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Monday, July 9, 2018

SIROPE WITH A 13TH CENTURY RECIPE FOR GREAT CHEERING SYRUP


Pouring Syrup
Photo by: Lord-Williams
Ar.sharab  (wine or other beverage), Eng. syrup, a thick sweet liquid concentrated solution of sugar in water with fruit, in accordance with the time of the year, boiled until thickened. Syrups were made in Persian style, known as efshurjwhich were boiled three times, as juwarish, a fruit paste or others times known as faludajor dried fruit paste. They were used as preservatives and sweeteners in cookery and confections, as a cold drink or for purging. 

Avenzoar gives recipes for various syrups for digestive purposes and to regulate the humors. Hispano-Arab syrups were original as they contained flowers such as roses The Anon Al-Andalusprovides two recipes for flowers as well as many others that include aloes and citron leaves. Avenzoar’s provides recipes calling for roses and lilies. See almíbar, jarabe and arrope. 

[Anón/Huici.1966:50:40:490:269:492:270 etc; Delgado. 1994:207; Zuhr/García Sánchez1992: 101-109; and OXF Eng Dict.1989:XVII:Su:945]

493. EL JARABE GRAN ALEGRADOR, SU FÓRMULA - THE GREAT CHEERING SYRUP - WAY OF MAKING IT, PP 269-270

Ingredients

½ lb borage leaves
½ lb mint leaves
½ lb citron leaves
½ lb sugar
1 tbsp aloe stems
1 tbsp Chinese rhubarb
1 tbsp Chinese cinnamon
1 tbsp cinnamon
1 tbsp cloves


Preparation

Cook leaves covered with water until tender. Add sugar. Pound aloe stems, Chincese rhubarb, chinese cinnamon, cinnamon and cloves until coarse. Put them in a cloth bag and tie well. Place this in a pot and macerate it svral times until the flavor comes out and the liquid takes on the consistency of syrups. Then add three cups of hot water for every ½ lb of leaves. 

Take half a ratl each of borage, mint, and citron leaves, cook them in water to cover until their strength comes out, then take the clean part and add it to a ratl of sugar. Then put in the bag: a spoonful each of aloe stems, Chinese rhubarb, Chinese cinnamon, cinnamon and clove flowers; pound all these coarsely, place them in a cloth, tie it well, and place it in the kettle, macerate it again and again until its the flavor comes out, and cook until [the liquid] takes the consistency of syrups. Take one û qiya with three of hot water. Benefits: It profits [preceding two words apparently supplied; in parentheses in printed Arabic text] weak stomachs, fortifies the liver and cheers the heart, digests foods, and lightens the constitution gently, God willing.



Monday, July 2, 2018

SIFIUM WITH ROMAN RECIPE FOR SILPHIUM SAUCE

Compass Plant (Silphium laciniatum)
Photo from: Chcuk Kime
L. silphium(Firulanarthex)Ar. anjudān, Fr.silphium, Eng. silphium. It is a Mediterranean plant also called laser and laserpitium. The Arabic “’Ūd al-raqqa” is the “mahrūth”or root of silphium from which the resin or juice is extracted. This yields asafœtida, also called Devil’s dung, fetid gum or resin. 

The Ancients used the juice medicinally for its extensive heeling properties. It was added to food in small quantities to give it a fragrant effect. Too much spoils the food. 

Romans used the powdered root is a condiment as much as liquamen. Barbara Flower recommends it for fish specially. It is thought that it was used for its aphrodisiacal effect and in food prepared for banquets especially. It was a major export from Cyrenaica as it grew in large quantities there but was extinct by Pliny’s time. Apicius provides two rcipes for Silphum Sauce.

In North Africa it was grown especially in Cyrene where it was cultivated for export. There it was used in medicine and in cooking. The Anon al Andalus calls for it in "Tabahaja," a dish of fried goat meat. Today, several Middle Eastern recipes call for asafœtida. [Anón/Huici.1966:250:149; Apicius/Flower. 1958:28-29:57; ES: Lord “Asafœtida,” posted Feb 28, 07; ES: Anon/Perry. Sep 5, 02; and Pullar. 1970:242] 


APICIUS BOOK 1, XVI SILPHIUM SAUCE


Ingredients[1]


silphium
vinegar
liquamen
pepper
parsley
dry mint
silphium root
honey
vinegar


Preparation

“Dissolve silphium from Cyrenaica or Parthian silphum
in luke-warm water and mix with vinegar and liquamen; or mix pepper, parsley, dry mint, silphium root honey, vinegar, liquamen.


[1] Measurements are not indicated. 
[2] le asafoetida.
.