left hung overnight to calm down or cool down for the serenity transmitted through the fresh air at night. Arnau de Vilanova, 14th C dietitian, in Régimen de Salud recommended hanging old dead partridges and rabbits at least 24 hours before eating. Cranes and pheasants should not been eaten for two days in summer and three in winter. Peacocks in any season of the year should be dead two days but if over a year, at least three days. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:193; Nola. 1989:xxxvi-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:186.210-211; and Sas.1986:581]

Monday, June 11, 2018

SERENA, -0, HANGING BUTHERED ANIMALS

Well Hung
Photo from: Ian Crocker
butchered fowl or rabbit that has been hung outside over night to calm or cool the meat due it to the serenity transmitted by evening air to tenderize and improved the taste. Also, the word is applied to other food items left to sit overnight such as pomegranate juice as seen in Nola. See de parte de .[Gázquez. 2002:193; Nola. 1989:xxxvi-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:186.210-211; andSas. 1986:581]

Friday, June 8, 2018

SERDA (Leon) - BRISTLES USED TO MAKE BRUSHES

Polishing the Hide
Once the Bristles Are Removed
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1. pig, 2. hair. All the bristles on a pig, from the cow’s tail, horse or other animal with strong hair . Pig bristles are used still to make brushes. See cerdoandoca.[Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:109; Dialecto. 1947:320; and García Rey.1934:141]

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

SERBA

Etna - Sorbo degli uccellatori
(Sorbus aucuparia)

Photo by: Luigi Strano


serbaserbalsorba,L. Dorbus aucuparia, Fr.sorbier des montlagnes d’Europe, sorbier des oiseleursorarbrc á grives,  Eng. European mountain ash. Bushes and trees of this genus are natives in the northern hemisphere. They are cultivated for the beauty of their white flowers and bright scarlet berries. 

Geese Fleeing from the Roast
Photo by: Lord-Williams
The berries are kept in straw or hung until they mature and turn yellow. Then they are sun dried and eaten in spite of their acid taste or ground to powder and drunk in water. Both ways, they serve as an astringent. Although rarely used medically in Spain, it was thought ash purifies boils; relieves coughing, bronchial colds, hoarseness, and gout; increases urination; and starts menstruation. Further, for its rich supply of Vitamin C (0.8 gms. per kilogram), it has been used to treat scurvy. In the kitchen, the berries are made into marmalade or stewed with quantities of sugar to combat diarrhea. 

The English make ashberry jelly and serve it with venison. Hispano Arabs transmitted the Persian tradition of cooking geese covered fresh fruit such as pears or ashberries to Christian Spain. 

[Castro. Alimentación. 1996:205; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:199; Delgado. 1985:206; Hartley2003:66; andIbn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:77]


Monday, June 4, 2018

SEQUERO - DRYING PARTS OF A PIG

Drying Parts of Pig on Sequeros
Photo by: Lord-Williams
 a type of bed made from poles and sticks where parts of pig, such as bacon slabs, are deposited to dry after the slaughter. [Sas. 1976:580; and Serradilla. 1993:148]

Friday, June 1, 2018

SEPIA A 14th CENTURY FAVORITE STUFFED AND BAKED

Calamari at the Mercado Central Santiago, Chile
Photo by: Lord-Williams
jibia, choco, OCast gibia, xibia, Ast. xibia,Cat. cípies, L. Sepia officinalis, Eng. cuttlefish, a mollusk with a depressed body enclosed in a sac. It has ten sucker-bearing arms and a hard internal shell. It has the power of ejecting a black ink-like fluid from a bog or sac, so as to darken the water and conceal itself when in danger. 

It lives in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Methods for cooking are the same as for squid but it should not be confused with that as it has a totally different physical build and taste. 

Frying Caramari Rings
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Sent Soví has two recipes and Nola gives one for a cuttlefish pottage that is slowly fried, boiled and fried and served in sauce similar to Sent Soví’ssecond recipe using toasted bread soaked in vinegar, chopped mint, sage, parsley and ground ginger, pepper, saffron and chopped onion. Nola adds nuts and raisins instead of herbs, spices, bread and onion. Sent Soví’sfirst recipe is like a fish soup today. See calamarand diurético

[Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXXVI: 202-203:CCI:204-205; ES: Lord. Calamar. Jun 25, 12; Multilingual. 1969:72:257; Nola. 1989:lxvi-5; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:172; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

See blog titled Langostafor Sent Soví recipe for sautéed lobster with cuttlefish and calamari published September 11, 2015 and blog titled Calamari with 14thcentury recipe for stuffed and baked squid. 

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

SEPARADO WITH RECIPE FOR SCRAMBLED EGGS

Whites that don't protest
Photo by: Lord-Willliams
OCast ralo, Eng separated. [Villena/Calero. 2002:63a]

A recipe that does not require eggsercise unless you want them funny side up: 

Scramble eggs by cracking the egg shell. Do not crack up, just crack the egg shell.

Separate the yolks from the whites. Contrary to humans, egg whites do not not normally protest. Do not scramble yourself. Stand still. 

Put the egg whites in a frying pan. When they start to set, scramble them. Remove from heat. Fluff the whites. Remove them from the pan

Break the yolks into the pan. Take care, they may be practical yokers and if they see the frying pan they may scramble. Fold in the whites. 

If coooking on an empty stomach, eat one egg no more as then your stomach won’t be empty.

Monday, May 28, 2018

SEÑORES CON SALVA

Performing the Salva
Photo by: Lord-Williams
dignitaries who perform the assay, i.e. who taste the food and drinks to insure no poison is being given to royals or high dignitaries. See salva. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:210]

Friday, May 25, 2018

SENT SOVÍ LLIBRE DE , WITH ITS MUSTARD RECIPE


Book of Sweet Taste. This is a Catalan recipe book. The surviving manuscript is from 1324 but it is thought to have been written during the 13thC. It is one of the oldest Christian documents on this subject if not the oldest. The author is unknown. Two copies survive today. One is in the University of Barcelona and the other is in the University of Valencia. It has been maintained that this manuscript had the greatest impact on Medieval and Renaissance Mediterranean cooking and on Rupherto de Nola’s early 16thLibro de Cocinain particular who repeats numerous recipes from the 14thC work expounding upon them in greater detail.


Further Sent Soví provides the first treatise on the art of carving as opposed to hacking meat as elsewhere in Europe, which lead to greater refinement in dining. With variations Catalan cooking continues to be based on Sent Soví with its wide span of recipes, flavors and culinary refinement. It is a composite of recipes of Arab origin such as pasta, rice, eggplant, almond milk, escabeche, sweet and sour dishes, nougat candy with found ing elements of the Catalan cuisine such as the picada (chopped food) and the sofrito (stir fried)It had fundamental influence on all Christian European culinary world especially in Naples, Sardinia and Sicily, Aragonese dominated regions in Italy, Languedoc and Provence in southern France and Castile.


[Anón/Grewe. 1982: entire. Martínez Llopis. Historia. 1981:155; and Martínez Llopis“Prólogo” 1982:7-12:26]

SPEAKING ABOUT OUR MUSTARD ADAPTED FROM ANÓN. SENT SOVÍ[1]"QUI PARLA CON SE FFA MOSTAZA NOSTRADA". p. 177

Ingredients for French Mustard
French Mustard
Photo by: Lord-Williams

1 tbsp mustard seed powder[2]
1 slice of bread
¼ c broth or vinegar
1 tbsp honey or sugar

Preparation

Grind mustard seeds into a powder[3]. Temper it with bread soaked in broth. Add honey or sugar. If making French mustard, temper it with vinegar.


SENT SOVÍ #CLXII QUI PARLA CON SE FFA MOSTAZA NOSTRADA. p. 177



[1]Mustard  prepared with dry mustard, which is hard to find today. If unavailable use French mustard.  Mustard seeds were popular during the Roman period, see Pliny XIX, XLIV, 171 and Columella XII, 57. See Anón/Huici for a detailed recipe from the 13th C Al-Andalus era, #130 p. 88. Huici instructs that mustard seeds were ground with almonds and vinegar in which kebabs and other heavy fatty foods were soaked. Sent Soví provides another recipe using “mustard, in Chapter 20, p 73 and lists“mustard” inthe first Apendix. Nola also provides a recipe for “mustard,” see l-1 and l-2., the process of which takes up to a year. Nola uses wine and adds cloves, ginger and cinnamon.

[2]Mustard was prepared by pounding it with a pestle in a mortar. See Nola 1-1 for instructions for preparing mustard and 1-2 for French mustard as outlined in blog titled “cantaro” published July 20, 2012. The mustard known today was not available until 1720 when a Mrs. Clements from Tewkesbury milled it like wheat. She then presented it to King George I, who loved it. 

[3]Today, it is very difficult to find mustard powder for sale. Use the common mustard sold which is a cream if powder cannot be found or if one does not happen to have a mustard bush growing in his backyard!


Wednesday, May 23, 2018

SÉMOLA WITH RECIPE FOR SEMOLINA PORRIDGE

Semolina Today
Photo by: Lord-Williams
L.Triticlim aestivlum,simila(flour), Eng. semolina, hard wheat, cracked wheat. The purified middlings or endosperm of durum wheat grains after it is coarsely ground into flour particles. Semolina is mixed with water to make pasta especially, for bread doughs especially flatbread, a paper thin type, dessert doughs for fritters, pies and cakes, an ingredient for milk puddings, meat dishes cooked in doughs or breadcrumbs and pottages, and groats. 

Semolinawas not known to the Romans or to the Greeks. The Berbers of north Africa were the first to use it in cooking dishes calling for flour, to make gachasor polentas (gruel or porridge made with semolina flour and milk or water) and later in the 10th C couscous. Qatayed or Katayef is commonly served during Ramadan in Levante as a dessert. It is a type of sweet dumpling filled with nuts or cream. 

Berbers also invented macaroni and noodles before the 13th C. This is a very important fact because semolina and its products can be stored for various years. Then governments and speculators stored this food for long periods to counteract wheat famines and to reduce inflation caused by demand. See candeal, fideos, gacha, grañones, polentaandtrigo duro. 

Semolina Porridge
Photo by: Lord-Williams
[Anón/Huici.1966:119:81-82:142:96-97:147:99 etc;Castro. Alimentación. 1996:177; ES: Decker. “Which”. Jun 14, 01; ES: Lord. Granones.Dec 29, 14; and Holleja, Jan 4, 15; ES: Organic. Apr 14, 03; Ibn Razīn/Granja. 1960:1:19:6:19-20:60:22 etc. 1960 etc; Lord. Hispano. May 24, 06; and Nola. 1989:xxi-4:lxxi-1]

See Lord-Williams blogs, as follows, for further information:

almeruzo, published August 31, 2011for the Anón/Huici recipe 142 for Mujabbana(Cheese Pie made with flatbread).

granones, published December 29, 2014 for Nola’s recipe xxi-4 for a pottage of cracked wheat recipe and hollejapublished January 4, 2015 for a recipe for groats.  

RECIPE WITH THREE INGREDIENTS FOR MUJABBANA ADAPTED FROM HUICI’S TRANSLATON OF ANON 13THCENTURY AL-ANDALUS #412 RECETA DE LA “ALMOJÇARBANA” TERCIADA[1]p 227

Ingredients

⅓ c wheat or semolina flour
⅓ c cheese
⅓ c butter
1 c milk

Preparation

Mash cheese by hand and mix it with equal parts flour or semolina and butter. Instead of adding water add milk. Mix thoroughly and knead until the texture is like dough; then make little cheesecakes with this and fry. Serve at will.

[1]Consisting of three ingredients.

ANON 13THCENTURY AL-ANDALUS
#412 RECETA DE LA “ALMOJÁRBANA” TERCIADA p 227