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Wednesday, June 27, 2018

SETAS - MUSHROOMS

Mushrooms
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Cat  bolets, L. Agaricus campestres, etc, Eng wild mushrooms. Essentially, these are members of the basidiomycetes group of fungi (see hongos). In Europe there are some 3,500 species including saffron milk caps (Sp. niscálo), truffles (Sp. trufas) and amanitas, poisonous mushrooms.

 As mushroom spores are not visible to the human eye, during the Middle Ages, wild mushrooms were defined as ‘spongy vegetables spontaneously born after rain in meadows and the majority produce colic.’ 

Avenzoar relates that wild mushrooms are much worse than truffles, for they when totally digested generate a chyme that is a little noxious. Mushrooms growing in manure can cause death by poison or asphyxiation. 

Although much has been learned since, mushrooms continue to contain many secrets for men. It has been found that wild mushrooms are more prolific in areas with large rat populations. Too, man has had very little success in cultivating these species. 

Sliced Mushrooms for Frying
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Of the edible fungi in this group, the same cooking rules apply for hundreds of years. They can be grilled, cooked in ashes or fried if the flesh is very soft. Boiling them causes loss of aroma and flavor. They can be served as a side dish as seen in Richard II of England’s coronation or to garnish roast meat or fowl. Sent Soví calls for a mushroom sauce with parboiled and fried mushrooms mixed with ground herbs, spices and chopped onion and vinegar and verjuice. They are added to sauces to enhance the flavor. 

The poisonous amanitas and puffballs, unfortunately have a place in history. Agrippa, Emperor Claudius’ fourth wife, had him poisoned with the death cap (Amanita phalloides) in order for Nero, her son from a previous marriage, to succeed as emperor, which turned out to be an important step in the fall of the Roman Empire. 

Pope Clemente VII was poisoned by the death cap too. It is believed that Buddha died from an unidentifiable mushroom growing underground. Still people die from puffballs or mushroom poisoning every year. 

[Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXXV:165; ES: Cobos. Oct 1, 04; ES: Farabee. Jul 2, 01; Ibn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:91; and Villena/Calero. 2002:24a:39b:40b]

See blog titled "cagarria" for Sent Sovi's Recipe CXXXXV "How to Make Mushroom Sauce," published June 20, 2012 and blog titled "Hongo" published April 6, 2015 for a different version of the same recipe.


Tuesday, June 26, 2018

SIDRA - ITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING SIDER

Straing Made Apples and Juice
Photo by: Lord-Williams
OCast sícera(10thC.), Eng cider. Apple juice, which can be fermented or unfermented. It also varies as to the type of apples used, whether they are sweet, bitter or sour. Since the Middle Ages, Asturias has been known for its hard cider, which is drunk instead of wine. It is fermented in chestnut barrels before bottled. It was a common beverage for peasants and the middle class in northern medieval Spain. [Castro. Alimentación.1996:151-152; and Sánchez-Albornoz. 2000:44:160]

THE MEDIEVAL SPANISH CHEF'S 
RECIPE FOR SIDER

Ingredients

4 ripe apples
¼ c sugar

Preparation

Peel apples and remove the core. Mash the apples saving the juice. Add sugar to the juice. Taste and add more sugar if necessary.


Monday, June 25, 2018

SESOS - BRAINS

Day 203/365.. i WISH this was a hat..
i could slow cook my brain..
From: Hoggarazzi Photography
OF cervel, ME caruel, Eng brains. Although not often mentioned in Spanish cookery, Apicius provided recipes for boiling them and then grinding them with several other ingredients. These dishes seem to have disappeared by the Middle Ages but his instructions for boiling them like meatballs has been found in a 15 C German recipe. The English ate pork brains in the Middle Ages. One of their recipes, “caruel of pork” consists of parboiling them and then dipping them in egg yolk before frying.[Curye. 1985:176]

The Turks introduced the custom of eating lamb brains to Spain but it was lost over the years. Nuria Resit, a Turkish lady, came to Madrid in the 1970's and could not find brains for sale like in Istanbul. She hunted and hunted and finally found them in an outdoor market. After that her recipes, stemming from medieval recipes that existed all over the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.were introduced to modern household.
NURIA RESIT'S RECIPE FOR LAMB BRAINS

Ingredients for creamy and firm brains from 1 lamb

Seasoning
1 tbsp olive oil
juice from 1 lemon
1 tbsp parsley
oil for frying
A Bewitched Cat?
Photo by: Lord-Williams

Preparation

Wash brains in cold water.

Marinate brainsin 1 tbsp olive oil, lemon and parsley for one half hour or more. Serve cold.

Or heat olive oil in a frying pan and fry brainsand serve. 

A third way of preparing them is to boil brainsin a pot until creamy but firm. Remove from water and drain on a towel. Cut into four pieces.  Season with olive oil, lemon juice and parsley. Refrigerate or bread them and fry in oil over medium heat 7-8 minutes.

sesos y maleficio, los, brains and bewitchment. This refers to the superstition that eating cat’s brains bewitch the eater. [Nola/Pérez. 1994:200]




Friday, June 22, 2018

SERVICIO - SERVANTS WITH PORK SOUP RECIPE

The Old Servant
Photo from: Niels Dejgaard
OCast seruicio,Eng servants, service, staff. Until recently the staff had one menu and the lord of the household and his family had another. Even the lord might have a menu which the family which was not the same as the family. As he hunted, it was thought he should eat meat and was given a special helping. Staff, on the other hand, seldom ate meat. Hardy soups were commonly served. As the staff, for the most part, as non-alphabetical, [-Nola/Iranzo. 1982:171]

PORK SOUP RECIPE FROM JOSÉ V. SERRADILLA MUÑOZ’ LA MATANZA DE VERA, “SOPA DE CACHUELA,” p 103



Ingredients

Pork Soup for the Servants
Photo by: Lord-Williams 

½ lb pork liver
1 tbsp chopped onion
1 tsp red pepper from Vera[1]

¼ qt blood from the pig
1 tsp cumin
2 garlic cloves
salt to taste
2 tbsp croutons

Preparation

Cut liver into small pieces. Fry it with 1 tbsp chopped onion.

When golden brown, not burned, add 1 tsp red pepper and cover with water.

Bring to a boil and simmer for 10 minutes. Remove from heat and add the blood, mashed garlic, cumin and stir continually to prevent the blood from coagulating. 

When cooked, add croutons

Cover and let sit 10 minutes prior to serving.






[1]This did not exist prior to the discovery of America.

Monday, June 18, 2018

SERPENTINA - NEW JADE

Serpintine Jewels
Photo by: Lord-Williams
serpentine, new jade. The name comes from ‘serpent’ as the gem looks like snake skin. It can be green, brown-red, red, white or brown-yellow. In the Middle Ages it was worn on the baby or ring finger on the right hand when serving or eating food to ward off poison, sorcery and disease. It was used also as a protection against insects and snakes. It was thought that when placed on the skin it relieved stomach, kidney and other problems for its relaxing influence. The stone was imported to Spain from England. See manos, comer con. [ES: “Serpentine.” Jul 20, 07 and Villena/Calero. 2002:16]

Friday, June 15, 2018

SERENO, AL - TO CALM DOWN


Hanging Dead Pig
Photo by: Lord-Williams
to calm down, cool down, clear up. Slaughtered fowl and rabbits were left hung overnight to calm down or cool down for the serenity transmitted through the fresh air at night. Arnau de Vilanova, 14th C dietitian, in Régimen de Salud recommended hanging old dead partridges and rabbits at least 24 hours before eating. Cranes and pheasants should not been eaten for two days in summer and three in winter. Peacocks in any season of the year should be dead two days but if over a year, at least three days. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:193; Nola. 1989:xxxvi-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:186.210-211; and Sas.1986:581]

Not only were animals hung to calm down but also for remaining blood to drip out of the carcus. 

Traditionally animals were slaughtered before lunch and a hearty soup was prepared to restore the mens' energies.

A STEW MADE FROM PIG OFFALS TRANSLATED FROM JOSÉ V. SERRADILLA MUÑOZ' RECIPE FROM HIS PUBLICATION LA MATANZA EN LA VERA RECETARIO TRADICIONAL DE CHACINERÍA VERATA, p 103 

2.5 lbs pig liver
1/4 qt blood from a pig 
cumin 
garlic
onion
red pepper from Vera



Wednesday, June 13, 2018

SERENAR - TO CALM AND COOL

Hanging Dead Pig
Photo by: Lord-Williams
to calm down, cool down, clear up. Slaughtered fowl and rabbits were left hung overnight to calm down or cool down for the serenity transmitted through the fresh air at night. Arnau de Vilanova, 14th C dietitian, in Régimen de Salud recommended hanging old dead partridges and rabbits at least 24 hours before eating. Cranes and pheasants should not been eaten for two days in summer and three in winter. Peacocks in any season of the year should be dead two days but if over a year, at least three days. [Gázquez. Cocina. 2002:193; Nola. 1989:xxxvi-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:186.210-211; and Sas.1986:581]

Monday, June 11, 2018

SERENA, -0, HANGING BUTHERED ANIMALS

Well Hung
Photo from: Ian Crocker
butchered fowl or rabbit that has been hung outside over night to calm or cool the meat due it to the serenity transmitted by evening air to tenderize and improved the taste. Also, the word is applied to other food items left to sit overnight such as pomegranate juice as seen in Nola. See de parte de .[Gázquez. 2002:193; Nola. 1989:xxxvi-1; and Nola/Pérez. 1994:186.210-211; andSas. 1986:581]

Friday, June 8, 2018

SERDA (Leon) - BRISTLES USED TO MAKE BRUSHES

Polishing the Hide
Once the Bristles Are Removed
Photo by: Lord-Williams
1. pig, 2. hair. All the bristles on a pig, from the cow’s tail, horse or other animal with strong hair . Pig bristles are used still to make brushes. See cerdoandoca.[Ares. “Comidas.” 1994:109; Dialecto. 1947:320; and García Rey.1934:141]

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

SERBA

Etna - Sorbo degli uccellatori
(Sorbus aucuparia)

Photo by: Luigi Strano


serbaserbalsorba,L. Dorbus aucuparia, Fr.sorbier des montlagnes d’Europe, sorbier des oiseleursorarbrc á grives,  Eng. European mountain ash. Bushes and trees of this genus are natives in the northern hemisphere. They are cultivated for the beauty of their white flowers and bright scarlet berries. 

Geese Fleeing from the Roast
Photo by: Lord-Williams
The berries are kept in straw or hung until they mature and turn yellow. Then they are sun dried and eaten in spite of their acid taste or ground to powder and drunk in water. Both ways, they serve as an astringent. Although rarely used medically in Spain, it was thought ash purifies boils; relieves coughing, bronchial colds, hoarseness, and gout; increases urination; and starts menstruation. Further, for its rich supply of Vitamin C (0.8 gms. per kilogram), it has been used to treat scurvy. In the kitchen, the berries are made into marmalade or stewed with quantities of sugar to combat diarrhea. 

The English make ashberry jelly and serve it with venison. Hispano Arabs transmitted the Persian tradition of cooking geese covered fresh fruit such as pears or ashberries to Christian Spain. 

[Castro. Alimentación. 1996:205; Benavides-Barajas. Nueva-Clásica. 1995:199; Delgado. 1985:206; Hartley2003:66; andIbn Zuhr/García Sánchez. 1992:77]


Monday, June 4, 2018

SEQUERO - DRYING PARTS OF A PIG

Drying Parts of Pig on Sequeros
Photo by: Lord-Williams
 a type of bed made from poles and sticks where parts of pig, such as bacon slabs, are deposited to dry after the slaughter. [Sas. 1976:580; and Serradilla. 1993:148]

Friday, June 1, 2018

SEPIA A 14th CENTURY FAVORITE STUFFED AND BAKED

Calamari at the Mercado Central Santiago, Chile
Photo by: Lord-Williams
jibia, choco, OCast gibia, xibia, Ast. xibia,Cat. cípies, L. Sepia officinalis, Eng. cuttlefish, a mollusk with a depressed body enclosed in a sac. It has ten sucker-bearing arms and a hard internal shell. It has the power of ejecting a black ink-like fluid from a bog or sac, so as to darken the water and conceal itself when in danger. 

It lives in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Methods for cooking are the same as for squid but it should not be confused with that as it has a totally different physical build and taste. 

Frying Caramari Rings
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Sent Soví has two recipes and Nola gives one for a cuttlefish pottage that is slowly fried, boiled and fried and served in sauce similar to Sent Soví’ssecond recipe using toasted bread soaked in vinegar, chopped mint, sage, parsley and ground ginger, pepper, saffron and chopped onion. Nola adds nuts and raisins instead of herbs, spices, bread and onion. Sent Soví’sfirst recipe is like a fish soup today. See calamarand diurético

[Anón/Grewe. 1982:CLXXXXVI: 202-203:CCI:204-205; ES: Lord. Calamar. Jun 25, 12; Multilingual. 1969:72:257; Nola. 1989:lxvi-5; Nola/Iranzo. 1982:172; and Villena/Calero. 2002:23a]

See blog titled Langostafor Sent Soví recipe for sautéed lobster with cuttlefish and calamari published September 11, 2015 and blog titled Calamari with 14thcentury recipe for stuffed and baked squid.